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Schooling and Education

It is commonly believed in the United States that school is where people go to get an education. Nevertheless, it has been said that today children interrupt their education to go to school. The distinction between schooling and education implied by this remark is important.

Education is much more open-ended and all-inclusive than schooling. Education knows no bounds. It can take place anywhere, whether in the shower or in the job, whether in a kitchen or on a tractor. It includes both the formal learning that takes pace in schools and the whole universe of informal learning. The agents of education can range from a revered grandparent to the people debating politics on the radio, from a child to a distinguished scientist. Whereas schooling has a certain predictability, education quite often produces surprises. A chance conversation with a stranger may lead a person to discover how little is known of other religions. People are engaged in education from infancy on. Education, then, is a very broad, inclusive term. It is a lifelong process, a process that starts long before the start of school, and one that should be an integral part of one's entire life.

Schooling, on the other hand, is a specific, formalized process, whose general pattern varies little from one setting to the text. Throughout a country, children arrive at school at approximately the same time, take assigned seats, are taught by an adult, use similar textbooks, do homework, take exams, and so on. The slices of reality that are to be learned, whether they are the alphabet or an understanding of the workings of government, have usually been limited by the boundaries of the subject being taught. For example, high school students know that they are not likely to find out in their classes the truth about political problems in their communities or what the newest filmmakers are experimenting with. There are definite conditions surrounding the formalized process of schooling.

上学与受教育

在美国,人们通常认为上学是为了受教育。而现在却有人认为孩子们上学打断了他们受教育的过程。这种观念中的上学与受教育之间的区别非常重要。

与上学相比,教育更具开放性,内容更广泛。教育不受任何限制。它可以在任何场合下进行,在淋浴时,在工作时,厨房里或拖拉机上。它既包括在学校所受的正规教育,也包括一切非正规教育。传授知识的人可以是德高望重的老者,可以是收音机里进行政治辩论的人们,可以是小孩子,也可以是知名的科学家。

上学读书多少有点可预见性,而教育往往能带来意外的发现。与陌生人的一次随意谈话可能会使人认识到自己对其它宗教其实所知甚少。人们从幼时起就开始受教育。因此,教育是一个内涵很丰富的词,它自始至终伴随人的一生,早在人们上学之前就开始了。教育应成为人生命中不可缺少的一部分。

然而,上学却是一个特定的形式化了的过程。在不同场合下,它的基本形式大同小异。在全国各地,孩子们几乎在同一时刻到达学校,坐在指定的座位上,由一位成年人传授知识,使用大致相同的教材,做作业,考试等等。他们所学的现实生活中的一些片断,如字母表或政府的运作,往往受到科目范围的限制。例如,高中生们知道,在课堂上他们没法弄清楚他们社区里政治问题的真情,也不会了解到最新潮的电影制片人在做哪些尝试。学校教育这一形式化的过程是有特定的限制的。

Andrew Carnegie

Andrew Carnegie, known as the king of steel, built the steel industry in the United States, and, in the process, became one of the wealthiest men in America. His success resulted in part from his ability to sell the product and in part from his policy of expanding during periods of economic decline, when most of his competitors were reducing their investment.

Carnegie believed that individuals should progress through hard work, but he also felt strongly that the wealthy should use their fortunes for the benefit of society. He opposed charity, preferring instead to provide educational opportunities that would allow others to help themselves. "He who dies rich, dies disgraced," he often said.

Among his more noteworthy contributions to society are those that bear his name, including the Carnegie Institute of Pittsburgh, which has a library, a museum of fine arts, and a museum of national history. He also founded a school of technology that is now part of Carnegie-Mellon University. Other philanthropic gifts are the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace to promote understanding between nations. The Carnegie Institute of Washington to fund scientific research, and Carnegie Hall to provide a center for the arts.

Few Americans have been left untouched by Andrew Carnegie’s generosity. His contributions of more than five million dollars established 2,500 libraries in small communities throughout the country and formed the nucleus of the public library system that we all enjoy today.

安德鲁·卡内基

被称作钢铁大王的安德鲁·卡内基在美国建立了钢铁工业。在这个过程中,他变成了美国最富有的人之一。他的成功,部分来自于他销售产品的能力,部分来自于经济萧条时期的扩充策略。在萧条时期,他的多数对手都在缩减投资。卡内基认为个人应该通过努力工作来获得进展,但他也强烈地感到有钱人应该运用他们的财富来为社会谋取福利.他反对施舍救济,更愿意提供教育机会,使别人自立。卡内基经常说:"富有着死去的人死得可耻。"

他对社会的较重要的贡献都以他的名字命名。这些贡献包括匹兹堡卡内基学校.这个学校有一个图书馆,一个美术馆和一个国家历史博物馆;他还创立了一所技术学校,这所学校现在是卡内基·梅隆大学的一部分;其他的慈善捐赠有为促进国家间了解的"卡内基国际和平基金",为科学研究提供经费的华盛顿卡内基学院以及给各种艺术活动提供活动中心的卡内基音乐厅。

安德鲁·卡内基的慷慨大度几乎影响到每个美国人的生活。由于他超过五百万美元的捐款,2500 个图书馆得以建立起来,遍布在美国各地的小村镇,形成了我们今天还在享用的公共图书馆系统的核心。

The Beginning of Drama

There are many theories about the beginning of drama in ancient Greece. The one most widely accepted today is based on the assumption that drama evolved from ritual. The argument for this view goes as follows. In the beginning, human beings viewed the natural forces of the world---even the seasonal changes---as unpredictable, and they sought through various means to control these unknown and feared powers. Those measures which appeared to bring the desired results were then retained and repeated until they hardened into fixed rituals. Eventually stories arose which explained or veiled the mysteries of the rites. As time passed some rituals were abandoned, but the stories, later called myths, persisted and provided material for art and drama.

Those who believe that drama evolved out of ritual also argue that those rites contained the seed of theater because music, dance, masks, and costumes were almost always used. Furthermore, a suitable site had to be provided for performances and when the entire community did not participate, a clear division was usually made between the “acting area” and the “auditorium.” In addition, there were performers, and, since considerable importance was attached to avoiding mistakes in the enactment of rites, religious leaders usually assumed that task. Wearing masks and costumes, they often impersonated other people, animals, or supernatural beings, and mimed the desired effect — success in hunt or battle, the coming rain, the revival of the Sun — as an actor might. Eventually such dramatic representations were separated from religious activities.

Another theory traces the theater’s origin from the human interest in storytelling. According to this view tales are gradually elaborated, at first through the use of impersonation, action, and dialogue by a narrator and then through the assumption of each of the roles by a different person. A closely related theory traces theater to those dances that are primarily rhythmical and gymnastic or that are imitations of animal movement and sounds.

戏剧的起源

关于古希腊戏剧的起源存在着多种理论,其中一个最普遍为人接受的理论假设认为戏剧从仪式演化而来。这个观点是这样进行论证的:一开始,人类把世界上的自然力量,甚至季节的变化都看成是不可预料的。他们试图通过各种方式去控制这些未知的、令人恐惧的力量。那些似乎带来了满意结果的手段就被保留下来并且重复直到这些手段固化为不变的仪式,最后产生了能够解释或者掩盖这些仪式神秘性的故事。随着时间的推移,一些仪式被废弃了,但这些后来被称作神话的故事流传下来并且为艺术和戏剧提供了素材。认为戏剧从仪式演化而来的人们还认为那些仪式包含了戏剧的基本因素,因为音乐、舞蹈、面具和服装几乎经常被使用,而且,必须为演出提供一个合适的地点;如果不是整个社区共同参加演出,经常在"演出区"和"观众席"之间划分出明显的分界。另外,仪式中还有演员,而且宗教领袖通常承担演出任务,因为在仪式的执行中避免错误的发生被认为有相当大的重要性;他们经常带着面具,穿着服装象演员那样扮演其它人、动物或超自然的生灵,用动作来表演以达到所需要的效果,比如打猎的成功或战斗的胜利、将至的雨、太阳的复活, 最后这些戏剧性的表演从宗教活动中分离了出来。

另一个追溯戏剧起源的理论认为它来自人们对叙述故事的兴趣。根据这个观点,故事(关于狩猎、战争或者其它伟绩)是逐渐丰富起来的。首先通过一个讲解人来运用模仿、表演和对话,然后再由不同的人扮演各自的角色;另一个与之紧密相关的理论将戏剧的起源追溯至舞蹈,这些舞蹈大体上是有节奏感的和体操式的那一类,或者是对动物动作和声音的模仿。

Telecommuting

Telecommuting---substituting the computer for the trip to the job---has been hailed as a solution to all kinds of problems related to office work.

For workers it promises freedom from the office, less time wasted in traffic, and help with child-care conflicts. For management, telecommuting helps keep high performers on board, minimizes tardiness and absenteeism by eliminating commutes, allows periods of solitude for high-concentration tasks, and provides scheduling flexibility. In some areas, such as Southern California and Seattle, Washington, local governments are encouraging companies to start telecommuting programs in order to reduce rush-hour congestion and improve air quality.

But these benefits do not come easily. Making a telecommuting program work requires careful planning and an understanding of the differences between telecommuting realities and popular images.

Many workers are seduced by rosy illusions of life as a telecommuter. A computer programmer from New York City moves to the tranquil Adirondack Mountains and stays in contact with her office via computer. A manager comes into his office three days a week and works at home the other two. An accountant stays home to care for her sick child; she hooks up her telephone modem connections and does office work between calls to the doctor.

These are powerful images, but they are a limited reflection of reality. Telecommuting workers soon learn that it is almost impossible to concentrate on work and care for a young child at the same time. Before a certain age, young children cannot recognize much less respect, the necessary boundaries between work and family. Additional child support is necessary if the parent is to get any work done.

Management too must separate the myth from the reality. Although the media has paid a great deal of attention to telecommuting in most cases it is the employee's situation, not the availability of technology that precipitates a telecommuting arrangement. That is partly why, despite the widespread press coverage, the number of companies with work-at-home programs or policy guidelines remains small.

电子交通

电子交通--用电脑取代上班的往返--作为对各种各样的办公室工作问题的解决办法已受到了欢迎。

对工作者来说,它承诺不受办公室的约束,更少的时间浪费在交通上和有助于解决照看小孩的矛盾。对管理者来说,电子交通有助于挽留高效率的工作者,通过省去办公室与家之间的来回往返,大大减少工作拖拉和旷工,给予管理者独处的时间来完成需要高度集中精神的任务,为管理者提供灵活的时间安排。在一些地区,如南加利福尼亚和西雅图、华盛顿,地方政府鼓励公司开始电子交通计划以减少交通高峰时的塞车和提高空气质量。

但这些益处也来之不易。要使电子交通成功需要仔细的计划并且理解电子交通的现实状况和流行的想象之间的区别。

许多工作者被电子交通的美好幻想所迷惑。一位电脑程序设计员从纽约市搬到了宁静的阿第伦达克山,用电脑保持与她办公室之间的联系。一位经理一周三天到办公室,其他两天在家工作;一位会计师在家照顾她生病的孩子,接通电话调制解调器的接头,在同医生通话之余完成办公室工作。

这些是很有震撼力的情景,但也是对现实有限的反映。电子交通者很快发现在同一时间专注工作和照看小孩几乎是不可能的。在某个年龄之前,小孩子不可能意识到,更不可能尊重工作与家庭之间的界限。如果家长要完成工作,就必须另外照看小孩。

管理阶层必须把现实同神话分开。虽然传媒对电子交通投入了极大的关注,但在很大程度上,是员工的实际情况而不是技术的可能性促成电子交通的安排。这就是为什么尽管有广泛的报导,具有在家工作项目或行动纲领的公司数目依然很

Henry Ford

Although Henry F ord’s name is closely associated with the concept of mass production, he should recei ve equal credit for introducing labor practices as early as 1913 that would be considered advanced even by today’s standards. Safety measures were improved, and the work day was reduced to eight hours, compared with the ten- or twelve-hour day common at the time. In order to accommodate the shorter work day, the entire factory was converted from two to three shifts.

In addition, sick leaves as well as improved medical care for those injured on the job were instituted. The Ford Motor Company was one of the first factories to develop a technical school to train specialized skilled laborers and an English language school for immigrants. Some efforts were even made to hire the handicapped and provide jobs for former convicts.

The most widely acclaimed innovation was the five-dollar-a-day minimum wage that was offered in order to recruit and retain the best mechanics and to discourage the growth of labor unions. Ford explained the new wage policy in terms of efficiency and profit sharing. He also mentioned the fact that his employees would be able to purchase the automobiles that they produced — in effect creating a market for the product. In order to qualify for the minimum wage, an employee had to establish a decent home and demonstrate good personal habits, including sobriety, thriftiness, industriousness, and dependability. Although some criticism was directed at Ford for involving himself too much in the personal lives of his employees, there can be no doubt that, at a time when immigrants were being taken advantage of in frightful ways, Henry Ford was helping many people to establish themselves in America.

亨利·福特

尽管亨利·福特的名字和大生产的概念相连,但他在劳工保护上得到同样的赞誉,因为他早在1913 年便实行了用今天的标准来衡量依然是先进的标准。安全措施得到改进,日工作时间从当时普遍的10 或12小时减少到8 小时。为了适应更短的日工作时间,整个工厂从双班变成了三班。

而且,病假和改善了的工伤医疗得以制度化。福特汽车公司是最早建立技术学校来培训专门技工和为移民开设英语学校的工厂之一。公司甚至为雇佣残疾人和有前科的人而作出了一些努力。

最受广泛称赞的革新是实行五美元一天的最低工资。其目的是招收和留住那些最好的技工并阻碍工会的发展。福特从效率和利润分享的角度来解释这项新的工资政策。他也提到这样一个事实,他的员工可以买他们生产的汽车—这实际上是为其产品另开辟了一个市场。为了够资格得到最低工资,员工必须建立一个得体的家庭并显示出良好的个人习惯,包括节制、俭省、勤勉和可靠。虽然有人批评福特过多地干涉了员工的私人生活,但毫无疑问,在移民们被用恶劣的方式剥削的时代,亨利·福特却帮助了许多人在美国扎下根来。

Police and Communities

Few institutions are more important to an urban community than its police, yet there are few subjects historians know so little about. Most of the early academic interests developed among political scientists and sociologists, who usually examined their own contemporary problems with only a nod toward the past. Even the public seemed concerned only during crime waves, periods of blatant corruptions, or after a particularly grisly episode. Party regulars and reformers generally viewed the institutions from a political perspective; newspapers and magazines — the nineteenth century's media — emphasized the vivid and spectacular.

Yet urban society has always vested a wide, indeed awesome, responsibility in its police. Not only were they to maintain order, prevent crime, and protect life and property, but historically they were also to fight fires, suppress vice, assist in health services, supervise elections, direct traffic, inspect buildings, and locate truants and runaways. In addition, it was assumed that the police were the special guardians of the citizens' liberties and the community's tranquility. Of course, the performance never matched the expectations. The record contains some success, but mostly failure; some effective leadership, but largely official incompetence and betrayal. The notion of a professional police force in America is a creation of the twentieth century; not until our own time have cities begun to take the steps necessary to produce modern departments.

警察与社区

对城市社区来说,很少有比它的警察更为重要的机构了,但少有课题像历史学家们对此了解得那样少。早期的学术兴趣是在政治科学家和社会学家中发展起来的,他们一般只研究他们自己当代的问题而对过去的问题只是偶尔带过。甚至公众似乎也仅仅在犯罪浪潮、明目张胆的贪污或特别的恐怖事件发生时才关心。政党的忠诚支持者和改革家们通常是从政治的前途来看待警察这个机构;而报纸和杂志-19世纪的传播媒介-则着重活泼生动和惊人的事件。

可是城市社会总是把广泛得可怕的责任交给警察。他们不仅维持秩序、防止犯罪、保护生命财产,而且在过去还要救火、镇压罪恶、协助医疗服务、监督选举、指挥交通、检查建筑物、寻找逃学学生和搜捕逃犯。除此以外,警察还被认为是公民自由和社会稳定的特别保护者。自然,警察的表现并不尽如人意。他们的记录中有成功者,但多数是失败的;有高效率的领导,但多半的人在职务上无能和不讲信用。专业警察部队的概念在美国还是20世纪的产物;直到我们这个时代,一些城市才开始采取设立现代化部门的必要步骤。

Television

Television — the most pervasive and persuasive of modern technologies, marked by rapid change and growth —is moving into a new era, an era of extraordinary sophistication and versatility, which promises to reshape our lives and our world. It is an electronic revolution of sorts, made possible by the marriage of television and computer technologies.

Television is more than just an electronic system. It is a means of expression, as well as a vehicle for communication, and as such becomes a powerful tool for reaching other human beings.

The field of television can be divided into two categories determined by means of transmission. First, there is broadcast television, which reaches the masses through broad-based airwave transmission of television signals. Second, there is nonbroadcast television, which provides for the needs the individuals or specific interest groups through controlled transmission techniques.

Traditionally, television has been a medium of the masses. We are most familiar with broadcast television because it has been with us for about several decades in a form similar to what exists today. During those years, it has been controlled, for the most part, by the broadcast networks, ABC, NBC, and CBS, who have been the major purveyor of news, information, and entertainment. These giants of broadcasting have actually shaped not only television but our perception of it as well. We have come to look upon the picture tube as a source of entertainment, placing our role in this dynamic medium as the passive viewer.

电视

电视--以快速变化与发展为标志的最普遍、最具有影响力的一项现代技术,正在步入一个极端复杂化与多样化的新时代。这个时代承诺重新塑造我们的生活和我们的世界。这可以称得上是又一次电子革命,其关键在于电视技术与计算机技术的结合。

"电视"这个词来源于希腊语词根(tele:远)和拉丁语词根(vision:景象),可以从字面上理解为来自远处的景象。简单说来,电视是以这种方式工作的,通过一个复杂的电子系统,电视能够将一幅图像(这幅图像被聚焦在一部摄像机内的一块特殊的光导底片上)转换成能经过导线或电缆发送出去的电子脉冲信号。当这些电子脉冲信号被输入一部接收机(电视机)时,就可以用电子学的方法把脉冲信号重新恢复成同一幅图像。

但是,电视不仅仅是一个电子系统,它还是一种表达工具和传播渠道。因此,电视成了一个对其他人发生影响的强大工具。

电视这个领域可以根据其发射方式分为两类。第一类为广播电视,通过电视信号的宽带无线电波发射展现在大众面前;第二类为非广播电视,使用受控的发射技术来满足个人以及某些特殊利益群体的需要。

电视早已成为大众媒介。我们熟悉广播电视,因为广播电视已经以类似目前的方式存在了大约37 年。在那些年头中,电视绝大部分一直由ABC、NBC、CBS 这些广播电视公司控制着,这些广播电视公司一直是新闻、信息和娱乐的主要提供者。这些广播业的巨头实际上不仅塑造了电视,而且也塑造了我们对电视的理解。我们渐渐把显像管看作是娱乐的来源,让自己成为这个生动的媒介的被动观众。

The Organic Foods

Are organically grown foods the best food choices? The advantages claimed for such foods over conventionally grown and marketed food products are now being debated. Advocates of organic foods — a term whose meaning varies greatly — frequently proclaim that such products are safer and more nutritious than others.

The growing interest of consumers in the safety and nutritional quality of the typical North American diet is a welcome development. However, much of this interest has been sparked by sweeping claims that the food supply is unsafe or inadequate in meeting nutritional needs. Although most of these claims are not supported by scientific evidence, the preponderance of written material advancing such claims makes it difficult for the general public to separate fact from fiction. As a result, claims that eating a diet consisting entirely of organically grown foods prevents or cures disease or provides other benefits to health have become widely publicized and form the basis for folklore.

Almost daily the public is besieged by claims for "no-aging" diets, new vitamins and other wonder foods. There are numerous unsubstantiated reports that natural vitamins are superior to synthetic ones, that fertilized eggs are nutritionally superior to unfertilized eggs, that untreated grains are better than fumigated grains and the like.

One thing that most organically grown food products seem to have in common is that they cost more than conventionally grown foods. But in many cases consumers are misled if they believe organic foods can maintain health and provide better nutritional quality than conventionally grown foods. So there is real cause for concern if consumers particularly those with limited incomes, distrust the regular food supply and but only expensive organic foods instead.

绿色食品

绿色食品是最佳食物吗?有人认为绿色食品比通过常规方式生产和销售的食品有更多的优越性,然而现在却有人对此提出异议。绿色食品——这一词的用法非常不统一——支持者往往声称绿色食品比其它食品更安全,营养价值更高。

北美的消费者们越来越关注他们的日常饮食是否安全和有营养。这一发展趋势是好的。然而这种关注多半是由一些武断的说法引起的,即食物供应不安全或不能提供足够的营养。尽管这些说法多数未被科学证实,但是由于大量文章支持这一观点,使得普通群众难辨真伪。因此那些认为只食用绿色食品就能防治疾病或增进健康的观点便广为人知,并导致一些不科学的做法和习惯。

公众几乎每天都被"抗衰老"食品、新型维生素以及其它具有神奇功效的食物广告所包围。声称天然维生素优于人造维生素,受精蛋比未受精蛋的营养价值更高,未经薰蒸消毒处理的谷物比经过处理的好等等诸如此类的报道屡见不鲜,但没有一篇是经过证实的。

大多数绿色食品有一共同点,即它们的价格高于以常规方式种植的食物。但在许多情况下,如果消费者认为绿色食品能预防疾病且营养价值高于以常规方式生产的食品,那么他们被误导了。如果消费者们,尤其是那些收入有限的消费者们,怀疑传统食品而只购买更昂贵的绿色食品,那就值得担忧了。

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