Museums in the Modern World
Museums have changed.They are no longer places for the privileged few or for bored vacationers to visit on rainy days. Action and democracy are words used in descriptions of museums now.
At a science museum in Ontario,Canada,you can feel your hair stand on end as harmless electricity passes through your body.At the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City,you can look at17th century instruments while listening to their music.At the Modern Museum in Sweden,you can put on costumes provided by the Stockholm Opera.As these examples show, museums are reaching out to new audiences,particularly the young,the poor,and the less educated members of the population. As a result,attendance is increasing.
More and more,museums directors are realizing that people learn best when they can somehow become part of what they are seeing.In many science museums,for example,there are no guided tours.The visitor is encouraged to touch,listen, operate,and experiment so as to discover scientific principles for himself.He can have the experience of operating a spaceship or a computer.He can experiment with glass blowing and paper making.The purpose is not only to provide fun but also to help
people feel at home in the world of science.The theory is that people who do not understand science will probably fear it,and those who fear science will not use it to best advantage.Many museums now provide educational services and children's departments.In addition to the usual displays,they also offer film showings and dance programs.Instead of being places that one"should"visit,they are places to enjoy.
One cause of all these changes is the increase in wealth and leisure time.Another cause is the rising percentage of young people in the population.Many of these young people are college students or college graduates.They are better educated than their parents.They see things in a new and different way. They are not content to stand and look at works of are;they want art they can participate in.The same is true of science and history.In the US,certain groups who formerly were too poor to care about anything beyond the basic needs of daily life are now becoming curious about the world around them.The young people in these groups,like young people in general,have benefited from a better education than their parents received. All these groups,and the rest of the population as well,have been influenced by television,which has taught them about other places and other times.
The effect of all this has been to change existing museums and to encourage the building of new ones.In the US and Canada alone,there are now more than6,000museums,almost twice as many as there were25years ago.About half of them are devoted to history,and the rest are evenly divided between the arts and sciences.The number of visitors,according to the American Association of museums,has risen to more than700million a year.
In fact,the crowds of visitors at some museums are creating a major problem.Admission to museums has always been either free or very inexpensive,but now some museums are charging entrance fees for the first time or raising their prices.Even when raised,however,entrance fees are generally too low to support a museum,with its usually large building and its highly trained staff.
A Causes of changes
B Increasing number of museums and visitors
C Museums getting closer to more spectators
D Movies shown in museums
E New notions about the management of museums
F Places to visit
5.Now museums are no longer restricted to the privileged few,but________.
6.With the development of society,people,especially the young people,_________.
7.To meet the needs of society,more museums________.
8.Two major problems for museums are that they have too many visitors and they________.
Transport and Trade
Transport is one of the aids to trade.By moving goods from places where they are plentiful to places where they are scarce, transport adds to their value.The more easily goods can be brought over the distance that separates producer and consumer, the better for trade.When there were no railways,no good roads, no canals,and only small sailing ships,trade was on a small scale.
The great advances made in transport during the last two hundred years were accompanied by a big increase in trade. Bigger and faster ships enabled a trade in meat to develop between Britain and New Zealand,for instance.Quicker
transport makes possible mass-production and big business, drawing supplies from,and selling goods to,all parts of the globe.Big factories could not exist without transport to carry the large number of workers they need to and from their homes. Big city stores could not have developed unless customers could travel easily from the suburbs and goods delivered to their homes.Big cities could not survive unless food could be brought from a distance.
Transport also prevents waste.Much of the fish landed at the ports would be wasted if it could not be taken quickly to inland towns.Transport has given us a much greater variety of foods and goods since we no longer have to live on what is produced locally.Foods which at one time could be obtained only during a part of the year can now be obtained all through the year.Transport has raised the standard of living.
By moving fuel,raw materials,and even power,as,for example,through electric cables,transport has led to the establishment of industries and trade in areas where they would have been impossible before.Districts and countries can concentrate on making things which they can do better and more cheaply than others and can then exchange them with one another. The cheaper and quicker transport becomes,the longer the
distance over which goods can profitably be carried.Countries with poor transport have a lower standard of living.
Commerce requires not only the moving of goods and people but also the carrying of messages and information.Means of communication,like telephones,cables and radio,send information about prices,supplies,and changing conditions in different parts of the world.In this way,advanced communication systems also help to develop trade.
A.Higher living standard
B.Importance of transport in trade
C.Various means of transport
D.Birth of transport-related industries and trade
E.Role of information in trade
5.The development of modern means of transport_________.
6.Only when goods can be carried to all parts of the world quickly___________.
7.Transport has made it possible for people to eat whatever food they want_________.
8.In the trade of modern society the transmission of information plays as important a role as________.
A.to send goods to various parts of the world
B.at any time during the year
C.has greatly promoted trade
D.is it possible to produce on a large scale
E.the transport of goods
F.it is possible to produce on a large scale
Airplanes are used to carry passengers,cargo and mail.Air transport companies operate scheduled airlines and non-scheduled services over local,regional,national,and international routes.The aircraft operated by these companies range from small single-engine planes to large multiengine jet transports.
The first air passenger services began in1910,when dirigibles began operation between several German cities.The first scheduled airplane service to carry passengers began in the U.S in1914.Several experimental airmail flights took
place in India,Europe,and the United States before World War I,but air transport service did not become a true business until after the war.
During World War Two,intercontinental air transport became firmly established.After the war the new long-distance transports with advanced facilities were increasingly able to avoid storms and strong wind and make flights more economical and consistent.A new generation of"jumbo-jet"transports began operations in1970,and the supersonic transport entered passenger service in1976.
During the1970s the number of domestic passengers on U.S airlines increased about78%,and during the1980s the figure was up about58%.In1990there were41.8million international passengers,the figure was a75%increase over1980.The total cargo flown by U.S airlines almost doubled during the1980s, from5.7billion to10.6billion ton-miles in1990.
Major airports provide a wide range of facilities for the convenience of millions of travelers.These range from such basic services as ticket-sales counters and restaurants to luxury hotels,shopping centers and play areas for children. International airports must also have customs areas and currency-exchange counters and so on.
A Airport services
B Training of pilots
C Beginning period
D Rapid growth in the U.S.
5.Air transport companies use different plans____.
6.The United States was the country where____.
7.The forty years from the1930s to the1970s was an important period___.
8.Nowadays airports provide all kinds of services____.
A in the development of air transportation
B the earliest passenger flights were successfully operated
C to make travel easy and pleasant for the passengers
D to provide different services
E the shortage of qualified pilots
F traveling by air was very cheap
KEY:C E D A D B A C
Voluntary learning in organized courses by mature men and women is called adult education.Such education is offered to make people able to enlarge and interpret their experience as adults.Adults may want to study something which they missed in earlier schooling,get new skills or job training,find out about new technological developments,seek better self-understanding,or develop new talents and skills.
This kind of education may be in the form of self-study with proper guidance through the use of libraries,correspondence course,or broadcasting.It may also be acquired collectively in schools and colleges,study groups,workshops,clubs,and professional associations.
Modern adult education for large numbers of people started in the18th and19th centuries with the rise of the Industrial Revolution.Great economic and social changes were taking place: people were moving from rural areas to cities;new types of work were being created in an expanding factory system.These and other factors produced a need for further education and re-education of adults.
The earliest programs of organized adult education arose in Great Britain in the1790s,with the founding of an adult school in Nottingham and a mechanics’institute in Glasgow. The earliest adult education institution in the United States was founded by Benjamin Franklin and some friends in Philadelphia in1727.
People recognize that continued learning is necessary for most forms of employment today.For example,parts of the adult population in many countries find it necessary to take part in retraining programs at work of even to learn completely new jobs. Adult education programs are springing up constantly to meet these and other needs.
A Necessity for developing adult education
B Early days of adult education
C Ways of receiving adult education
D Growth of adult education
E Institutions of adult education
F Definition of adult education
5.Some adults want to learn_______________.
6.There are various forms of adult education,including ____________.
7.Adult education has been made necessary___________.
8.The earliest organized adult education_______________.
A by social and economic changes
B guided self-study and correspondence courses
C by studying together with children
D what they did not manage to learn earlier
E dates back to the eighteenth century
F mass production
Paris,the capital and the largest city of the country,is in north central France.The Paris metropolitan area contains nearly20%of the nation’s population and is the economic, cultural,and political center of France.The French governments have historically favored the city as the site for all decision making,thus powerfully attracting nearly all of the nation’s activities.
Paris has grown steadily since it was chosen as the national
capital in the late10th century.With the introduction of the Industrial Revolution,a great number of people moved to the city from the country during the19th century.The migration was especially stimulated by the construction of railroads, which provided easy access to the capital.After World War II more and more immigrants arrived.
The city is the centralized control point of most national radio and television broadcasting.It is a place of publication of the most prestigious newspapers and magazines and an international book publishing center.With more than100 museums,Paris has truly been one of the greatest concentrations of art treasures in the world.The Louver, opened as a museum in1793,is one of the largest museums in the world.
In the late1980s about4.1million pupils annually attended about47,000elementary schools.In addition,about5.4million students attended some11,200secondary schools.Approximately 1.2million students were enrolled annually at universities and colleges in France in the late1980s.French centers of learning have served as academic models throughout the world.
Paris is the leading industrial center of France,with about one quarter of the nation’s manufacturing concentrated
in the metropolitan area.Industries of consumer goods have always bee drawn to Paris by the enormous market of the big population,and modern,high-technology industries also have become numerous since World War II.Chief manufactures are machinery,automobiles,chemicals and electrical equipment.
A History of the city
B Industries of the city
C Population grown
E Cultural center
5.Paris has in history been the center of___________.
6.Since the10th century,the population of Paris__________.
7.Many valuable works of art_________.
8.Paris is not only the center of education of France, but also the center_____________.
A can be found in Paris
B the major events of the nation
C of the country’s industries
D a lot of cinemas and theaters
E has been growing steadily
F has been decreasing rapidly Key:CEDBBEAC