Reading Passage Translation (1)
Understanding The Text (8)
Skimming and Scanning (Multiple Choice) (14)
Reading Comprehension (Multiple Choice) (24)
_______________________________________________________________________________ U1A文翻译P3、U1BankedCloze P12
U3A文翻译P63、U3UnderstandingTheText P70、U3BankedCloze P73
_______________________________________________________________________________ Reading Passage Translation
_______________________________________________________________________________ Understanding The Text
1.Why was Jason scared of water?
Because when he once hopped from the highest diving board ar the pool, he hit the water with an incredible impact and blacked out.
2.Could the would-be rescures succeed in saving the drowning boy?Why or why not?
No,they couldn't.Because with the water's tow. they'd never get to the drowning boy.
3.Why did Jason decide to intervene to save the boy in spite of his fear of water?
Because nobody except Jason saw that going out onto the jetty, which was close to the boy, was the fastest way to reach the drowning boy.
4.Why did Jason become hesitant when he raced down the beach, out onto the jetty?
Because his fear of water suddenly struck him.
5.How did Jason feel when he jumped into the water?
He felt like he was back in that pool, breathless struggling,terrified.
6.How did the boy respond when Jason grabbed him?
The boy popped back up, eyes wide with terror,pawing and twisting against Jason.
7.Was Jason's swimming back to safety smooth? Why?
No, it wasn't. At first when Jason swam against the rip current, it was forcibly dragging them out to the sea. Then he decided to swim sideways to the pull of the current and slowly made their way back to shorc. Finally he made his way back safety.
8.Why did Jason feel the water had never looked so beautiful when he reached the jetty?
Because Jason had already conquered his inner fear of water and be also felt relieved and delighted when he saw the boy was hugged tightly by his mother.
1.What could we best portray Audrey Hepburn as?
We can best portray Audrey Hepburn as an exemplary mother and a dedicated UNICEF Ambassador of Goodwill.
2.How did Audrey Hepburn escape after she was grabbed off the street by Nazis?
When the guards glanced away she darted off,barely escaping,and huddled in a cold ,foul basement full of rats.
3.How did Audrey Hepburn start her career?
She was spotted by a producer and eventually landed a role in the film Roman Holiday.
4.How did Audrey Hepburn treat her divorces and sadness from her memories of the war?
She suffered from them,but she never let her sadness overcome her or jeopardize her hope for a brighter future.
5.What did Audrey Hepburn's only home in Switzerland mean to her?
For Audrey it was a paradise where she could hide from the would with her beloved family,work in her garden and take long walks in nature.
6.Why does the author say Audrey's missions as a UNICEF diplomat were "emotionally draining and physically dangerous" (Para.10)?
Because she had many trips into most difficult places on carth where people suffered from froughts and wars.She wanted to relieve their sufferings by offering spiritual and material help.So,when she was trying to complete her missions, she had to provide a lot of emtional care and was always confronted with dangerous tasks.
7.What ideology did Audrey Hepburn deeply believe in?
She believed deeply in the ideology thar all people share in the duty to care for those in need.
8.How do you understand the statement of Audrey Hepburn:"For beautiful eyes，look for the good in others; for beautiful lips, speak only words of kindness; and for poise, walk with the knowledge that you are never alone"?
Eyes will be beautiful if they always look for the goog in others.Lips will be beautiful if they speak only kind woods .Confidence is to be obtained when you walk while knowing that you are
never walking by yourself.Audrey's words further show her simplicity ,charity,charm and kindness.
1. Why do we sometimes still need to travel in this digital age?
Because in this digital age ,it is still important to have a handshake at abusiness luncheon ,to eat mom's special food on Thanksgiving,or to see your girlfriend on your 2-years anniversary.
2. What does the author mean by "the rest of the journey, however, can feel like a tedious lesson in the ills of modernity"(Para. 2)?
The author means that the rest of journey is actually very boring.They have to endure and tolerate the terrible experience in the modern world which brings people convenience as well as tediousness as aresult of globalization.Journey if not enjoyable any more.
3. What kind of travel is truly compulsory?
Only corporate reavel,about 30% of trips over 50 miles,is truly conpulsory.
4. How do you understand the phrase "Paris is Paris" in Paragraph 4?
We go to Paris for the sake of its being Paris.We just want to experience the wonders of Paris because of its uniqueness.
5. What is the irony when people travel to Paris trying to leave all those troubles behind?
Their mind is most likely to solve their most stubborn problems while they are sitting in luxury in a Left Bank cafr.
6. How does a bit of distance help enhance creativity according to Paragraph 6?
Traveling to a new place can make us less controlled by familiar cognitive patterns we used to have.As a result,we can better combine the new with the old in our thinking.
7. What do we need to do to trigger our creativity?
We need to try the difference by changing cultures and experiencing the disorienting diversity of human traditions.
8. What will happen to us after travel?
Travel will change our mind to some extent,which in turn can have effects on everything in our life.
1. How can a person be truly happy?
To be truly happy ,one must feel to do what he likes,knowing that what he does is important to other people. He enjoys his job and his work is greatly valued by society.
2. How is labor different from play?
When people are doing a job they have no interest in,the job only means purely ? labor,which has negative effects on them.People don't like labor,but they have to accept it bacause of societal expectations and the need to support their family . By contr? , people are in? in play,and when they play they enjoy what they are doing . However ,play is only a personal matter.So, society does not care how people play.
3. Why does the author make a comparison between a gardener and a well-dressed city mayor?
The author wants show that that the difference between workers and labores does not like in the nature of the job itself,be it mental or manual,of low or high ? , but in whether a person has interest in his job.
4. What does leisure mean to workers and laborers respectively?
To workers , leisure means ? the bours they need to relax and rest in order to work efficiently ; to laborers ,leisure means freedom from compulsion.
5. How do workers and laborers differ in the amount of personal satisfaction they derive from their jobs?
Workers will be happier, less stressed , and generally more satisfied with their lives and proud of their jobs. On the other band,laborers feel that the time they spend on the daily grind is wasted and doesn't contribute to their happiness;laborers perveive only the time spent in leisure and play as meabingful.
6. How do technological innovation and the division of labor change the nature of work?
The improvements in technology and the division of labor have greatly changed the nature of work.People do not need special strength or skill any more in many fields.Many paid jobs with enjoyable works have become boring labor routine. At the same time , because machines can automatically do the work for people, producivity has increased and the number of becessary laboring hours has accordingly decreased.
7. What kind of attitude should people take toward leisure time?
People should take a positive attitude toward leisure time.They should use their leisure time to improve their minds and their working conditions to create a happier,more contented life by means of lifelong learning , such as"continuing education"and"experiential learning".
8. What does the author mean by using the expression "sinking one's teeth into a problem"?
With this phrase,the author emphasizes that even purely mental work can arouse people's passions and give them sarisfacion.
1. How does the war begin in the eyes of the author?
He suddenly notices 12 distant silver poiats moving across the clear brilliant sky with an unfamiliar abnormal hum.
2. Why does the author run toward the forest in the direction of the falling bombs?
Because he has has not grown accustomed to war and cannot conceive of the danger, and he is fascinared by the bombs' explosion.
3. What does the author think of their flight when he sees that everyone is running away?
The author feels that flight has suddenly become some kind of highest necessity , some new form of life.
4. Why does the author write in detail his grandfather's situation?
Because the author wants to take his grandfather, a victim of war,as a typical example to reveal the helplessness of individuals in the cruel war .
5. What does the author want to convey by describing the "increasingly appalling landscape"(Para.5)?
By describing the "increasingly appalling landscape", the author wants to convey that war only bring people huge disasters, destroying everything without mercy and raining people's life conmletely.
6. Why is winter a disaster, a pervasive and constant threat, for the poor during wartime?
The poor are exposed to much more severe conditions that at any other time in the year as they can't afford to heat the furnace.
7. Why does the author's mother stand brooding at the window for hours with a fixed stare?
Because she is worried and helpless .They have nothing to eat, and she doesn't know whether they can survive the severe war.
8. Why does the author regard the metal container as something valuable?
Because they have nothing to eat and the sugar tesidue inside the container serves as their only mi? for days.
8.transcend 9.feats 10.slightest
8.surviving 9.embarked 10.humanitatian
8.aspects 9.gossiping 10.miserable
7.foster 8.stage 9.decline 10.stabilize
1exerting 2 fabulous 3 talk them out 4 approaches 5 head for
7 is linked with
8 compare favorably to
9 boost 10 session
2 taking family vacations
4 throwing a party
8 splits the difference
9 resolve 10 talk it out
1 suffer from
7 comes down to
9 tend to 10 focusing on
We may take the invention of the toilet for granted, but it is something many of us would have a hard time learning to live without. Public sanitation systems were invented long ago, but when was the toilet invented? The story of the toilet takes us back to 1596.
The toilet was created by Sir John Harrington for his godmather, Queen Elizabeth I. Harrington called his design a “water closet”, and his water closet was installed in Queen Elizabeth’s castle in 1596.
The original toilet, or water closet, had a knob on a chain that had to be pulled in order for the water to be released from a bowl. Underneath the bowl, there was a basin or collection bowl that had to be emptied and cleaned often. It is not the sanitary and pleasant way for removing waste that we know of, but it paves the way for later improvements.
Over time, many inventors improved Harrington’s original water closet by improving the p ipes that were attached to the bottom and the flush system that built upon the original toilet. By 1896, Thomas Crapper began to sell toilets. Crapper saw the importance and necessity of the toilet, and he used his admiration for the product to help promote and sell the toilet.
Harrington’s invention is, without a doubt, one invention that would be hard to live without. Inventors will continue to develop upon Harrington’s original water closet.
Question 1: Who invented the first toilet according to the passage?
Sir John Harrington
Question 2: What was one of the problems with Harrington’s water closet?
The basin had to be emptied and cleaned constantly.
Question 3: How did inventors improve the original toilet according to the passage?
They improved the pipes that were attached to the bottom.
Question 4: which of the following can best summarize the passage?
The development of the toilet.
_______________________________________________________________________________ Skimming and Scanning (Multiple Choice)
Directions: Read the following passage and then choose the best answer from the four choices marked A, B, C and D for questions 1-10.
Raising children can be a challenging job. It can also be rewarding. When it comes to eating, the more caregivers know about children's natural eating patterns, the easier and more rewarding the job of feeding children can be.
Like many other behaviors, children's eating patterns are largely learned. Starting from infancy (婴儿期), a child learns what can be eaten and what cannot, what is appropriate within the culture and the family regarding food manners, what types of food are liked and disliked, and what cues are important in controlling the amount of food eaten. Children's eating patterns move through predictable stages of development that present challenges and opportunities for learning and mastering proper eating patterns. Early feeding interactions influence the set of skills and behaviors children possess as their eating moves from completely depending on their caregivers to relying more on themselves.
Inborn (天生的) Abilities, Preferences, and Transitions (转变)
Because a newborn spends about 50% of his waking time eating, the feeding interaction is perhaps an infant's most important experience. Feeding not only supplies energy for growth, it also establishes his bond with his mother, provides a sense of security and pleasure for the infant, and presents repeated opportunities for learning and social exchange.
A child's transition to solid food is a dynamic (不断增长的) period of growth and learning. Eating patterns change more during this period than during any other time of life. This transition requires rapid learning about flavors, food, manners, and social exchange.
An often unrecognized milestone (里程碑) in young children's eating behavior is dealing with a
fear of new food. Young children are inclined to be afraid of new food when they are between 18-24 months of age. Children previously judged as "good eaters" often begin to reject new food and refuse formerly accepted, familiar items. Children's acceptance of new food does not happen right away. It requires repeated experience with new food to overcome fears and enhance acceptance.
The Family Eating Environment
Parents and caregivers greatly influence the eating environment in which children's preferences and eating patterns develop. Caregivers determine which foods are available to the child and what composes a child's diet. They also provide a model of eating behavior and guide a child's eating through feeding practices. By selecting the food that comes into the home, parents have direct control over the food children repeatedly eat.
At any point in development, large differences may exist among parents in the extent to which they allow a child to control eating, including the timing of meals, as well as what and how much is eaten. Feeding practices that are too controlling are not effective, but rather may work against promoting healthy eating patterns. The use of pressure and restriction in child feeding seems to have an opposite effect on children's preferences. Another unintended consequence of using pressure in child feeding is that it may cause eating to be influenced by factors other than a child's own hunger and fullness.
The Contemporary Eating Environment
While the family is the most important environment in which children's eating develops, cultural and physical environments also play a role. Environmental factors affect a parent's ability to promote healthy eating patterns. Such factors include increased time demands in family life, loss of the family meal, increased television viewing during meals, increased dining-out (外出就餐) occasions, and increased use of childcare. Parents also struggle with the broader health and eating concerns of our society. This climate includes poor diet quality and an ever-increasing number of overweight parents and children. At the same time, society places an enormous emphasis on dieting and thinness.
Promoting Healthy Eating Behaviors
A worthy goal for parents and caregivers is to create feeding environments that promote healthy eating behaviors and support healthy weight and growth. There are several important feeding issues for most children:
1. Young children eat small amounts of food frequently; three meals and three snacks (点心) is a normal eating pattern until well into the school years.
2. The appearance of irregular eating patterns is not necessarily evidence of poor eating habits. Parents should consider the amount of food eaten across the day and beyond, rather than focus on "getting a child to eat" at a particular eating occasion.
3. Young children require fewer energy and smaller portion sizes. Because increasing portion sizes may increase energy intakes, be careful about routinely (习惯性地) offering adult-size servings of drinks and snacks.
Keeping these issues and the following ten tips in mind will help parents and caregivers develop healthy eating behaviors in the children they care for.
Ten Tips for Putting Information into Action
1. Children benefit from eating routines (常规) and structure in the same way that they benefit from bedtime routines! Be sure to offer three meals and two to three snacks across the course of the day. In between, avoid feeding the child by adopting a "closed kitchen" policy.
2. What does hunger have to do with it? Everything. Direct children towards internal cues like hunger and fullness. Speak plainly to children about hunger and fullness during mealtime and snacks.
3. Avoid focusing on the amounts consumed. Instead, offer healthy choices and learn about appropriate portion sizes for children.
4. Offer healthy snacks and routinely remind children that fruits and vegetables are available for snacking.
5. Don't give up! Children need repeated experiences with new food before they learn to like them.
6. Be conscious of low nutrient, high-energy drinks and food consumption.
7. Be active! Turn off the television (limit of 2 hours per day) and encourage free play by GOING OUTSIDE!
8. Make family meals a priority whenever possible. Try for at least three family dinners a week. Limit eating out to twice a week and try to choose restaurants with surroundings that permit conversation.
9. Develop children's conversational styles and their sense of importance by eliminating distractions like television and music during family meals.
10. Promote healthy eating—not dieting—in word and in deed. Adopt a moderate approach that includes all food in age-appropriate amounts.
As video gaming spreads, the discussion about its social impact is intensifying. Is it a new medium equivalent to film and music, a valuable educational tool, a form of harmless fun or something terrible that makes children violent and stupid? Video gaming is all these things, depending on
whom you ask.
Amid all the arguments, however, three important factors are generally overlooked: that attitudes to gaming are marked by a generational divide; that there is no convincing evidence that games make people violent; and that games have great potential in education.
Attitudes towards gaming
Attitudes towards gaming depend to a great extent on age. In America, for example, half of the population plays computer or video games. However most players are under 40—according to Nielsen, a market-research firm, 76% of them—while most critics of gaming are over 40. An entire generation that began gaming as children has kept playing. The average age of American gamers is 30. Most are "computer natives" who grew up with technology, argues Marc Prensky of Games2train, a firm that promotes the educational use of games. He describes older people as "computer immigrants" who, like newcomers anywhere, have had to adapt in various ways to their new technological world. Just getting by in a foreign land without some grasp of the local language is difficult, says Mr. Prensky. Computer immigrants have had to learn to use technologies such as the Internet and mobile phones. But relatively few of them have embraced video games. The word "game" itself also confuses matters, since it makes them seem like playthings. "What they don't understand, because they've never played them, is that these are complex games, which take 30, 40 or 100 hours to complete," says Mr. Prensky. Games are, in fact, played mainly by young adults. Only a third of gamers are under 18.
"It's just a generational divide," says Gerhard Florin, the European boss of Electronic Arts, the world's biggest games publisher. "People do not know what they are talking about, because they have never played a game. And yet, they say that millions of gamers are stupid or violent." Computer natives who have played video games since childhood already regard them as a form of entertainment equivalent to films and music. Older computer natives now have children of their own and enjoy playing video games with them.
The gaming industry is trying to address the generational divide. It is producing games designed to appeal to people who have never played games and encouraging gamers (who may occasionally play simple web-based games, or games on mobile phones) to play more. This has led to the development of games with a wider appeal. Some of them replace the usual control pad with novel input devices: microphones (麦克风) for singing games, cameras for dancing and action games, and even musical instruments. In addition, the industry has started to attract more women, who seem to prefer social simulation (模拟) games such as "The Sims", and older people, who (if they play games at all) often prefer versions of card games and board games. Other promising areas include portable (便携式的) gaming, mobile gaming and online downloads of simple games. Many people enjoy gaming, but do not necessarily want to commit themselves to a long quest that will take dozens of hours to complete.
May gaming make people violent?
But aren't critics right to worry that gaming might make people violent? In his paper, Mr. Williams describes his study carried out with Marko Skoric of the University of Michigan. The study concentrated on a "massively multiplayer (多人参与的) online role-playing game" (MMORPG) called "Asheron Call 2". This type of game requires the player to wander around a fantasy world and kill monsters to build up attribute points. It is "virtually more violent than the average video game and should have more effect, given the highly repetitive nature of the violence", the researchers noted.
Two groups of subjects were recruited, none of whom had played MMORPGs before and many of whom had never played video games at all. One group then played the game for a month, for an average of nearly two hours per day. The other group acted as a control. All people who participated were asked questions about how often they had aggressive social interactions (such as arguments with their spouses) during the course of the month to test the idea that gaming makes people more aggressive. Game players, it turned out, were no more aggressive than the control group. Whether the test subjects had played games before, the number of hours spent gaming, and whether they liked violent movies or not, made no difference. The researchers noted, however, that more research is still needed to assess the impact of other types of games. All games are different, and only when more detailed studies have been carried out will it be possible to say anything about the impact of gaming.
Games have great potential in education.
What's more, plenty of games, far from encouraging violence, are morally complex, subtle and, very possibly, improving. Many now explicitly require players to choose whether to be good or evil, and their choices determine how the game they are playing develops. Several games based on the "Star Wars" movies require players to choose between the light and dark sides of the Force, equivalent to good and evil.
Even games with no educational purpose require players to learn a great deal. Games are complex and force players to make a huge number of decisions. Gamers must construct ideas about the in-game world, learn its rules through trial and error (错误) , solve problems and puzzles, develop strategies and get help from other players through the Internet when they get stuck.
Games can be used in many other ways. Tim Rylands, a British teacher in a primary school near Bristol, recently won an award from Becta, a government education agency, for using computer games in the classroom. By projecting the fantasy world of "Myst", a role-playing game, on to a large screen and encouraging his 11-year-old pupils to write descriptions and reactions as he plays it, he has achieved striking improvements in their English test scores.
So games are inherently good, not bad? Actually they are neither, like books, films, the Internet, or any other medium. All can be used to depict sex and violence, or to educate and inform. Indeed, that there is violence and sex in games is arguably a sign of the maturity of the medium, as games become more like films.
College Is Just the Beginning of Lifelong Learning
Although it may sometimes feel more like a burden, being a student is a golden opportunity. As a student, you are able to focus on learning for a period of time, and your school focuses on you in return, helping you gain access to knowledge, resources, and experiences. Take advantage of the academic opportunity by developing a habit of seeking out new learning opportunities. That habit will encourage you to continue your learning long after you have graduated, even in the face of the pressure of everyday life.
Learning brings change, and change causes growth. If you confine your learning to your time as a student, you will make it difficult to improve and move ahead both on the job and in your personal life. On the other hand, if you take advantage of the chances to learn what comes into your way, you will continue to move ahead. As you change and the world changes, new knowledge and ideas continually emerge. Absorb them so that you can drive yourself forward into the future.
Here are some lifelong learning strategies that can encourage you to continually ask questions and explore new ideas.
Look into new interests. When information and events catch your attention, take your interest one step further and find out more. If you are fascinated by lawyers on television, find out more if your school has legal clubs where you can explore. If a friend of yours starts to take yoga (瑜珈), try out a class with him. If you really like one part of a particular class, see if there is any other class that focuses on that specific subject. Stop saying "I wish I had tried that" and start saying "I'm going to do it."
Read books, newspapers, magazines, and other writings. Reading opens a world of new perspectives. Check out what's on the bestseller list at your bookstore. Ask your friends about books that have changed their lives. Stay on the top of the current changes in your community, your state, your country, and even the world by reading newspapers and magazines. A newspaper that has a broad scope, such as The New York Times or Washington Post, can be an education in itself. Explore religious literature, family letters, and Internet news groups and web pages. Keep something with you to read at those moments when you have nothing to do.
Spend time with interesting people. When you meet someone new who inspires you and makes you think, keep in touch. Have a dinner party and invite one person or a couple from each corner of your life—your family, your work, your school, a club to which you belong, and your neighborhood. Sometimes, meet for reasons that go beyond just being social. Start a book club, a repair group, an acting club, an exercise group, or a business group. Learn something new from each other.
Make improvement in your studies and in your career. When at school, take classes outside of your major if you have time. After graduation, continue your education both in your field and in the area of general knowledge. Stay on top of ideas, developments, and new technology in your field by seeking out continuing education courses. Sign up for career-related seminars. Take single courses