Unit 1 Language and Learning
1.1 How do we learn language？
We learn language at different ages
People have different experiences
People learn languages for different reasons
People learn languages in different ways
People have different capabilities in language learning
Learning can be affected by the way how language is taught
Learning is affected by the degree of success one is expect to achieve.
Thus the challenge confronting language teaching is how teaching methodology can ensure successful learning by all the learners who have more differences than the commonality.
1. 2 What are the major views of language?
1) Structural view:
Language is a linguistic system made up of various subsystems: phonology, morphology, lexicology and syntacx. To learn a language is to learn its vocabulary and structural rules.
2) Functional view:
Language is a linguistic system as well as a means for doing things. Learners learn a language in order to be able to do things with it (use it). To perform functions, learners need to know how to combine the grammatical rules and the vocabulary to express notions that perform the functions.
3) Interactional view:
Language is a communicative tool to build up and maintain social relations between people. Learners need to know the rules of a language and where, when and how it is appropriate to use them.
1.3Views on Language Learning
Two broad learning theories：
Process-oriented theories are concerned with how the mind organizes new information. Condition-oriented theories emphasize the nature of human and physical context.
? B. F. Skinner
? A stimulus-response theory of psychology
?The idea of this method is that language is learned by constant repetition and the
reinforcement of the teacher. Mistakes were immediately corrected, and correct utterances were immediately praised.
?Influenced by Noam Chomsky (revival of structural linguistics)
?Language as an intricate rule-based system
? A learner acquires language competence which enables him to produce language.
?One influential idea of cognitive approach to language teaching is that students should be
allowed to create their own sentence based on their own understanding of certain rules.
?Jean Piaget (1896—1980)
?The learner constructs meaning based on his/her own experiences and what is already
?―Zone of Proximal Development‖ (ZPD); scaffolding(脚手架)
?Learning is best achieved through the dynamic interaction between the teacher and the
learner and between learners.
1.4 What are the qualities of a good language teacher?
A good language teacher does not solely depend on his/her command of the language. There are a variety of element that contributes to the qualities of a good language teacher. These element can be categorized into three groups:ethic devotion, professional quality and personal styles.
1.5 How can one become a good language teacher?
?Wallace‘s (1991) ?reflective model‘ (Figure 1.1, p.9)
Stage 1: language development
Stage 2: learning, practice, reflection
The learning stage is the purposeful preparation that a language normally receives before the practice,This preparation can include:
1. Learning from others‘ experience
2. Learning the received knowledge
3. Learning from one‘s own experiences
The practice stage (2 senses)
Pseudo practice:short period of time assigned to do teaching practice as part of one‘s
pre-service education, usually under the supervision of instructors
The real classroom teaching: what a teacher undertakes after he/she finishes formal
Teachers benefit from practice if they keep on reflecting on what they have been doing
Goal: professional competence
Unit 2 Communicative Principles and Task-based language teaching
2.1 How is language learned in classrooms different from language used in real life?
Language used in real life Language taught in the
To perform certain communtcative functions To focus on forms (structures or patterns)
Use all skills, both receptive skills and productive skills To focus on one or two language skills and ignore others.
Used in a certain context To isolate language from its
2.2 What is communicative competence?
To bridge the gap between classroom language teaching and real-life language use, one solution is to adopt CLT, the goal of which is to develop students‘ communicative competence.
Communicative competence include both the knowledge about the language and the knowledge about how to use the language appropriately in communicative situations
2.2.2 Five components of communicative competence (Hedge 2000)
◆Linguistic competence （语言能力）
The knowledge of language itself, its form and meaning.
◆Pragmatic competence （语用能力）
The appropriate use of language in social context.
◆Discourse competence （语篇能力）
One‘s ability to create coherent written text or conversation and the ability to understand them
◆Strategic competence （策略能力）
Strategies one employs when there is communication breakdown due to lack of resources.
One ?s ability to ?link units of speech together with facility and without strain or inappropriate slowness or undue（过分的，不适当的）hesitation‘
2.3Implications for teaching and learning
Teaching must enable learners to grasp the five components of communicative competence, but not just the linguistic competence.
2.4 Principles of CLT
Three principles suggest by Richard and Rodgers：
1 Communication principle：involve real communication
2 Task principle：Carry out meaningful tasks
3 Meaningfulness principle：Meaningful language to the learner
Howatt proposes a weak and a strong version of CLT:
Learners first acquire language as a structural system and then learn how to use it in communication.
―language is acquired through communication‖ (Howatt, 1984:279)
2.5 Major Activity Types of CLT
A sequence of activities represented in Littlewood (1981: 86)
Communicative activities (PP22-23)
?Functional communication activities
?Social interaction activities
2.6 Six Criteria for evaluating communicative classroom activities
(main features of communicative activities?)
●Content, not form
●Variety of language
●No teacher intervention
●No materials control
2.7 What is Task-based Language Teaching?
TBLT is a further development of CLT. It shares the same belief in the use of language in real life, but stresses the importance to combine form-focused teaching with communication-focused teaching.
2.7.1Four components of a task
1. A purpose
2. A context
3. A process
4. A product
2.7.2 Exercises, exercise-tasks and tasks
Exercise-tasks is halfway between tasks and exercises. This kind of activity consists of contextualized practice of language item.
2.8 Differences between PPP and TBLT
1 The way students use and experience language in TBLT is radically different from PPP.
*Free of language control
*A genuine need to use language to communicate
*A free exchange of ideas
*Appropriateness & accuracy of language form in general, not production of a single form
*A genuine need for accuracy and fluency
2. TBL can provide a context for grammar teaching and form-focused activities. PPP is different in this aspect.
■ A task-established context
?Encouraged to think, analyze, not simply to repeat, manipulate and apply
? A more varied exposure to natural language
?Language forms not pre-selected for focus
?Learner-free selection of language
?TBL cycle lead from Fluency to accuracy (+fluency)
?In TBL Integrated skills practiced
2.9 How to design tasks?
S tep 1 Think about students‘ needs, interests, and abilities
Step 2 Brainstorm possible tasks
Step 3 Evaluate the list
Step 4 Choose the language items
Step 5 Preparing materials
2.10 CLT and TBLT in the Chinese context
?Problems with CLT
1. The very first and forceful argument is whether it is culturally appropriate
2. The second problem of CLT relate to the design the syllabus for teaching purpose in the classroom.
3. The third problem is that whether such an approach is suitable for all age level of learners or all competence level of learners.
?Constraints of TBLT
?The first is it may not be effective for presenting new language items
?The second constraint is Time as teachers have to prepare task-based activities very carefully.
?The third is the culture of learning
?The forth is Level of difficulty
3.1 A brief history of foreign language teaching in China
A phase of restoration (1978-1985)
A phase of rapid development (1986-1992)
A phase of reform (1993-2000)
A phase of innovation from 2000
3.2 Designing principles for the National English Curriculum
1) Aim for educating all students, and emphasize quality-oriented education.
2) Promote learner-centeredness, and respect individual differences.
3) Develop competence-based objectives, and allow flexibility and adaptability.
4) Pay close attention to the learning process, and advocate experiential learning and participation.
5) Attach particular importance to formative assessment, and give special attention to the development of competence.
6) Optimize learning resources, and maximize opportunities for learning and using the language.
3.3 Goals and objectives of English language teaching
The new curriculum is designed to promote students‘ overall language ability, which is composed of five interrelated components, namely, language skills, language knowledge, affects, learning strategies and cultural understanding. Each component is further divided into a few sub-categories. Language teaching is no longer aimed only for developing language skills and knowledge, but expanded to developing learners‘ positive attitude, motivation, confidence as well as strategies for life-long learning along with cross-cultural knowledge, awareness and capabilities.
The overall language ability required in the 2001 National English Curriculum includes the following aspects language knowledge, language skills, learning strategies, affects and cultural understanding.
3.4 Design of the National English Curriculum
3.5 The standards for different levels of competence
3.6 Challenges facing English language teachers
1) English language teachers are expected to change their views about language which is not a system of linguistic knowledge but a means for communication.
2) English language teachers are expected to change their traditional role of a knowledge transmitter to a multi-role educator.
3) English language teachers are expected to use more task-based activities and put the students at the center of learning.
4) English language teachers are expected to use more formative assessment in addition to using
5)English language teachers are expected to use modern technology in teaching, creating more effective resources for learning and for using the language.
Unit 4. Lesson Planning备课
4.1 why is Lesson Planning Important
A lesson plan is a framework of a lesson in which teachers make advance decisions about what
they hope to achieve and how they would like to achieve it.
Proper lesson plan is essential for both novice and experienced teachers. Language teachers benefit from lesson planning in a number of ways.
1.Makes teachers aware of the aims and language contents of the lesson, so as to plan the
activities and choose the techniques accordingly;
2.Helps teachers distinguish the various stages of a lesson and see the relationship
between them so that the activities of different difficulty levels can be arranged
properly and the lesson can move smoothly from one stage to another;
3.Gives teachers the opportunity to anticipate potential problems so that they can be
4.Gives teachers, esp. novice ones, confidence in class;
5.Raises teachers‘ awareness of the teaching aids needed;
6.Planning is a good practice and a sign of professionalism.
Teachers benefit from proper lesson plans in a number of other ways:
?To enable the teacher to improve class timing;
?Lesson plans are also an aid to continuing development
4.2 Principles for Good Lesson Planning
1.Aim: the realistic goals for the lesson; what students are able to do by the end of the
2.Variety: different types of activities; a wide selection of materials;
3.Flexibility: preparing some extra and alternative tasks and activities
4.Learnability: the contents and tasks planned should be within the learning capability
of the students
Doing things that are beyond or below the students‘ coping ability will diminish their
motivation (Schumann, 1999)
5.Linkage: the stages and the steps within each stage are linked with one another.
4.3 what are macro planning and micro planning?
Planning over a long period of time which is often done by a group of teachers, it provides a general guidance for language teachers
Planning for a specific unit or a lesson, which usually lasts from one to two weeks or forty to fifty minutes respectively. Micro planning is often an individual activity and different teachers may have different ways of writing their own lesson plans.
?Macro planning involves the following：
Knowing about the profession
Knowing about the institution
Knowing about the learners
Knowing about the curriculum/syllabus
Knowing about the textbook
Knowing about the objectives
A lesson plan usually has the following components:
Teaching content and skills
Stages and procedures
End of lesson summary
Optional activities and Assignment
After lesson reflection
Unit 5 Classroom Management
5.1 What is classroom management?
有助于)interacting in English in meaningful ways (Gebhard, 1996).
Efficient classroom management can be achieved when the following six conditions are met.
1.The teacher plays appropriate roles.
2.The teacher provides clearer instructions.
3.Students are grouped in a way suitable for the learning activities.
4.There is discipline as well as harmony in the class.
5.The teacher asks appropriate questions.
6.The students‘ errors are treated pr operly
5.2 What roles does the teacher play?
1.Controller (what to learn; how to learn)
2.Assessor (correcting mistakes; organizing feedback)
http://m.wendangku.net/doc/0d5b5fa47e21af45b307a8ec.htmlaniser (students‘ activities)
4.Prompter (when ss don‘t know what to do…)
5.Participant (in ss‘ activities)
?environment, use various strategies to motivate learners, guide
learning and develop their learning strategies…
acknowledge and respect individual differences; give each equal opportunity in learning;
?reflect on the reasons, think about possible solutions, implement the
solutions and evaluate the results…
Q: How much control is needed?
?Appropriate degree of control
?Different activities need a different degrees of control.
?The more communicative an activity, the less control it needs.
Q: What does the teacher do as an assessor?
?The correcting should be gentle, not harsh.
?The feedback should be focused on students‘ success or progress so that a success-oriented
learning atmosphere can be created.
Q: How to organise?
?Before the activity: what the activity is going to be like, anticipated problems; clear
instructi ons given to students (with T‘s demonstration)
?During the activity: overhear what the students are saying, rectify wrong practices; take notes
for later feedback
Q: When to prompt?
?When students are not sure how to start an activity, or what to do next, or what to say next…?When a student doesn‘t seem to be ready for an answer,…
?When a student finishes with a very short answer,…
Q: why to participate in student‘s activities?
?Monitoring + participating changes the role from an authority to a conversationalist, a
good chance for students to practise English with a superior…
Q: What do you think of the jug-and-mug metaphor?
Although the jug-and-mug method has been widely criticised, the teacher is still considered a good and convenient resource for the student s.‖
5.3 How to give effective classroom instructions?
Classroom instructions refer to the type of language teachers use to organize or guide learning.
1.To use simple instructions and make them suit the comprehension level of the students;
2.To use the mother-tongue only when it is necessary;
3.Give students time to get used to listening to English instructions;
http://m.wendangku.net/doc/0d5b5fa47e21af45b307a8ec.htmle body language to assist understanding;
5.Model the task/activity before letting students into groups or pairs…
6.Teachers are not expected to do all the talking in class.
Tip: Demonstration is usually more effective than words.
5.4 What are the different ways for student grouping?
?Whole class work, pair work, group work, individual study
1.Whole class work
?All the students are under the control of the teacher, doing the same activity at the same rhythm and pace.
?Students work in pairs on an exercise or task.
?Students work in small groups of 3-5 students.
?Students work on their own at their own speed.
Q: How to group? (Grouping methods)
1.Whole class work is normally used when presenting and explaining new language or new
information and it should be used wisely by the teachers.
2.Successful group/pair work depends on skillful organization.
3.The biggest problem for group work is the selection of group members.
4.While teachers are encourage to use pair wok and group work to provide more practice chance,
individual study should not be forgotten.
Types of student grouping and their advantages and disadvantages in P314 (task4)
5.5 Discipline in the language classroom
Q: What does discipline mean?
Discipline refers to a code of conduct which binds a teacher and a group of students together so that learning can be more effective. (78)
Q: Does discipline guarantee effective learning?
?No. There might be little learning even the class is very disciplined.
?Although discipline is necessary, it is not a sufficient condition for effective learning as a thoroughly indisciplined atmosphere will surely yield no learning at all. (79)
Q: How to maintain discipline?P.79
Although discipline is often discussed together with classroom management, Classroom management skills are not sufficient if discipline is to be achieved，rather，a variety of teacher‘s behavior contribute to discipline, such as the teacher‘s choice of methodology, their interpersonal relationships with students, their preparation for the lesson. Beside, student‘s motivation, which can be enhanced by the teacher action, is extremely important for discipline.
When students are engaged in learning, they will be disciplined. (79)
?Ss are clear about learning purpose;
?Ss are able to do the work but find it challenging;
?Ss are emotionally, physically and intellectually involved by the tasks;
?The presentation, variety and structure of the work and activities generate curiosity and interest;
?Ss have opportunities to ask questions and try out ideas;
?Ss can see what they have achieved and how they had made progress;
?Ss get a feeling of satisfaction and enjoyment from the work.
Q: What causes discipline problems?
? A gap in the lesson (e.g. bad planning, equipment fails to work)
?Lack of teacher attention
?The teacher concentrates on lengthy explanations to one individual so that the others get bored ?Work is too easy or too challenging
Q: What measures can we take for undisciplined acts and badly behaving students?
?Harmer (1983) p.81
2.Stop the class.
3.Rearrange the seats.
4.Change the activity.
5.Talk to students after class.
6.Create a code of behavior.
?Ur‘s (1996) advice
1.Deal with it quietly.
2.Don‘t take things personally.
3.Don‘t use threats.
5.6 How to make questioning more effective?
?Questions should be closely linked to the learning objectives in the lesson;
?Questions should be staged so that the level of challenge increases as the lesson proceeds;
?There should be a balance between closed and open, lower-order and higher-order questions;
?Wait time is important to allow students to think through their answers;
?Ss should be provided opportunities to ask their own questions and seek their own answers;
? A secure and relaxed atmosphere of trust is needed and ss‘ opinions and ideas are valued. 5.6.2 What types of questions are there?( Classification of questions)
1.Closed and open questions;
2.Display and genuine questions;
3.Lower-order and high-order questions;
4.Bloom‘s taxonomy分类系统(Nuttall, 1982)
5.7 Dealing with errors
Q: What are errors? How are they different from mistakes?
? A mistake refers to ―a performance error that is either a random guess or a ?slip of tongue‘, and it is a failure performance to a known system‖ (Brown, 2000: 218-219)
?An error has direct relation with the learner‘s language competence. Errors do not result from carelessness nor hesitation, but lack of knowledge in the target language.
? A mistake can be self-corrected; an error cannot be.
Q: How to deal with errors?
?In dealing with errors and mistakes we need to be clear whether the task or activity is focusing on accuracy or fluency.
Q: When to correct errors?
?Generally, it is best not to interrupt students during fluency work unless communication breaks down.
?Let a trivial mistake pass if most of the language is right.
?For some common mistakes, take a note in mind first and correct after the student‘s performance.
Q: How to correct errors?
?Different ways and techniques:
?Direct teacher correction
?Indirect teacher correction
?Whole class correction
Q: Which techniques to use?
?As a general rule, indirect teacher correction is encouraged rather than direct ones to avoid damaging ss‘ self-esteem and confidence.
?In practice, self-correction is encouraged before teacher correction or peer correction, esp. for mistakes.
?The whole class correction is used for main error types (e.g.The Big Ten)
1.Roles of the teacher: controller, assessor, organiser, prompter, participant, resource-provider, facilitator,
guide, researcher, etc.
2.Classroom instructions: simple; suit the level of students
3.Grouping: whole class work, group work, pair work, individual study
4.Discipline: to engage ss in learning; how to maintain discipline, how to treat with undisciplined acts
5.Questioning: different classifications; questioning techniques
6.Error correction: error and mistake; different ways and techniques for correcting errors
Unit 6 Teaching Pronunciation
Critical Period Hypothesis: a biologically determined period of life when language can be acquired more easily and beyond which time language is increasing difficult to acquire.
6.1 The role of pronunciation
Side A: students do not need to learn pronunciation because pronunciation will take care of itself as the students develop overall language ability.
Side B: Failure in pronunciation is a great hindrance to language learning.
Views of teaching pronunciation vary
?The Learners who have more exposure to English need less focus on pronunciation than those who only learn English in the class.
?Adult learners need more focus on pronunciation because they are more likely to substitute English sounds with sounds from their native language.
?The teaching of pronunciation should focus on the ss‘ ability to identify and produce English sounds themselves. (pronunciation vs. phonetics)
?Ss should not be led to focus on reading and writing phonetic transcripts of words, esp. for young students.
?Phonetic rules are helpful for ss to develop ability to cope with English pronunciation and they should be introduced at a suitable stage.
?Stress and intonation are important and should be taught from the very beginning.
6.2 The goal of teaching pronunciation
The goal of teaching pronunciation is not to teach learners to achieve a perfect imitation of a native accent, but simply to get the learners to pronounce accurately enough to be easily and comfortably comprehensible to other speakers.
The realistic goals of teaching pronunciation is as following:
?Consistency: the pronunciation should be smooth and natural;
?Intelligibility: the pronunciation should be understandable to the listeners;
?Communicative efficiency: the pronunciation should help convey the meaning that is intended by the speaker.
6.3 What aspects of pronunciation do we need to teach?
Pronunciation is an umbrella term covering many aspects, beside sound and phone symbols, such as stress, intonation, and rhythm, of course ,these aspects are not isolated from each other, rather, they are interrelated.
Q: How to achieve good pronunciation?
?Practice makes perfect
?Both mechanical practice and meaningful practice are beneficial.
6.4 Practising sounds(List some methods of practicing sounds. )
Mechanical drilling is boring and demotivating; it is important to combine drilling pronunciation exercises with more meaningful exercises that focus on whatever aspect of pronunciation is the focus of the lesson.
Focus on a sound
Focus on a individual sounds especially those sound that are difficult to learn
?What is the goal of perception practice?
?Developing the students‘ ability to identify and distinguish between different sounds.
?Examples of perception practice:
?Using minimal pairs (with one sound difference): will/well; ship/sheep; light/night
?Which order: bear, tear, ear
?Same or different? [met], [mi:t]
?Odd one out
The goal of production practice is developing students‘ ability to produce sounds.
1.Listen and repeat ( practice individual sounds, individual words, groups of words,
sentences (mechanical imitation)
2.Fill in the blanks (in sentences with words which contain certain sounds).
3.Make up sentences (using as many from the given words as possible).
http://m.wendangku.net/doc/0d5b5fa47e21af45b307a8ec.htmle meaningful context (to perform meaningful tasks such as role-play).
http://m.wendangku.net/doc/0d5b5fa47e21af45b307a8ec.htmle pictures (to produce meaningful language).
http://m.wendangku.net/doc/0d5b5fa47e21af45b307a8ec.htmle tongue twisters (to practice pronunciation).
6.5 Practising stress and intonation
?Two types of stress:
?It is very important to stress the proper syllable in multi-syllabic words.
?The best strategy is to emphasize the importance of learning the stress as part of learning a word.
?Phrase-level or sentence-level stress
?Each phrase or sentence has one syllable which receives greater or more prominent stress than the others.
?Some phrases or sentences may have one stressed syllable, while others may have 5-6 stressed syllables.
6.5.1 Teaching methods of stress
?The most important thing in practising stress is making the students aware of where to
stress the words or phrases.
http://m.wendangku.net/doc/0d5b5fa47e21af45b307a8ec.htmle gestures (e.g. clapping hands; using arm movements)
http://m.wendangku.net/doc/0d5b5fa47e21af45b307a8ec.htmle the voice (raise the voice to indicate stress)
http://m.wendangku.net/doc/0d5b5fa47e21af45b307a8ec.htmle the blackboard (underline the stress parts or write with colored chalks
6.5.2 Practicing intonation (How to practise intonation?)
?Use hand or arm movement to indicate change of intonation.
?Use rising or falling arrows to mark intonation.
?Draw lines to mark change of intonation.
How can teachers help the students to improve pronunciation?
http://m.wendangku.net/doc/0d5b5fa47e21af45b307a8ec.htmle individual, pair, group and whole class work;
http://m.wendangku.net/doc/0d5b5fa47e21af45b307a8ec.htmle hands and arms to conduct practice.
3.Move around the classroom when doing choral practice.
4.Vary the criteria of ?good‘ to give students confidence.
5.Do articulation practice more than once.
6.Bring interests and variety to the practice.
7.The main criteria for good pronunciation are consistency, intelligibility and
8.Make full use of demonstrations.
9.Try to use visual aids.
Unit 7 Teaching Grammar
7.1 The role of grammar in language learning
It is generally believed that
?Grammar teaching is less important for children than for adults;
?Grammar teaching is less important in listening and reading than in writing.
?Grammar teaching can be seen in most formal classroom language teaching.
Generally speaking, Chinese EFL learners need a certain degree of mastery of English grammar. However, it should be noted that learning grammar itself is not the ultimate goal of learning English.
7.2 Grammar presentation
What are the major types of grammar presentation method?
?Three ways of presenting grammar in the classroom:
1.The deductive method 演绎法reasoning from general principles to a particular case
The deductive method relies on reasoning, analyzing and comparing
2.The inductive method 归纳法method of logical reasoning which obtains or discovers general
laws from particular facts or examples
3.The guided discovery method 引导式发现法
Similar to the inductive method in that ss are induced to discover rules by themselves;
But different in that the process of the discovery is carefully guided and assisted by the teachers and the rules are then elicited and taught explicitly.
Each has merits and drawbacks. The best way is to vary methods in different situations.
Two key theoretical issues related to the method: the role of explicit knowledge in language learning; the value of discovery as a general method of learning
Implicit and explicit knowledge
?Implicit knowledge refers to knowledge that unconsciously exists in our mind, which we can make use of automatically without making any effort. E.g. of L1 内隐知识
?Explicit knowledge refers to our conscious knowledge about the language. We can talk about
it, analyse it and apply it in conscious ways. 外显知识
7.3 Grammar practice
Practice may be defined as any kind of engaging with the language on the part of the learner, usually under the teacher supervision, whose primary objective is to consolidate learning Grammar practice is usually divided into two categories, mechanical practice and meaningful
?Substitution and transformation drills are most frequently used.
2.Meaningful/communicative practice (focus on form) 重形式练习
?Focus on meaning (CLT) + overt study of form
?Ss practise the target structure while negotiating meaning.
3. Using prompts for practice
?The prompts can be pictures, mimes (use of facial expressions and gestures), tables, charts or key words.
?Practice based on prompts is usually considered as meaningful practice.
http://m.wendangku.net/doc/0d5b5fa47e21af45b307a8ec.htmling picture prompts
http://m.wendangku.net/doc/0d5b5fa47e21af45b307a8ec.htmling mimes or gestures as prompts
http://m.wendangku.net/doc/0d5b5fa47e21af45b307a8ec.htmling information sheet as prompts
http://m.wendangku.net/doc/0d5b5fa47e21af45b307a8ec.htmling key phrases or key words as prompts
http://m.wendangku.net/doc/0d5b5fa47e21af45b307a8ec.htmling chained phrases for story telling
http://m.wendangku.net/doc/0d5b5fa47e21af45b307a8ec.htmling created situations (to practise TL in a communicative way)
What kind of practice is most effective?
?Ur (1988) predicts six factors that contribute to successful practice.
1.Pre-learning: new language noticed
2.Volume and repetition
4.Heterogeneity of sentences and contexts异质性
1.The role of grammar in language learning: Generally speaking, Chinese EFL learners need a
certain degree of mastery of English grammar. However, it should be noted that learning grammar itself is not the ultimate goal of learning English.
2.Three ways of presenting/ teaching grammar: the deductive method, the inductive method, and
the guided discovery method. Each has merits and drawbacks. The best way is to vary methods in different situations.
3.Ur (1996) suggests that a good presentation of grammar should include both oral and written
and both form and meaning. Plenty of contextualized examples are necessary; visual materials are helpful; use of complex terminology should be avoided for young learners; inductive and discovery method should be used for those structures that can be easily perceived by the learners; for complex structures it is better to teach the rule explicitly and deductively.
4.Mechanical practice and meaningful practice of grammar have both advantages and
disadvantages. Two types of practice can be combined. Using prompts (pictures, mimes, tables, charts, key words, created situations) has proved to be an effective way of grammar practice.
Unit 8 Teaching Vocabulary
8.1 Assumptions about vocabulary learning
1.V ocabulary items can be words, compounds, phrases, sentences.
2.Not every single word has an equivalent in another language, e.g. ―the‖.
3.V ocabulary can be taught.
4.Both teachers and students should be aware of the difference between active and passive
vocabulary, and then treat them differently.
5.Translation is not the best way to explain new words.
6.English-English explanations are not the best. There are many other more effective ways.
7.An English-English dictionary is very helpful.
8.It is more effective when words of related meaning are taught and learned together.
9.Studying vocabulary in language contexts are more effective.
10.Forgetting is inevitable. But if words are frequently used, they are less easy to forget.
8.2 What does knowing a word involve?
?Knowing a word means knowing
?its pronunciation and stress;
?its spelling and grammatical properties;
?how and when to use it to express the intended meaning.
?Learning a word involves learning more than just the word itself. Lexical items can be phrases, clauses or sentences.
8.2.1According to Hedge (2000)
V ocabulary learning ―involves at least two aspects of meaning. The first aspect involves the understanding of its denotative and connotative meaning. The second aspect involves understanding the sense relations among words.‖
Denotative meaning:the primary, literal or explicit meaning of a word, which refers to ―those words that we use to label things as regards real objects, such as a name or a sign, etc. in the physical world. 字面意义；外延
Connotative meaning:the meaning of a word or phrase that is suggested or implied, as opposed to a denotation, or literal meaning 隐含意义；内涵
collocations:words that co-occur with high frequency and have been accepted as ways for the use of words
synonyms : items that mean the same, or nearly the same
antonyms:items that mean the opposite of a word
hyponyms下义词words which can be grouped together under the same superordinate (上义词)
Receptive and productive vocabulary
?Be aware of the distinction between receptive/passive and productive/active vocabulary.
?Receptive vocabulary refers to words that one is able to recognize and comprehend in reading or listening but unable to use automatically in speaking or writing.
?Productive vocabulary: words that one is not only able to recognize but also able to use in speech and writing.
8.3 How can we present new vocabulary items?
1.Provide a visual or physical demonstration;
2.Provide a verbal context to demonstrate meaning;
http://m.wendangku.net/doc/0d5b5fa47e21af45b307a8ec.htmle synonyms or antonyms;
http://m.wendangku.net/doc/0d5b5fa47e21af45b307a8ec.htmle lexical sets or hyponyms to show relations of words and their meanings;
5.Translate and exemplify, if words with abstract meaning;
http://m.wendangku.net/doc/0d5b5fa47e21af45b307a8ec.htmle word formation rules;
7.Teach vocabulary in chunks;
8.Relate words to contexts in real life;
9.Provide different contexts;
10.Prepare for possible misunderstanding or confusion.
8.4 What are some effective ways to consolidate vocabulary?
?Some vocabulary consolidation activities suggested:
2.Spot the difference
3.Describe and draw
4.Play a game
http://m.wendangku.net/doc/0d5b5fa47e21af45b307a8ec.htmle word series
8.Find synonyms and antonyms
http://m.wendangku.net/doc/0d5b5fa47e21af45b307a8ec.htmling word net-work
http://m.wendangku.net/doc/0d5b5fa47e21af45b307a8ec.htmling the Internet resources for more ideas
8.5 How do we help students develop vocabulary learning strategies?
2.Guess meaning from context
?contextual clue: the topic, the grammatical structure, meaning connect between the given word and other words, linguistic pattern
http://m.wendangku.net/doc/0d5b5fa47e21af45b307a8ec.htmlanize vocabulary effectively (p.131)
http://m.wendangku.net/doc/0d5b5fa47e21af45b307a8ec.htmle a dictionary (what dictionary, how to use, what to look for, when to use)
5.keep a vocabulary notebook (in different formats)
6.Manage strategy use: self-evaluate; share experiences
Vocabulary learning strategies