Part Ⅱ Reading Comprehension(35 minutes)
Questions 11 to 15 are based on the following passag The predictability of our mortality rates is some thing that has long puzzled social scientists. After all, there is no natural reason why 2,500 people shou ld accidentally shoot themselves each year or why 7,0 00 should drown or 55,000 die in their cars. No one e stablishes a quota for each type of death. It just ha ppens that they follow a consistent pattern year afte r year.
A few years ago a Canadian psychologist named Ger ald Wilde became interested in this phenomenon. He no ticed that mortality rates for violent and accidental deaths throughout the Western world have remained od dly static throughout the whole of the century, despi te all the technological advances and increases in sa fety standards that have happened in that time. Wilde developed an intriguing theory called “risk homeosta sis”. According to this theory, people instinctively live with a certain level of risk. When something is made safer, people will get around the measure in som e way to reassert the original level of danger. If, f or instance, they are required to wear seat belts, th ey will feel safer and thus will drive a little faste r and a little more recklessly, thereby statistically canceling out the benefits that the seat belt confer s. Other studies have shown that where an intersectio n is made safer, the accident rate invariably falls t here but rises to a compensating level elsewhere alon g the same stretch of road. It appears, then, that we have an innate need for danger.
In all events, it is becoming clearer and clearer to scientists that the factors influencing our lifes pan are far more subtle and complex than had been pre viously thought. It now appears that if you wish to l ive a long life, it isn’t simply a matter of adhering to certain precautions … eating the right foods, no t smoking, driving with care. You must also have the right attitude. Scientists at the Duke University Med ical Center made a 15-year study of 500 persons perso nalities and found, somewhat to their surprise, that people with a suspicious or mistrustful nature die pr ematurely far more often than people with a sunny dis position. Looking on the bright side, it seems, can a dd years to your life span.
11. What social scientists have long felt puzzled abo ut is why .
A) the mortality rate can not be predicted
B) the death toll remained stable year after year
C) a quota for each type of death has not come into being
D) people lost their lives every year for this or
12. In his research, Gerald Wilde finds that technological advances and increases in safety standards .
A) have helped solve the problem of so high death rate
B) have oddly accounted for mortality rates in the past century
C) have reduced mortality rates for violent and accidental deaths
D) have achieved no effect in bringing down the number of deaths
13. According to the theory of “risk homeostasis”, some traffic accidents result from .
A) our innate desire for risk
B) our fast and reckless driving
C) our ignorance of seat belt benefits
D) our instinctive interest in speeding
14. By saying “…statistically canceling out the benefits that the seat belt confers” (Para. 2),the au thor means .
A) wearing seat belts does not have any benefits from the statistic point of view
B) deaths from wearing seat belts are the same as those from not wearing them
C) deaths from other reasons counterbalance the benefits of wearing seat belts
D) wearing seat belts does not necessarily reduce deaths from traffic accidents
15. Which of the following may contribute to a longer life span?
A) Showing adequate trust instead of suspicion of
B) Eating the food low in fat and driving with
C) Cultivating an optimistic personality and never losing heart
D) Looking on the bright side and developing a balanced level of risk
Questions 16 to 20 are based on the following passag In California the regulators, the utilities and t he governor all want the Federal Energy Regulatory Co mmission to cap spot (现货的) market prices. The Cali fornians claim it will rein in outrageous prices. Fed eral regulators have refused. The battle is on.
Governor Gray Davis says,“I’m not happy with the Federal Regulatory Commission at all. They’re living in an ivory tower. If their bills were going up like the people in San Diego, they would know that this i s a real problem in the real world.”
As part of deregulation, price caps were removed to allow for a free market. Timing is everything; nat ural gas prices had already skyrocketed. Demand was h igh from California’s booming economy. No new power p lants had been built here in ten years, and power pro ducers had the right to hike prices along with demand. And hike them they did.
Loretta Lynch of the Public Utilities Commission says,” This commission and all of California was beat ing down the door of federal regulators to say‘help u s impose reasonable price caps to help to keep our ma rket stable.”
Federal regulators did ask for longer-term contra cts between power producers and the utilities to stab ilize prices. The federal commission, unavailable for comment on this story, released a recent statement d efending its position not to re-regulate.
Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Dec. 15,2000:“The commission s intention is to enable the marke ts to catch up to current supply and demand problems and not to reintroduce command and control regulation that has helped to produce the current crisis.”
Some energy experts believe that, without tempora ry price caps, the crisis will continue. Severin Borenstein of the U.C. Energy Institute says,“Some federal regulators have a blind commitment to making the market work and I think part of the proble m is they really don t understand what s going o n.”
Gary Ackerman of the Western Power Trading Forum says,“He’s dead wrong about that. The federal regula tors understand far better than any individual state that, though it might be painful and it certainly is painful in California, price caps don’t work. They ne ver work.”
16. The battle between Californians and federal regul ators is about .
A) control over the price of power
B) necessity of removing price caps
C) hiking the energy prices in California
D) a regulation concerning power supply
17. Governor Gray Davis was dissatisfied
with the Federal Regulatory Commission
A) they did not know what the real problem was
B) they were living an easy life in an ivory tower
C) they could not experience the life in San Diego
D) they turned a blind eye to the situation in Califo rnia
18. The Federal Commission uncapped the energy price with the intention to
A) help California’s economy booming steadily
B) prevent power price from going up any further
C) enable the market to deal with supply and demand p roblems
D) have contracts signed between power producers and the utilities
19. To help keep prices from going higher, people and groups in California
A) imposed reasonable price caps
B) beat down the door of federal regulators
C) urged the federal authorities to take action
D) struggled against federal policy to hike prices
20. Energy experts against price caps believe that .
A) the present situation in California will continue unless there is price control
B) the current crisis is partly attributed to
previous command and control policy
C) price caps can temporarily solve energy problems an individual state meets with
D) they do understand what is going on in California and will take proper measures
Questions 21 to 25 are based on the following passag Another cultural aspect of nonverbal communicatio
n is one that you might not think about: space. Every person perceives himself to have a sort of invisible shield surrounding his physical body. When someone c omes too close, he feels uncomfortable. When he bumps onto someone, he feels obligated to apologize. But t he size of a person’s “comfort zone” depends on his cultural ethnic origin. For example, in casual conve rsation, many Americans stand about four feet apart. In other words, they like to keep each other “at arm s length”,people in Latin or Arab cultures, in con trast, stand very close to each other, and touch each other often. If someone from one of those cultures s tands too close to an American while in conversation, the American may feel uncomfortable and back away.
When Americans are talking, they expect others to respond to what they are saying. To Americans, polit
e conversationalists empathize by displaying expressi ons o
f excitement or disgust, shock or sadness. Peopl
e with a “poker face”, whose emotions are hidden by a deadpan expression, are looked upon with suspicion. Americans also indicate their attentiveness in a con versation by raising their eyebrows, nodding, smiling politely and maintaining good eye contact. Whereas s ome cultures view direct eye contact as impolite or t hreatening, Americans see it as a sign o
f genuineness and honesty. If a person doesn’t look you in the eye, American might say, you should question his motives —or assume that he doesn’t like you. Yet with all th e concern for eye contact, Americans still consider s taring—especially at strangers—to be rude.
21. What the author discussed in the previous section is most probably about .
A) classification of nonverbal communication
B) the reasons why people should think about space C) the relationship between communication and space
D) some other cultural aspects of nonverbal communication
22. How far people keep to each other while talking is closely associated with their .
A) origin B) culture C) custom D) nationality
23. When an Italian talks to an Arabian on informal occasions,.
A) he stands about four feet away
B) “comfort zone” does not exist
C) keeping close enough is preferred
D) communication barriers may emerge
24. A “poker face” (Line 3,Para. 2) refers to a face which is .
A) attentive B) emotional C) suspicious D) expression less
25. In a conversation between friends, Americans regard it as sincere and truthful to .
A) maintain direct eye contact
B) hide emotions with a deadpan expression
C) display excitement or disgust, shock or sadness
D) raise their eyebrows,nod and smile politely Passage Four
Questions 26 to 30 are based on the following passag We all know that DNA has the ability to identify individuals but, because it is inherited, there are a lso regions of the DNA strand which can relate an ind ividual to his or her family (immediate and extended), tribal group and even an entire population. Molecula r Genealogy (宗谱学) can use this unique identificati on provided by the genetic markers to link people tog ether into family trees. Pedigrees (家谱) based on su ch genetic markers can mean a breakthrough for family trees where information is incomplete or missing due to adoption, illegitimacy or lack of records. There are many communities and populations which have lost precious records due to tragic events such as the fir e in the Irish courts during Civil War in 1921 or Ame rican slaves for whom many records were never kept in the first place.
The main objective of the Molecular Genealogy Res earch Group is to build a database containing over 10 0,000 DNA samples from individuals all over the world.
These individuals will have provided a pedigree char t of at least four generations and a small blood samp le. Once the database has enough samples to represent the world genetic make-up, it will eventually help i n solving many issues regarding genealogies that coul d not be done by relying only on traditional written records. Theoretically, any individual will someday b e able to trace his or her family origins through thi s database.
In the meantime, as the database is being created, molecular genealogy can already verify possible or s uspected relationships between individuals. “For exam ple, if two men sharing the same last name believe th at they are related, but no written record proves thi s relationship, we can verify this possibility by col lecting a sample of DNA from both and looking for com mon markers (in this case we can look primarily at th e Y chromosome (染色体)),” explains Ugo A. Perego, a member of the BYU Molecular Genealogy research team.
26. People in a large area may possess the same DNA t hread because .
A) DNA is characteristic of a region
B) they are beyond doubt of common ancestry
C) DNA strand has the ability to identify individual
D)their unique identification can be provided via DNA
27. The possible research of family trees is based on the fact that .
A) genetics has achieved a breakthrough
B) genetic information contained in DNA can be revealed now
C) each individual carries a unique record of who he is and how he is related to others
D) we can use DNA to prove how distant an individual is to a family, a group or a population
28. The Molecular Genealogy Research Group is
building a database for the purpose of .
A) offering assistance in working out
B) solving many issues without relying on traditional written records
C) providing a pedigree chart of at least four generations in the world
D) confirming the assumption that all individuals are of the same origin
29. If two men suspected for some reason they have
a common ancestor, .
A) we can decide according to their family tree
B) we can find the truth from their genetic markers
C) we can compare the differences in their Y
D) we can look for written records to prove their relationship
30. Which of the following CANNOT be inferred from the passage?
A) We are a walking,living,breathing record of our ancestors
B) Many American slaves did not know who their ancestors were.
C) An adopted child generally lacks enough information to prove his identity.
D) Molecular genealogy can be used to prove a relationship between individuals.
Part ⅢVocabulary(20 minutes)
Directions: There are 30 incomplete sentences in this part. For each sentence there are four choices marke d A),B),C)and D). Choose the ONE answer that best com pletes the sentence. Then mark the corresponding lett er on the Answer Sheet with a single line through the centre.
31. WTO is regarded by some countries as an access to foreign markets rather than as a for opening up the home market.
A) commerce B) committee C) commitment D) commission
32. We should recognize that every company and every person is part of a long of customers and suppliers.
A) pool B) line C) stream D) chain
33. Today the small town is better against flood than it was 20 years ago.
A) protected B) prevented C) preserved D) prepared
34. Did you mean I should keep the receipt? I’m afraid I have .
A) run it over B) torn it up C) taken it apart D) shaken it off
35. Unlike photocopies of books, the digital copies
are virtually in quality to the original.
A) similar B) identical C) resembling D) alike
36. The price of fresh vegetables according to the weather.
A) fluctuates B) increases C) soars D) maintains
37. Your proposal looks good ,but I am not convinced it can be put into effect.
A) on paper B) at sight C) under cover D) in bulk
38. The government that refuses to meet the needs of its people must bear the .
A) results B) outcomes C) effects D) consequences
39. The elderly people in this country are entitled to a special heating allowance from the government w hen they pass the age of sixty.
A) claim B) declare C) inquire D) apply
40. The snow has been steadily for hours and the ground is completely covered.
A) showering B) dropping C) descending D) falling
41. The hostess went to great to make the child comfortable and feel at home.
A) efforts B) lengths C) heights D) details
42. You said the post office is on this block, can you be a bit more ?
A) particular B) specific C) abstract D) especial
43. His composition was so confusing that I could hardly make any of it whatsoever.
A) meaning B) message C) information D) sense
44. I am afraid that you have to alter your views in light of the tragic news that has just arrived.
A) optimistic B) distressing C) indifferent
45. As the saying goes, reading without reflecting is like eating without .
A) chewing B) tasting C) digesting D) releasing
46. All of us did quite a good job but the teacher only him out for praise
A) yelled B) singled C) selected D) pulled
47. Without a sure supply of water, farming in that area remains at the of the weather.
A) disposal B) risk C) cost D) mercy
48. Industrial communities should be close enough to crowded centers but enough to reduce potential dangers.
A) advanced B) reliable C) distant D) sophisticated
49. She had a guilty about not telling the police
what had actually happened.
A) consciousness B) conscience C) consequence
50. There is a beautiful of pine forest near my country house.
A) extension B) length C) spell D) stretch
51. We’ve all our time and effort in this plan, and we don’t want it to fail.
A) invested B) exhausted C) devoted D) assigned
52. The workers demands were，they only asked for a sm all raise in their wages.
A) general B) moderate C) partial D) numerous
53. You should know to spend all your money on those impractical fancy goods.
A) other than B) rather than C) more than D) better than
54. Everybody seemed to have known about his scandal,
only his wife was kept in the .
A) dark B) ignorance C) shade D) shadow
55. All students in the class a loud laugh when the professor told them a joke.
A) let up B) let down C) let off D) let out
56. It can be safely that there is no living beings
on that planet.
A) resumed B) assessed C) assumed D) assured
57. There are certain when you have to interrupt
people who are in the middle of doing something.
A) chances B) situations C) occasions D)opportunities
58. Mother into the room and kissed her sleeping baby.
A) crept B) staggered C) rushed D) marched
59. The building started with a steel which was later
filled in with bricks and concrete.
A) institution B) terminal C) sightseeing D framewor
60. This book does not have an structure. Some parts are even contradictory .
A) integrated B) informed C) intensive D) inward
Part ⅣCloze(15 minutes)
Directions: There are 20 blanks in the following pass age. For each blank there are four choices marked A), B),C)and D)on the right side of the paper. You should
choose the ONE that best fits into the passage. Then mark the corresponding letter on the Answer sheet wi th a single line through the centre.
A food bank is the center of food collection and distribution in a community. This food usually 61 fro m grocery stores or manufacturers that have thousands of pounds of food to give 62 . Food banks operate in tricate and advanced warehousing operations, 63 food
is collected, 64 and re-distributed to the community. Traditionally, a food bank does not distribute food 65 to those in 66 . 67 ,food banks serve an 68 networ
k of organizations in their 69 communities. These org anizations serve one part of the 70 and know the need
s of the people there. 71 ,working together, the food bank and the community organization can serve a grea ter 72 of people in the most efficient way.
Many food banks provide 73 services. They 74 from after school feeding programs, 75 Kids Cafe,to commu nity agriculture projects.
In the aftermath (其后的一段时期) of welfare refor m, food banks throughout the country are raising priv ate 76 to operate innovative programs and to 77 those who are hungry. Every food bank strives to be a hung er advocate,producing 78 studies and tracking statist ics, while lending their hands-on expertise to get le gislation passed and ensuring that the 79 of domestic hunger is not lost in the shadow of an “ 80 boom”.
61. A) results B) collects C) comes D) gathers
62. A) away B) out C) over D) off
63. A) which B) where C) what D) how
64. A) accepted B) offered C) processed D) sorted
65. A) instantly B) directly C) voluntarily D)readily
66. A) need B) haste C) debt D) order
67. A) However B) Otherwise C) Instead D) Certainly
68. A) abnormal B) optional C) imaginary D) extensive
69. A) individual B)respective C)special D)widespread
70. A) organization B) bank C) operation D) communit
71. A) Therefore B)Nevertheless C) Still D)Conversely
72. A) amount B) deal C) number D) quantity
73. A) regular B) other C) daily D) depositing
74. A) change B) alter C) differ D) range
75. A) including B) providing C) managing D) distributing
76. A) demands B) properties C) funds D) plans
77. A) shelter B) feed C) clothe D) finance
78. A) poverty B) welfare C) hunger D) food
79. A) issue B) policy C) reform D) project
80. A) economical B) economics C) economy D) economic Part ⅤWriting(30 minutes)
Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write A Letter Applying for a Bank Loan. You shou ld write at least 120 words following the outline giv en below in Chinese.
Part ⅡReading Comprehension
11. B12. D13. A14. C15. C16. A17. D18. C19. C20. B 21. D22. B23. C24. D25. A26. B27. C28. A29. B30. C Part Ⅲ Vocabulary
31. C32. D33. A34. B35. B36. A37. A38. D39. A40. D 41. B42. B43. D44. A45. C46. B47. D48. C49. B50. D 51. A52. B53. D54. A55. D56. C57. C58. A59. D60. A Part Ⅳ Cloze
61. C62. A63. B64. D65. B66. A67. C68. D69. B70. D 71. A72. C73. B74. D75. A76. C77. B78. C79. A80. D 2006年6月英语四级最新模拟试题答案详细讲解
Part ⅡReading Comprehension
11. B) 12. D) 13. A) 14. C) 15. C)
16. A) 17. D) 18. C) 19. C) 20. B) 21.D) 22. B) 23. C) 24. D) 25. A)
26.B) 27. C) 28. A) 29. B) 30. C)
31. C) 【译文】有些国家把加入世贸组织看作是进军国外市场的权利，而不是开放本国市场的义务。
60. A)【译文】这本书条理不清，有些内容甚至相互矛盾。Part ⅣCloze
61. C) 根据句意，“食品银行”的食物来自于什么地方，C项正确。result from表示“因为，由于”，意思不妥。
62. A) give away此处解释为“送掉，赠送”，A项正确。gi ve out“公布，发表；用完”；give over“移交；停止（做某事）”；give off“发出（气味、信号等）”。
63. B)项正确。前半句意思是“食品银行实行复杂而先进的仓储式运作”，后半句是定语从句，由where引导，相当于duri ng which。
66. A)those in need意为“穷人”，符合上下文意思，A项正确。
67. C)前半句为否定，后半句是肯定，中间用instead连接。C 项正确。
68. D)an extensive network意为“庞大的网络”，D项正确。
71. A)从上下文意思判断，此处表示结果（therefore），而不是转折（nevertheless），让步（still）或对比（conversel y），A正确。
72. C) a number of后接复数名词，a quantity of虽然也表示“大量”，一般不用于指人，如a quantity of meat,a qua ntity of vegetables，C项正确。
74. D) range from…to…是固定搭配：“从…到…不等；涉及从…到…”。
76. C)raise funds是词组，意为“筹集资金”。
78. C)参看逗号前a hunger advocate“主张存在饥饿现象者”，后面应该是对饥饿现象的研究，选C。
80. D)economic boom“经济繁荣”，形容词作定语。
A Letter Applying for a Bank Loan
I am a sophomore in Shanghai University, majoring in computer software. In the previous one and a half yea rs I have been a model student and monitor of my clas s.
However, since I registered here, the expenses have b ecome a burden for my average family. You know, my pa
rents are both laid－off workers, and, to make matter s worse, my mother has suddenly fallen ill and is exp ecting a major operation. It will be beyond their abi lity to finance me through my remaining education. It is now a must for me to help relieve their financial pressure. So I’m applying to your bank for a loan of 10,000 yuan. If my application is approved, all the money will go to my tuition and fees for the coming a cademic years.
I’ve made a detailed plan to arrange my school life.
A part-time job as a family tutor will not be difficu lt to find and some work-study programs for students like me are also provided in our university. From the se sources I will be able to earn more than enough to support myself. I guarantee that I will repay the lo an within five years, that is, within two years after my graduation. Please have confidence in me: I have a very good credit record.
I would be greatly obliged if my application is grant ed. Many thanks.