被动语态

被动语态

一. 构成:be+动词的过去分词

1. 被动语态的各种时态

一般时态进行时态完成时态

现在are/is/am+过去分词am/are/is+being+过去分词has/have been+过去分词

过去was/were+过去分词was/were+being+过去分词had been+过去分词

将来shall/will+过去分词shall/will have been+过去分词

过去将来should/would+过去分词should/would have been+过去分词

2. 情态动词的被动语态

一般式:情态动词+be+过去分词

完成式:情态动词+have been+过去分词

3. 不定式的被动语态

一般式:to be+过去分词

完成式:to have been+过去分词

二. 被动语态的使用要点

1. 不及物动词(组)不能用于被动语态:

eg. Appear, rise, die, happen, occur, lie, depart, belong to, break out, take place, stick by, etc.

2. 表示状态的动词不能用于被动语态:这些动词通常表示拥有,容纳,适合,缺少,明白等含义

eg. Lack, fit, mean, hold, resemble, have, cost, equal, contain, comprise, become, possess, benefit, befall, fail, consist of, look like

3. 主动形势表示被动含义

①某些感官动词或系动词用主动形式表示被动

eg. Look, smell, taste, feel, prove, wear, sound

②某些及物动词后加副词(有时也不加)也可以用主动形式表示被动

eg. Wash, write, sell, read, open, cut, lock, peel, pack, play, shut. Spot, split, strike, record, act, clean, iron, keep, photo-graph, 常用的副词有:easily, well, quickly, smoothly等

→The book sells well.

The wood wouldn’t burn.

The meat cuts easily.

③want, deserve, need, require, repay, stand, take, won’t bear, worth等词后面可以用动名词的主动形式表示被动。这时,动名词同句中的主语有动宾关系,如动名词是不及物动词,后面还要有适当的介词

eg. The book is worth reading.

The child need looking after.

④在某些做表语的形容词(hard, easy, difficult, fit等)后面,用不定式的主动形式表示被动eg. The book is easy to read.

⑤在there be 句型中,当用不定式修饰句子的主语时,不定式用主动语态或被动语态均可,一般没有区别

eg. There is a lot of work to do/to be done.

⑥如果不定式语句子的主语是主谓关系,即句子的主语是不定式动作的发出者,那么,尽管

不定式同其所修饰的名次是动宾关系,也必须用主动形式,因为句子的主语与不定式的关系更亲密

eg. We’ve got plenty to eat.

⑦在too…to…和enough…to…结构中,不定式用主动语态和被动语态都可以,但主动语态更常见

eg. The book is cheap enough to buy.

⑧当something, little, what, much, a great deal做句子主语,表语是to do时,多用主动形式表示被动语态

eg. A great deal of work remains to do.

⑨sb. be to blame …的错(责任)

sb. to be blamed …受责罚(承担后果)

4. 被动语态结构和系表结构的比较

①be+过去分词,既可以是被动结构,也可以是系表结构,区别在于:被动结构表是一个动

作;而系表结构则表示主语的状态,特点,性质

②如果过去分词前有too, very, so等程度副词,该结构是系表结构;如果过去分词前有

much/too much/very much/too much等修饰词,该结构为被动结构

eg. I’m very surprised at your words.

He was so much ashamed by the scene.

③一般现在时的be+过去分词多为系表结构,除非表示日常的经常性的被动动作

④由名词+-ed构成的词,或由过去分词加前缀-un构成的词:unexpected, unwritten等,为系

表结构

⑤过去分词是反身动词或表示心理,感情,从事活动,处所时,为系表结构

⑥过去分词表示“必然性,趋向性,志向,决心等意义的动词,为系表结构

eg. He is doomed to failure.

⑦be+表示占据/充满意义的过去分词+with, 为系表结构,这个结构通常以地点作状语,表示

“充满,占据”的状态或结果,这类过去分词有:crowded, crammed, laden, packed, thronged, overcrowded, overgrown, infested, loaded, jammed, stuffed, piled, heaped, littered, filled, marked, stained, sheeted, coated, decorated, ornamented, spotted, crowned等

⑧remain, grow, become, fee, lie, stand+过去分词,为系表结构

eg. He felt depressed.

5. 被动语态中的几个常用介词

①by: 表示动作的执行者或施动者

②with: 表示使用的某种工具

③of: 表示由某种原料制成(由成品能看得出来原料)

④from: 表示源于某种物质(由成品看不出原料)

6. 祈使句的被动语态

肯定:let+object+be+过去分词

否定:Don’t let+object+be+过去分词=let+object+not be+过去分词

7. 在主动语态中,如果感官动词或使役动词后的宾语补足语是动词,这个动词是不带to的动词不定时,但若是变成被动语态,就要加to

eg. The boss made Jim work overtime.

→ Jim was mad to work o vertime.

I saw her pass by the window.

→ She was seen to pass by the window.

8. 带有双宾语的动词改成被动语态时,通常将间接宾语做被动语态的主语,直接宾语变成保留宾语;如果将直接宾语变成被动语态的主语,通常在间接宾语前要加介词to(有时可以省去), 或for(不能省略)

eg. The teacher gave him a book.

→ He was given a book by the teacher.

→ A book was given to him by the teacher.

9. get/got+过去分词也能表示被动语态

get可以和marry, beat, break, damage, tear, strike, hurt, paint, invite, repair, dress等动词的过去分词连用,构成被动语态,一般强调动作的结果,而非动作的本身。常指“最后终于,突然发生”。而be+过去分词强调一种状态。

注意:①一般get+过去分词的被动语态中,get可以被be代替。但get+过去分词中不能用by介词短语而be+过去分词结构中可以用by短语

②当间接宾语做被动语态的主语时,不能用get+过去分词

五. 被动语态的适用范围]

1.不知道或不必要指出动作的执行者

2.强调动作的承受者

3.出于策略,婉转,礼貌等不提出动作的执行者

eg. Y ou are cordially invited to the ceremony.

4.避免频繁地变更主语,使行文更加流畅

5.It be+过去分词+that…

这类过去分词有:said, reported, expected, alleged, feared, believed

这个句型可以转化成:sth/sb. be+过去分词+to do

6. There+be+过去分词

eg. There are supposed to be wild animals in the hills.

六. 主动语态向被动语态的转化

将主动语态的宾语作为被动语态的主语,其主语变成被动语态的状语(by+主语),也可以省略。谓语动词变成be+过去分词

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