The French Revolution
The French Revolution which occurred in France between 1789 and 1794 was a series of upheavals .It overthrew not only the country’s institutions of monarchy, aristocracy and church power, but its whole social structure.
Causes of the French Revolution includes poor grain harvest in 1787 and 1788 , exclusion of rich bourgeoisie from the power system , The idea of democracy and equality brought by the Enlightenment and Nationwide financial crisis caused by the participation of France in the American War of Independence.
When Louis XIV was on the throne, he expanded the power of France by decades of wars and battles. Participation of France in the American Independence War the national treasury ran out. Following kings had to raise taxes. Ultimately, Louis XVI was out on a limb, since he decided to levy taxes on privileged classes.The third class made a profound de cision by a vote. They declared themselves “national assembly”, which was an assembly serve “people”, not the country. They would manage state affairs without the permission of the other two classes. Louis XVI tried to intervene by force. Foreign troops concentrated near Paris.
Parisians stormed the Bastille on July 14th, 1789. The Bastille was the symbol of feudal monarchy. This was a signal which arouses national revolution. People began to take over the power of city management by force. Peasants attacked the manors of their feudal lords and burn the certificates of land.
The National Convention was a single-chamber assembly in France from 21 September 1792 to 26 October 1795 during the French Revolution. It succeeded the Legislative Assembly and founded the First Republic after the insurrection of 10 August 1792.The national convention met on Sep. 20, 1792; it was to sit for three years. It immediately
proclaimed the Year One of the French Republic.
The Girondists were a political faction in France within the Legislative Assembly and the National Convention during the French Revolution. They campaigned for the end of the monarchy but then resisted the spiraling momentum of the Revolution. They came into conflict with The Mountain (Montagnards, a more radical faction within the Jacobin Club). This conflict eventually led to the fall of the Girondists and their mass execution, the beginning of the Reign of Terror.After the fall of the monarchy Robespierre became a central figure in the Jacobin Club, and his faction in the National Convention, assembled in the fall of 1792, became known as Jacobins. They were at first a minority group, also called "The Mountain" (French: La Montagne), and its members Montagnards, because they sat together in the higher seats in the Convention's hall; they were dubious about the war with Austria which had begun that spring, but supported more revolutionary measures at home.
On 27 July 1794, the Thermidorian Reaction led to the arrest and execution of Robespierre, Louis de Saint-Just, and other leading Jacobins. The new government was predominantly made up of Girondists who had survived the Terror, and after taking power, they took revenge as well by persecuting even those Jacobins who had helped to overthrow Robespierre, banning the Jacobin Club, and executing many of its former members in what was known as the White Terror.
People rioted against the Directory, but the Directory used the army to stop them. The army, under Napoleon Bonaparte, became much more powerful. On 9 November, 1799 (18 Brumaire Year VIII) Bonaparte took power. This event is called 18 Brumaire. Napoleon Bonaparte set up a new government called the Consulate with him in power. This led to him becoming the dictator and, in 1804, the Emperor of France. The 18 Brumaire marks the end of the Republican part of the French Revolution.