I. Decide whether the statements are true or false and write T (true) or F (false) in the corresponding
( ) 1. “All national character” is the most important of all the five characteristics of the basic word stock. ( ) 2. By origin, English words can be classified as “native words” and “loan words”.
( ) 3. The languages (Norwegian, German, Dutch, Danish, Swedish) all belong to
Germanic Family except Norwegian.
( ) 4. Old English vocabulary is full of endings.
( ) 5. Allomorphs are phonological variants which realize morphemes.
( ) 6. Inflectional morphemes are added to the end of words to show grammatical concepts.
( ) 7. The most productive means of word-formation is affixation.
( ) 8. Acronyms are words of initial letters, which are pronounced letter by letter.
( ) 9. Reference refers to the relationship between different languages.
( ) 10. Grammatical meaning refers to the part of the word-meaning which
indicates grammatical concepts.
( ) 11. In the process of “Radiation” the derived meanings of words are not
directly related to the primary meaning.
( ) 12. The diachronic approach to polysemy is to find how a word gradually
acquires its meanings in the process of development.
( ) 13. When a word changes from a specific to a general meaning, it goes
through extension of meaning.
( ) 14. “meat” is an example of narrowing of meaning.
( ) 15. “teacher” and “student” are converses.
( ) 16. A word which has a synonym naturally has an antonym.
( ) 17. Meaning is a relatively stable element in a language compared with
( ) 18. The changes of meaning are caused by both linguistic and extra-linguistic
( ) 19. Extra-linguistic context refers to factors beyond language.
( ) 20. Linguistic context provides clues for guessing meanings of new words.
( ) 21. Idioms are phrases and short sentences the meanings of which are not easy to infer from the constituents in most cases.
( ) 22. Idioms can be classified in different ways but the classification according to grammatical function is the most helpful way.
( ) 23. Commonization involves proper nouns used as common words.
( ) 24. In some pairs of antonyms, the marked terms cover the meaning of the unmarked.
( ) 25. V ariations of idioms are the idioms whose forms are modified.
( ) 26. Non-basic vocabulary includes terminology, Anglo-Saxon words, argot and neologisms.
( ) 27. Aliens, semantic loans, translation-loans and denizens are all borrowings.
( ) 28. The three sources of new words are creation, semantic change and borrowing.
( ) 29. Modern English is considered to be an analytic language.
( ) 30. The minimal free form of a language is a morpheme.
( ) 31. Derivational morphemes are used to form new words.
( ) 32. Compounding involves the combination of affixes and bases.
( ) 33. Partial conversion is a process of using adjectives as ordinary nouns.
( ) 34. Motivation accounts for the connection between the linguistic symbol and its meaning.
( ) 35. Associative meaning consists of connotative meaning, stylistic meaning,
affective meaning and emotive meaning.
( ) 36. Polysemy is concerned with words of more than one meaning.
( ) 37. The most important source of English synonyms is shortening.
( ) 38. Associated transfer involves words used in their figurative sense.
( ) 39. Objective meaning shows that the subject (or agent) is the one to be
affected by the action of the verb.
( ) 40. Complementaries are antonyms characterized by “mutual exclusion” and “gradability”.
( ) 41. The superordinate term covers the concept of the subordinate.
( ) 42. Elevation is also known as amelioration.
( ) 43. “villain” is an example of degradation.
( ) 44. Linguistic context refers to the words, clauses, sentences, paragraphs and
even cultural background.
( ) 45. Ambiguity is often caused by inadequate context.
( ) 46. Idioms are generally informal in nature.
( ) 47. Structurally, idioms can never be changed.
( ) 48. The four major foreign contributors to the development of English
vocabulary are Latin, Greek, French and Scandinavian.
( ) 49. Relative synonyms may differ in denotation, connotation and application.
( )50. The contemporary vocabulary expansion of English is mainly by borrowing and affixation. ( ) 51. Old English refers to the language used between 100 and 450.
( ) 52. “Radiation” shows that the derived meanings of a polysemant are not directly r elated to the primary meaning.
( ) 53. The connection between sound and meaning is conventional and arbitrary.
( ) 54. A word which has a synonym naturally has an antonym.
( ) 55. Content words are numerous and more frequently used than functional words on average.
( ) 56. Extra-linguistic context refers to the physical situation or cultural
( ) 57. During the Middle English period, Celtic, Latin and English existed side by
( ) 58. Inadequate context is often the cause of ambiguity.
( ) 59. Compounding is the process of creating new words by combining affixes and bases.
( )60. In some pairs of antonyms, one term may cover the meaning of the other word.
( )61. In a natural language, most words are non-motivated.
( )62. Inflectional affixes are grammatical markers.
( )63. Concept and sense mean the same and thus are interchangeable.
( )64. A form to which an affix of any kind can be added is called a stem.
( )65. Contradictory terms are non-gradable.
( )66. Acronyms are words of initial letters which are pronounced as common
( )67. Grammatical meaning refers to part of speech, tenses of verbs, stylistic
features of words and so on.
( )68. What remains of a word after the removal of all affixes is a stem.
( )69. Affective meaning indicates the attitude of the user, whether positive or
( )70. The connotative meaning is also known as connotations, which are
generally found in the dictionary.
( )71. Idioms are set phrases whose meaning is often difficult or impossible to infer from the constituent words.
( )72. In modern times, vocabulary develops mainly by means of changing
meanings of old words.
( )73. Most of the newly created words are associated with the change of life style and society.
( )74. Homographs are words identical in form but different in pronunciation.
( ) 75. Homonyms come mainly from borrowing—the most important source.
( ) 76. Middle English lasted for more than four hundred years.
( ) 77. Borrowing has brought most synonyms to the English language.
( ) 78. The characteristics of the basic word stock include all national character,
denizens and productivity.
( ) 79. The superordinate differs from the subordinate in that the former covers the
concept of the latter.
( ) 80. Words of old English were full of endings.
( ) 81. The way to differentiate homonyms from polysemants is mainly to see their
origins as well as sense relatedness.
( ) 82. Modern English is an analytic language.
( ) 83. Hyponymy deals with the relationship of semantic inclusion.
( ) 84. Denizens are words which were borrowed from other languages but later
became assimilated into the English language.
( ) 85. Lexical context refers to the words that appear only before the lexical item
( ) 86. Generally speaking, native words have a higher frequency of use than loan
( ) 87. Reference refers to the relationship between the linguistic symbols and the
( ) 88. Free morphemes are morphemes which alone can be used as words.
( ) 89. Context gives a polysemic word a definite meaning.
( ) 90. Half-converted adjectives are used as common nouns while full-converted
ones still retain adjective features.
( ) 91. Motivation explains why a particular word of a language has a particular
( ) 92. By origin English is more closely related to German than to French.
( ) 93. Unlike conceptual meaning, associative meaning is unstable and indeterminate.
( ) 94. Prefixes do not generally change part of speech whereas suffixes do.
( ) 95. In the phrase “the tongues of fire”, the word fire is semantically motivated.
( ) 96. The origins of words are a key factor that distinguishes homonyms from polysemants.
( ) 97. The objective meaning implies that the subject of the sentence is the one affected by the action.
( ) 98. The meaning of a word which is etymologically motivated is closely related to its origin.
( ) 99. The result of the human cognition of the objective world is called concept.
( )100. Borrowing has brought most synonyms to the English language.
( )101. “Radiation” shows that the derived meanings of a polysemant are not directly related to the primary meaning.
( )102. The connection between sound and meaning is conventional and arbitrary.
( )103. A word which has a synonym naturally has an antonym.
( )104. Content words are numerous and more frequently used than functional words on average.
( ) 105. The characteristics of the basic word stock include all national character,
denizens and productivity.
( ) 106. During the Middle English period, Celtic, Latin and English existed side by side.
( ) 107. Inadequate context is often the cause of ambiguity.
( ) 108. The way to differentiate homonyms from polysemants is mainly to see their origins as well as sense relatedness.
( )109. In some pairs of antonyms, one term may cover the meaning of the other word.
( )110. Aliens are words of the native element.
( )111. Denizens are words which were borrowed from other languages but later
became assimilated into the English language.
( )112. Inflectional affixes are grammatical markers.
( )113. Concept and sense mean the same and thus are interchangeable.
( )114. Reference refers to the relationship between the linguistic symbols and the
( )115. Contradictory terms are non-gradable.
( )116. Acronyms are words of initial letters which are pronounced as common words.
( )117. Grammatical meaning refers to part of speech, tenses of verbs, stylistic features of words and so on.
( )118. Half-converted adjectives are used as common nouns while full-converted
ones still retain adjective features.
( )119. Affective meaning indicates the attitude of the user, whether positive or negative.
( )120. The connotative meaning is also known as connotations, which are generally found in the dictionary. ( )121. Prefixes do not generally change part of speech whereas suffixes do.
( )122. In modern times, vocabulary develops mainly by means of changing meanings of old words.
( )123. Most of the newly created words are associated with the change of life style and society.
( )124. The objective meaning implies that the subject of the sentence is the one
affected by the action.
一、答案1、T 2. T 3. F 4. T 5. T 6. T 7. T 8. F 9. F 10. T
11. F 12. T 13. T 14. T 15. T 16. F 17. F 18. T 19. T 20. T
21. T 22. T 23. T 24. F 25. T 26. T 27. T 28. T 29. T 30. F
31. T 32. F 33. F 34. T 35. F 36. T 37. F 38. T 39. T 40. F
41. T 42. T 43. T 44. F 45. T 46. T 47. F 48. T 49. T 50. F
51. F 52. F 53. T 54. F 55. F 56. T 57. F 58. T 59. F 60. T
61. T 62. T 63. F 64. T65. T 66. T 67. F 68. F 69. T 70. F
71. T 72. F 73. F 74. T 75. T 76. F 77. T 78. F 79. T 80. T
81. T 82. T 83. T 84. T 85. F 86. T 87. T 88. T 89. T 90. F
91. T 92. T 93. T 94. T 95. T 96. F 97. T 98. T 99. T 100. T
101. F 102. T 103. F 104. F 105. F 106. F 107. T 108. T 109. T 110. F
111. T 112. T 113. F 114. T 115. T 116. T 117. F 118. F
119. T 120. F 121. T 122. F 123. F 124. T
II. Analyze the following words and say how they are formed, and put your answers in the brackets:（每词0.5分）
Example: disobey ( prefixation)
headache (compounding ) newton ( commonization)
expresident (prefixation ) book (v) (conversion )
ID (acronymy ) brunch (blending )
enthuse (backformation ) deadline (compounding )
tick-tuck (duplication ) quake (clipping )
kodak (commonization ) exwife (prefixation )
elbow(v) (conversion ) laser (acronymy )
autocide (blending ) laze (backformation ) historic (suffixation ) bow-wow (duplication ) bike (clipping )
airline ( compounding ) changeable (affixation/suffixation)
postwar (prefixation ) NA TO (acronymy )
bike (clipping ) smog (blending )
donate (backformation ) ampere (proper words )
antinuclear (prefixation ) daydreaming (compounding ) lase (back-formation ) copter (clipping/front clipping) newly-weds (conversion ) cutthroat (compounding ) memorize (affixation/suffixation) botel (blendin ) tantalize (proper names ) VIP (acronymy ) quake (clipping ) defeather (affixation/prefixation)
三、填空答案1．meaning; conventional 2. affixation; compounding; conversion 3. root
4. prefixes; suffixes
5. synonym; relative
6. superordinate; subordinate
7. context; linguistic; extra-linguistic/non-linguistic 8. minimal/smallest; meaning; syntactic
9. Latin; Scandinavian10. stem 11. verbs; adjectives 12. stylistic 13. semantic; related
14. elevation/ amelioration; transfer/transference 15. morphological 16. concept
17．intrinsic/logical meaning arbitrary 18. Latin Greek Scandinavian
19. morpheme prefixes 20. suffixes unmarked 21. marked extension/generalization
22. Anglo-saxon 23、affixation compounding conversion (注：位置可以调换)
24．Latin Greek French (注：位置可以调换)25. derivation affixes
26. superordinate subordinate 27. stable/fixed functional higher
28. intrinsic/logical meaning arbitrary 29. affix 30. extension/generalization
31.. antonyms contrary 32. elevation narrowing/specialization 33. connotative
III. Fill in the blanks according to the coursebook and write your answers on the
corresponding lines. （每空1分）
1. The connection between sound and is arbitrary and .
2. The three major means of word-formation are , and .
3. The form which remains after all affixes are removed is called .
4. generally do not change part of speech whereas do.
5. The words which are fully identical in meaning are called absolute and all the others care called
6. In hyponymy the term which denotes something general is and the term which conveys a specific
meaning is .
7. falls into two kinds, namely context and context.
8. A word is the free form which has a give sound, and
9. The major foreign elements which contribute greatly to English vocabulary are
, Greek, French and .
10. The form which remains after removing an inflectional affix is called .
11. The words which are involved in conversion are nouns, and .
12. The stylistic features of words form their meaning.
13. field refers to a set of words which are semantically .
14. The modes of semantic change in words include extension, narrowing,
, degradation and .
15. motivation refers to the words whose meanings are suggested by their morphological structure.
16. is one of the three kinds of meaning which has nothing to do with
17. There is no ______ relationship between sound and ______ as the connecion between them is ______ and
18. The three main foreign languages that have affected the English vocabulary most are ______, ______ and
19. A minimal meaningful unit of a language is ______.
20. Generally speaking, ______ do not change part of speech of the stems but their meaning, whereas ______
21. Among pairs of antonyms, the ______ term covers the meaning of the ______ term.
22. ______ is the change of meaning from specific to general.
23. The major means of word-formation are ______, ______ and ______.
24. The three main foreign languages that have affected the English vocabulary most are ______, ______ and
25. Affixation, also called ______, is the formation of new words by adding ______ to stems.
26. Hyponymy deals with the relation of semantic inclusion. The general term is ______ and the specific terms
27. Content words are changing all the time whereas functional words are ______. ______ words enjoy a
______ frequency in use than content words.
28. There is no ______ relationship between sound and ______ as the connection between them is ______ and
29. A morpheme attached to a stem or root is ______.
30. ______ is the change of meaning from specific to general.
31. Words which are opposite in meaning are called ______, among which ______ terms are gradable and
allow intermediate members.
32. When a word changes its meaning from negative to positive, it goes through the process ______ and the
opposite process is called ______.
33. The overtones and associations suggested by the conceptual meaning is ____ meaning.
IV选择答案：1. D 2. C 3. A 4. A 5. A 6. C 7. D 8. D 9. A10.B 11. B
12.C 13.C 14.D 15. A16. B 17. C 18.D 19.D 20.D 21. D 22. A 23. B
24. D 25. C 26. D 27. B 28. C 29. D 30.B 31.C 32. A 33. B 34. D
IV. Each of the statements below is followed by four alternative answers. Choose the one that would best complete the statement and put the letter in the brackets. （每题一分）
( )1. Non-basic vocabulary includes __________.
A. argot and jargon
B. archaisms and neologisms
C. technical terms
D. all the above
( )2. Functional words are ________________.
A. adverbs, prepositions, conjunctions
B. adjectives, nouns, articles
C. articles, prepositions, conjunctions
D. verbs, pronouns, prepositions
( )3. ___________ is not a characteristic of basic word stock.
B. All national character
( ) 4. Modern English began with the establishment of ________ in England.
B. Bourgeois Revolution
C. Industrial Revolution
D. Renaissance Time
( )5. Stylistic meaning refers to the features of __________of words.
D. part of speech
( ) 6. The derivational process, in which an item is converted to a new word class
without the addition of an affix, is called ____________.
C. functional shift
( )7. Grammatical meaning does not include ________.
A. part of speech
B. plural forms of nouns
D. appropriateness ( )8. English words can be motivated______.
D. all the above ( )9. Stylistic meaning may be defined as the feature of ________ of words.
D. part of speech ( )10. There are two main approaches to the study of English words namely ________.
A. descriptive and prescriptive
B. synchronic and diachronic
C . spoken and written D. competence and performance
( )11. Which of the following is NOT studied in semantics?
B. language family
D. complementaries ( )12. The hyponyms of …vegetable? are ________.
A. banana, pear, jam
B. pear, apple, banana
C. cucumber, celery, peas
D. tree, pine, elm
( )13. The discrete units which realize morphemes are known as ________.
( )14. _________ is a word-formation process by which a word is changed from one word-class into another without the change of form.
( )15. The first monolingual English dictionary was compiled in ________.
( )16. “The birds sing to welcome the smiling year.” Is an example of ________.
( )17. “child—parent” are _______ antonyms.
( )18. Th e word “water” is _________ motivated.
( )19. “Give somebody an inch and he?ll take a mile” is a _________.
A. sentence idiom
C. clause idiom D .both A and B ( ) 20. Narrowing excludes ________.
A. change from material nouns to common nouns
B. change from common nouns to proper nouns
C. words shortened from phrases to retain the meaning of the whole for economy
D. change from specific meanings to general meanings
( ) 21. According to the idiomaticity of idioms, idioms include ________.
A. true idioms
C. regular combinations
D. all the above
( ) 22. Motel is a/an is ________.
B. clipped word
D. acronym ( ) 23. “sow” (to plant seeds on the ground) and “sow” (fully grown female pig )are called ________.
C. perfect homonyms
D. acronyms ( ) 24. “die” and “pass away” are synonyms. They differ i n ________.
A. connotative meaning
B. emotive meaning
C. stylistic meaning
D. all the above ( ) 25. He?s nice, but he hasn?t much brain. _________.
( ) 26. Which of the following is not associative meaning?
A. collocative meaning B .stylistic meaning C. affective meaning D. primary meaning ( ) 27. One billion is ________ in British English.
( ) 28. The morpheme “-s” in “desks” is ________ morpheme.
( ) 29. ________ are contrary terms.
A. dead / alive
B. parent / child
C. single / married
D. like / dislike ( ) 30. The first people known to inhabit the British Isles were ________. Their languages were dialects of still another branch of the In-do-European Language Family ________.
A. German / Germanic
B. Celts / Celtic
C. Italian / Italic
D. Sweden / Swedish ( ) 31. The modes of modem English vocabulary grow through three major channels: ________ , semantic change and __________.
( ) 32. Conversion is a method of __________.
A. turning words of one part of speech into those of a different part of speech
B. converting words of one meaning into those of a different meaning
C. deriving words by grammatical means
D. changing words in morphological structure
( ) 33. Back-formation is considered to be the opposite process of _________.
D. conversion ( ) 34. The Norman Conquest started a continual flow of French words into English.
_________ of them are still in use today.
V．Match the words in the left column with the words in the right column. （右栏的词每词1分）
Narrowing: meat, girl, bonfire Extension: picture, journal
Elevation: marshal, angel Degradation: cunning
Narrowing: wife, deer Extension: holiday, manuscript
Elevation: minister, governor Degradation: criticize, villain
VI. Do the following according to instructions.
A Study the following sentences and explain the contextual clues which help you guess the meaning of the
italicized words, using such terms as definition, example, explanation, synonym, antonym, superordinate, subordinate, relevant details and so on, and put your answers in the brackets. （每题1分）
1. Refugees crossed the border to escape the carnage in their homeland. Many of
them still remembered the horrible slaughter not long ago. ( )
2. I like fruit, but not avocado, which is too soft. ( )
3.Carnivores are very dangerous. A tiger, for example, escaped from the zoo last month and killed a dog in
the street and ate it. ( )
4. Most dentists? offices are drab places, but Emilio?s new office is bright, cheerful.
5. After a day of hunting, John was ravenous. He ate two bowls of soup, salad, a
large chicken, and a piece of chocolate cake before he was finally satisfied. ( )
6. A north-east wind brings cold dry weather to England, but a sou’wester usually
brings rain. （）
7. Some African tribes still practice polyandry, a marriage system which allows a
woman to have more than one husband. ( )
8. Modern technology is a kind of dehumanization of the human society. ( )
A．答案 1. synonym/synonymy 2. subordinate/hyponym
5. relevant details
7. explanation 8. word structure
B Decide whether the words in italics are used in the subjective or objective sense and put your answers
in the corresponding brackets. （每题1分）
1. The policeman was suspicious of the suspicious proof given by the suspect to show that he had nothing to
do with the robbery. ( ) ( )
2. The old man, though poor, is a respectable gentleman in the neighborhood.
3. The earthquake was so dreadful that many people would be afraid even to see the
movie based on it. ( )
4.Fearful TV programs are not suitable to pre-school children.
5. It is very considerate of Mr Li to make that arrangement. ( )
6. The excuse given by the United States of America is really doubtful.
7. The children were fearful of the fearful picture of the monster.
( ) ( )
8. What a pitiful girl! She lost her parents when she was so small.
9. The listeners were doubtful of the witness?s testimony which sounded very
( ) ( )
10. What a boring man he is! ( )
11. The doubtful teacher listened patiently to the doubtful story told by the student who was late for class.
( ) ( )
12. It is very considerable of you to make such arrangements. ( )
13. The little match girl was really pitiful. She died from cold and hunger on the Christmas Eve.
14. Learning a foreign language is a painful process. No one can expect to learn the language well without
pains. ( )
B. 答案1. subjective; objective 2. objective
7. subjective; objective 8. objective
9. subjective; objective 10. objective
11. subjective, objective 12. subjective
13. objective 14. objective
C. Study the following sentences and explain the contextual clues which help you guess the meaning of the italicized words,
using such terms as definition, example, synonym, relevant details and so on, and put your answers in the brackets.（每题1分）
1.Refugees crossed the border to escape the carnage in their homeland. Many of them still remember the horrible killing not
long ago. ( )
2.Carnivores are very dangerous. A tiger, for example, escaped from the zoo last month and killed a dog in the street and ate
it. ( )
3.The tribal community still practices polygamy, a custom in which someone can be married to more than one person at the
same time. ( )
4.As fighting on all fronts reached its peak, the economy neared its nadir ( ).
5. In spite of the fact that the fishermen were wearing sou’wester, the storm was so heavy that they were wet through.
C. 答案1. synonym/synonymy 2. example/ exemplification
5. relevant details
VII. Match the rhetorical devices in Column A with the idioms in Column B and put the letters in the corresponding brackets. （每题1分）
( ) 1. alliteration a. snake in the grass
( ) 2. rhyme b. toss and turn
( ) 3. reiteration c. powder one?s nose
( ) 4. repetition d. earn one?s bread
( ) 5. juxtaposition e. wear and tear
( ) 6. metaphor f. up and down
( ) 7. metonymy g. pick and choose
( ) 8. synecdoche h. from cradle to grave
( ) 9. personification i. Failure is the mother of success.
( ) 10. euphemism j. hand in hand
VII连线答案：1. (b) 2. (e) 3. (g) 4. (j) 5. (f) 6. (a) 7. (h) 8. (d) 9. (i) 10. (c)
VIII. Change each of the following into a word, paying attention to part of speech: （每题1分）
1.break record (adj) ( record-breaking)
2、fight with fists (adj) (ist-fighting)
3. walk in one?s sleep (n) (sleepwalking)
4. a worm which glows (n) (glowworm)
5. draw the bridge (n) (drawbridge)
6. down to the earth (adj) (down-to-earth)
7. sick for missing home (adj) ( homesick)
8. the blood which causes the stain (n) (bloodstain)
9. the part which is bitten by frost (n) (frostbite )
10. shake hands (n) (handshake )
IX. Define the following terms.（每题3分）
1.notional words: Notional words are also called content words which denote clear notions. They include
nouns, most verbs, adjectives, adverbs and numerals.
2.primary meaning: At the time when the word was created, it was endowed with only one meaning. This first meaning
is the primary meaning .
3.context :In a narrow sense, context refers to the words, clauses, sentences, a paragraph, a whole chapter
and even the entire book in which a word appears. In a broad sense, it includes the physical situation including the people, time, place and even the whole cultural background.
4、marked terms:Many pairs of antonyms contain specific words and general words. In such a pair, the
specific word is included in meaning within the general word. The specific words are called marked terms.
5、transfer :Words which were used to designate one thing but later changed to mean something else have
6、ambiguity: If there is more than one meaning for a word used in a context, ambiguity occurs. Ambiguity is mainly
caused by polysemy and homonymy and sometimes it is caused by structure.
1. What are the major differences between conceptual meaning and associative meaning? (5分) Conceptual meanings are basic, universal and stable whereas associative meanings are secondary, personal, and interdeterminate.
2.Explain the characteristics of idioms with examples. (10分)
Idioms are characterized by semantic unity and structural stability. An idiom consists of at least two words, each of which has its own meaning and part of speech. But in the idiom, the meanings of the constituents are opaque and the whole idiom becomes a semantic unit, which can often be replaced by a single word.
For example, make up one’s mind can be replaced by decide, and kick the bucket by die.
Structures of idioms are stable. 1. The constituents can be replaced, e.g. make up one’ mind but not make up one’s head; 2. The positions of the constituents can be changed, e.g. tit for tat but not tat for tit; 3. The constituents can be deleted or added, e.g. in the dark but not in dark; 4. The constituents can be analyzed, e.g. diamond cut diamond but like cures like and not vice versa.
3.What are the major differences between content words and functional words?
Content words are numerous, changing, and have a lower frequency than functional words whereas functional words are small in number, stable but have a much higher frequency than content words. (5%)
4.Explain the differences of relative synonyms with examples. (10分)
Relative synonyms differ in denotation, connotation and application.
In denotation, synonyms may vary in range of meaning, e.g. wind-breeze, “wind”has a wider range of meaning than “breeze”; synonyms also vary in intensity of meaning, e.g. rich-wealthy, “wealthy”is stronger than “rich”.
In connotation, synonyms differ in stylistic and emotive colouring. For example, begin-commence share the same conceptual meaning, but stylistically “begin”is neutral and “commence”is more formal;
slender-skinny are synonymous, but “slender” is positive and “skinny” is negative.
In application, many synonyms differ in use and collocation, e.g. charge-accuse have the same conceptual meaning, but we say “charge sb with sth”, but “accuse sb of sth”.
5.How can you distinguish synonyms? Illustrate your point with examples. (10分)
We can distinguish synonyms in denotation, connotation and application.
(1) Difference in denotation
1) Synonyms may differ in degree of intensity. For example, small and tiny both mean “small”, but tiny
is stronger than small. The same is true of rich and wealthy. Wealthy is stronger than rich.
2) Synonyms differ in the range of meaning. For example, mend and patch are synonyms, we mend
clothes, a bicycle, TV, wall, etc., but only patch clothes.
(2) Difference in connotation
1) Synonyms differ in style. For example, agree and concur are similar in meaning, but concur is more
formal than agree.
2) Synonyms differ in emotive meaning. For example, famous and notorious have the same conceptual
meaning, but famous is positive while notorious is negative.
(3) Difference in application
1) Synonyms differ in collocation. For example, accuse and charge have the same conceptual meaning,
but we say accuse sb. of but charge sb. with.
2) Synonyms differ in use. For example, start and begin are synonymous, we “the car cannot start” but not “th e car cannot begin” while “the world began” but not “the world cannot start”.
6.Explain the difference between partial conversion and full conversion with examples. (10分)
When adjectives are converted into nouns, some are completely changed, thus known as full conversion, and others are partially changed, thus known as partial conversion. Adjectives which are fully converted can achieve a full noun status, e.g. having all
the characteristics of nouns. That is they can take a/an or –s/-es to indicate singular or plural forms, e.g. a native, a Republican, a pair of shorts, finals. Adjectives which are partially converted still keep adjective features. They should always be used with the, and they cannot take –s/-es to show plural forms. Moreover, the words can have comparative or superlative degrees, e.g. the poor, the poorer, the young, the very unfortunate.
7. The guy is running after the girl with a bouquet of flowers.
Study the above sentence and find out any ambiguity in it. What causes the ambiguity? How can you improve the sentence? (10分)
(1) The ambiguity of the sentence is caused by polysemy and structure.
(2) “run after” may mean “go after in order to get the attention of”, or “try to catch”
(3) “with a bouquet of flowers” may be the modifier of “the girl”, or the adverbial of the predicate.
(4) The sentence can be improved as follows.
① The girl holds a bouquet of flowers in her hand. The guy is trying to catch her.
② The guy has flowers in his hands. He is trying to catch her.
③ The girl has a bouquet of flowers in her hands. The guy is courting her.
④ The guy has a bouquet of flowers in his hands. He is courting the girl.
8、What are the differences between true idioms, regular combinations and semi-idioms? (10分)
In true idioms, the meaning of the idiom cannot be deduced from those of the individual constituents. In regular combinations, the meaning of the idiom is understood from the literal meanings of the constituents .In semi-idioms, the meaning of the idiom is in a way related to the meanings of the constituents but not explicit.