大学英语综合教程2(秦秀白、张怀健版)课后练习答案

第一单元

Listen and Respond

Task One Focusing on the Main Ideas

1 Choose the best answer to complete each of the following

sentences according to the information contained in the listening

passage.

1 Before graduating from college, the speaker was asked to ________.

A) make a piece of cake for the class

B) write down people‘s response to her smile

C) observe how people smile at each other

D) act kindly to someone

2 While waiting for her turn to get her breakfast at the local McDonalds, the speaker ________.

A) was ready to serve the two poor homeless men who smelled

B) saw a terrible dirty man standing in the line

C) found that a short gentleman was waiting for his meal

D) noticed that a homeless man was smiling at her

3 The two poor homeless men went to the local McDonalds to ________.

A) warm themselves B) have their breakfast

C) wait for someone D) search for a friendly smile

4 At the sight of the two homeless men, the speaker ________.

A) turned away from them to join her family

B) ordered for them two cups of hot coffee

C) bought them two breakfast meals

D) asked them what they wanted to eat

5 After the speaker turned in her ―project,‖ the speaker‘s professor and her classmates ________.

A) had a heated discussion about smile

B) exchanged their unusual experiences

C) were deeply touched by her smile

D) were greatly moved by her story

Task Two Zooming In on the Details

Listen to the recording carefully and fill in each of the blanks according to what you have heard.

1 The speaker is a mother of three and has recently completed her college degree . The last project the professor assigned her to do was to go out and smile at three people and then write down their reaction .

2 Soon after she was assigned the project, she went with her family to the local McDonalds on a cold March morning . Just when they were standing in line,

waiting to be served, she smelled a horrible ―dirty body‖ smell . Two poor homeless men were also standing in line. They just wanted to sit in the restaurant and warm up , so they only asked for coffee . Obviously, it was all they could afford.

3 Then she was suddenly filled with sympathy . All eyes in the restaurant were set on her, judging her every action . She smiled and bought the two homeless men two breakfast meals .

4 She returned to college, with this story in hand. She turned in her ― project .‖ Her professor read it to the whole class. The whole class was touched . She graduated with one of the biggest lessons she would ever learn —UNCONDITIONAL ACCEPTANCE .

Read and Explore

Task One Discovering the Main Ideas

1 Answer the following questions with the information contained in Text A.

1) Why didn‘t the author stop for the hitchhiker?

He thought that someone else would stop for him. And he was afraid of a possible robbery.

2) Did he feel guilty for not helping the young man?

No. He didn‘t. But he was bothered by his easy and quick decision of leaving the young man stranded alone in the desert.

3) Why did the author decide to start his journey across America pennilessly? He wanted to test if a person could still rely solely on the kindness of strangers or the good will of his fellow Americans these days.

4) What did he discover as he travelled?

He found out that others shared his fear. Yet they still stubbornly helped strangers like him.

5) What had happened to the trucker the author met on a rainy day?

He was once robbed at knifepoint by a hitchhiker.

6) What conclusion did the author draw from his experiences mentioned in Paras. 15–18?

He found that people were generally compassionate. And those who had the least to give often gave the most.

7) Why did Carol invite the author to talk to her class about his trip?

She thought the children should be exposed to what else was out there — the good and the bad.

8) What conclusion did the author make about his trip when he talked to the students?

He concluded that his faith in America had been renewed and that people could still depend on the kindness of strangers.

2 Text A can be divided into three parts with the paragraph number(s) of each part provided as follows. Write down the main idea of each part.

Part: One; Paragraph(s): 1–7; Main Idea: Because of a past experience of neglecting a hitchhiker in need of help, the author decided to travel across America without any money to find out if one could still rely on the kindness of strangers these days.

Part: Two; Paragraph(s): 8–28; Main Idea: During his trip, he found out that people were generally compassionate and willing to help although they might have fears.

Part: Three; Paragraph(s):29-31; Main Idea: He talked to school children and concluded in a patriotic manner that in America people could still depend on the kindness of strangers.

Task Two Reading Between the Lines

Read the following sentences carefully and discuss in pairs what the author intends to say by the italicized parts.

1) In the middle of the desert, I came upon a young man standing by the roadside. He had his thumb out and held a gas can in his other hand. (Para. 1) By doing so, the young man was telling the passing drivers that he wanted to hitchhike as his car had run out of gas.

2) The week I turned 37, I realized I‘d never taken a gamble in my life. (Para. 7)

This week I would be 37 years old, yet I realized that I had always been very careful in my life and I had never taken a risk, for example, trusting on the kindness of others.

3) It would be a cashless journey through the land of the almighty dollar. (Para. 7)

The author is being a bit sarcastic here. He would take no money with him and travel across the US, where it is believed that money can do everything and anything. The phrase "almighty dollar" is a playful allusion to the familiar term "Almighty God"

4) Yet I was treated with kindness in every state I traveled. I was amazed by the stubborn capacity of Americans to help a stranger, even when it seemed to run contrary to their own best interests. (Para. 11)

I was amazed by the continual show of kindness of my fellow Americans, even though helping a stranger would mean taking a risk.

5) I didn‘t know whether to kiss them or scold them for stopping. (Para. 13)

The author had mixed feelings: whether to kiss the two women for their kindness, or give them a lesson by cautioning them not to trust any stranger, for they could have run into a bad person instead of himself.

Checking Your Vocabulary

Word Detective

1 Choose the definition in Column B that best matches each italicized word in Column A.

1) c

2) d

3)a

4) j

5)h

6)b

7) e

8) i

9) g

10) f

2 A synonym is a word that has the same or nearly the same meaning as another word. An antonym is a word that means the opposite of another word. Write S before each pair of synonyms and A before each pair of antonyms. The first word in each pair is taken from Text B and the corresponding paragraph number has been indicated for you.

Example: S virtually, almost (Para. 1)

1) S govern, control (Para. 3)

2) S signal, sign (Para. 4)

3) S participate, join (Para. 5)

4) A heave, lower (Para. 6)

5) S collapse, fall (Para. 7)

6) S establish, found (Para. 10)

7) S locate, situate (Para. 10)

8) A occasional, frequent (Para. 15)

Checking Your Comprehension

1 Answer the following questions with the information contained in Text B.

1) What is the author and his wife‘s opinion about becoming a true friend to someone whose name they don‘t know?

The author and his wife used to think that it was virtually impossible to be a true friend to someone whose name they didn‘t know. But now they realize they were wrong. Years of Sunday-morning bus trip through the city with the same ―nameless‖ people have completely changed thei r thinking.

2) Why does the author say that taking the Sunday-morning bus trip requires teamwork though they don‘t know each other‘s names?

There is always the same group of regular passengers. The bus driver and the passengers acted routinely with due care and attention, as if they were cooperating in a team. The driver should perform his duties well and the passengers should obey the written and unwritten rules. There should be no smoking, no littering, and everyone should behave in a polite and decent manner. Under such circumstances, names are no longer important.

3) What can we learn about the silent woman from Para. 5?

The silent woman always sits up front and never responds to others‘ greetings. Her worn clothing suggests that she is not rich. However, she is considerate enough to bring the bus driver a cup of coffee each time she takes the bus ride.

4) Why does the factory security guard always slump down in his seat with his eyes closed?

He has just come off a long night shift and he feels sleepy and tired.

5) Why was the bus very late one Sunday morning?

On that morning a regular passenger collapsed on the sidewalk as he was moving forward to board the bus. The other passengers tried to help him and waited with him for an ambulance to arrive.

6) What do you know about the Mexican couple?

The Mexican couple love each other very much. They always board the bus hand in hand and are still holding hands when they get off the bus. The woman was pregnant late last year and now they have a new baby. All the regular passengers feel happy for the young Mexican couple.

7) Why do the passengers enjoy the company of a group of Haitians?

The Haitians have a great sense of fun. The passengers are all delighted to have their company. They always chuckle and nod when the Haitians are all aboard.

8) Why is the woman who sits up front always silent?

She has a speech impediment. Talking is hard for her.

9) What do you know about the silent woman‘s family life?

She is a single mother with a disabled son who is receiving special care away from home. She lives alone and feels lonely and misses her son very much. The Sunday-morning bus ride is the best thing she does all week, and an occasional visit to the fish restaurant is almost as good as the second best thing. She rides the Sunday-morning bus simply for the companionship of the driver whose name she doesn't know, but who appreciates the hot coffee she brings.

10) How did the author and his wife feel about the dinner with the silent woman?

They all had a wonderful time. For the silent woman, an occasional visit to the fish restaurant was a pleasant experience and this time it was even better with the companionship of the author and his wife. The author and his wife also

enjoyed the dinner and they felt that the fish had never tasted better. When they left the restaurant, they were already friends with each other. And they shared their names.

2 Read the following statements and then decide whether each of them is true or false based on the information contained in Text B. Write T for True and F for False in the space provided before each statement.

1) T On Sundays the author and his wife take the bus to go to church regularly for years.

2) F The bus driver is required to remember the stop of every regular passenger.

(He is not required to do so. But he makes it his business to remember where every regular passenger should get off the bus.)

3) F The silent woman always gets the driver a cup of coffee because she is well-off.

(The worn clothing of t he silent woman suggests she doesn‘t have much money to spare, but she always clutches an extra cup of coffee for the driver.)

4) F The driver has to wake up the factory security guard every time and reminds him of getting off the bus.

(The security guard closes his eyes until the precise moment that the bus approaches his stop. Then, he opens his eyes and gets off the bus.)

5) T The rotund fellow is very grateful because other people have helped him.

6) T The passengers enjoy their ride together and words or names are not necessary to them.

7) F The author and his wife developed a good relationship with the silent woman after taking the same bus for some months.

(For many months, the only sadness for the author and his wife is that they can‘t e stablish the same rapport with the silent woman.)

8) F They found their fish tasted better because they shared a good dinner with the silent woman.

(They found their fish tasted better because they had finally learned the story of the silent woman and made friends with her.)

Enhance Your Language Awareness

Words in Action

Working with Words and Expressions

1 In the box below are some of the words you have learned in this unit. Complete the following sentences with the words given. Change the form where necessary.

1) My neighbours are a friendly bunch of people.

2) Dave amazed his friends by leaving a well-paid job to travel around the world.

3) The employees in this company work an eight-hour shift .

4) The professor came to the classroom with a bundle of newspapers under his arm.

5) A passenger asked the driver: ―Could you drop me off near the post office? I‘d like to post a letter.‖

6) The little girl‘s capacity for learning languages astonished me.

7) How many countries will be participating in the Olympic Games?

8) I like the typically French style of living. It is so romantic.

9) They have made their fortunes from industry and commerce .

10) They threatened to shoot him and rob him of all his possessions.

11) In many cultures, the lion is the symbol of courage.

12) Your help was greatly appreciated . We are very grateful to you for it.

13) It‘s the first time the painting has been displayed to the public.

14) During the exam, the naughty boy tried to slip a note to his classmate while the teacher wasn‘t looking.

15) As the saying goes, conquer the desires, or they will conquer you.

16) Before the dinner party, Mother has ordered a roast from the butcher.

17) I didn‘t wait for you at home because I figured that you wouldn‘t come.

2 In the boxes below are some of the expressions you have learned in this unit. Do you understand their meanings? Do you know how to use them in the proper context? Now check for yourself by doing the blank-filling exercise. Change the form where necessary.

1) In this painting, a single red rose stands in rich contrast to the grassland.

2) The factory workers are exposed to poisonous gases and many of them suffer from lung diseases.

3) During the war, the soldier risked his life helping others to escape.

4) Do trust me. You can rely on me to keep your secret.

5) If you are attacked or robbed at knifepoint , how would you react then?

6) She is such an extraordinary girl that she always stands out in a crowd.

7) Obviously, this foolish idea runs contrary to common sense(常识).

8) I was very tired and had to flag down a taxi in order to get home early.

9) The mother picks/picked up her children from the kindergarten at 5:00 p.m. every day.

10) The publishers took a gamble on an unknown author, and the books have sold well.

11) The driver waved to us as he pulled away .

12) The driver pulled over to the side of the road to see what was wrong with his truck.

Increasing Your Word Power

1 Collocations

Look at the adverbs listed in the box below, and decide which adverb is needed to collocate with the verb in each sentence. Fill the correct adverb into the blank in the sentence. The same word may be used in more than one sentence. Consult a dictionary if necessary.

1) No need to thank me — I was just glad to help out a friend.

2) Yesterday a drunken man was run over and killed by a bus.

3) When I look back on my college days, I can‘t believe the crazy things we did as students.

4) He looks down on his colleagues because he has a PhD degree but they don‘t have.

5) A policeman was standing by the side of the road, signaling to me to pull over .

6) Peter didn‘t have anywhere to stay so Sarah put him up for a few days.

7) Don‘t worry. Everything will turn out well.

8) You promised you would do it. Why did you go back on your word?

9) Their business was losing money so they had to close down .

10) You can‘t miss him. That haircut makes him stand out in a crowd.

11) I gave up smoking when I got pregnant.

12) The doctor checked her over yesterday. All the tests were OK and she seemed to be fine.

13) She tends to hang back in a crowd because she is so shy.

14) What problems should I watch out for when buying an old house? I don‘t want to be cheated.

15) They offered her the job but she didn‘t like it and turned it down .

16) It‘s hard to comfort Sandra. She doesn‘t seem able to get over her mother‘s death.

2 Study the different meanings of the word than in the following sentences.

Task: Now put the following sentences into English, using than in your translation.

1) 行动比言语更响亮。

Action speaks louder than words.

2) 这儿的生产需要低于摄氏25度的温度。

Production here needs temperatures lower than 25 degrees Celsius.

3) 我喜欢保存东西而不是把它们扔掉。

I like to keep things rather than throw them away.

4) 这里除了我之外没有别人。

There is nobody here other than me.

5) 她宁愿辞职也不愿为那位老板干活。

She‘d rather leave her job than (be forced to) work for that boss.

3 Word Building

Prefixes of Numbers

In English there are some prefixes that quantify(量化) over their base words’ meaning.

Now match each of the English words in Column A with its Chinese meaning in Column B. You may consult a dictionary if necessary.

1)d

2) k

3) n

4) j

5) a

6) g

7) f

8) b

9)o

10) m

11) p

12) e

13) c

14) h

15) i

16) l

Grammar in Context

Task 1: Choose either the infinitive form or the -ing form of the verb in brackets to complete each of the following sentences.

1) When I saw John in his room, he was busy preparing (prepare) his lessons.

2) I‘d like to take this opportunity to thank (thank) all of you for coming to join us tonight.

3) My transistor radio isn‘t working. It needs repairing / to be repaired (repair).

4) They found it impossible to get (get) everything ready in time.

5) I am used to studying (study) with Mr. Jones and therefore prefer not to change to another teacher.

6) All the women in the office objected to being treated (treat) like this.

7) I must go now. I can‘t risk missing (miss) the last train.

8) The President‘s attempts to reduce (reduce) inflation were quite successful.

9) He is always the last one to leave (leave) the office.

10) It‘s no use worrying (worry) about your child. He‘s grown up.

Task 2: Complete the following sentences by translating the Chinese in brackets into English, paying attention to the use of the -ing form and the –ed form of verbs.

1) When the old man was telling the story, some children kept nodding(不住地点头) while some others looked rather confused (很迷惑).

2) Fallen leaves (落叶) will eventually turn into fertilizer serving other plants.

3) The three boys were so surprised (吃惊) to find the escaped prisoner hiding (正躲在) behind the door.

4) Deeply moved (被深深地感动了) by the poor but hard-working boy, the couple decided to pay for his secondary education.

5) Anyone following (听从) this advice would find himself in trouble.

6) Being (作为) university students, we should be interested (对…感兴趣) in what is going on in the world.

7) The bulk of the world‘s rainforests, 97 percent, are located (位于) in 27 developing countries.

8) If she catches you reading (在读) her diary, she‘ll be angry.

Cloze

Complete the following passage with words chosen from Text A. The initial letter of each is given.

Could anyone rely on the kindness of strangers these days? One way to test this would be for a person to journey from coast to coast without any money, r elying (1) solely on the good will of his fellow Americans. The idea i ntrigued (2) me. So I decided to make a trip from the Pacific Coast to the Atlantic Coast without a p enny (3). I rose early on September 6, 1994, and headed f or (4) the Golden Gate Bridge. During the six weeks‘ journey, I hitched 82 rides and c overed (5) 4,223 miles across 14 states. I was t reated (6) with kindness in every state I travelled across. I was a mazed (7) by the stubborn capacity of Americans to help a stranger, even when it seemed to run c ontrary (8) to their own best interests. I found that people were g enerally (9) compassionate. Hearing I had no money and would take none, people in every state bought me food or shared w hatever (10) they happened to have with me. In Jamestown, Tennessee, a science teacher i nvited (11) me to talk to her class about my trip. All the kids were well-mannered and a ttentive (12). Their questions kept coming. I told the students how proud I was to live in a country w here (13) people were still willing to help out a stranger. I told them, ―No matter who you are, you can still depend on the kindness of strangers.‖

Translation

Translate the following sentences into English, using the words and expressions given in brackets.

1) 离婚的传言不过是为他的新电影炒作的手段而已。(a ploy to do sth.)

The rumor about his divorce is just a ploy to gain publicity for his new film.

2) 他孤注一掷,用父母留给他的所有钱来开一家工厂。(take a gamble on sth.) He took a gamble on starting a factory with all the money his parents had left him.

3) 赢得那场重要的比赛之后,他们把队长抬到肩膀上,欢呼着胜利。(hoist ... to ...)

After winning the important game they hoisted their captain to their shoulders in shouting triumph.

4) 在全球化热潮中,我们要提防不同文化的冲突。(watch out for sth.)

In the rush to go for globalization, we should watch out for collision of cultures.

5) 在这种情况下,出现麻烦是不足为奇的。(in the circumstances)

In the circumstances it was not surprising that there was trouble.

6) 这婴儿非常健康。(the picture of)

The baby is the very picture of health.

7) 人们已经意识到儿童接触有关暴力和色情电视节目的危害。(expose sb. to sth. )

People have realized the dangers of exposing children to violence and sex on TV.

8) 我们始终考虑到我们是在为谁制作这部影片。(have in mind)

We always had in mind for whom we were making the film.

翻译

一年夏天,我从家乡加利福尼亚州的塔霍城开车前往新奥尔良。在沙漠深处,我碰到一个年轻人站在路旁。他一只手打出拇指向外的手势,另一只手里拿着一个汽油罐。我直接从他身边开过去了。别人会停下来的,我想。再说,那汽油罐只是个让车停下、好抢劫司机的幌子而已。在这个国家,曾有那么一段时间,你要是对需要帮助的人置之不理,大家会认为你是混蛋,而如今你要是帮了你就是笨蛋。到处潜伏着犯罪团伙、吸毒上瘾者、杀人犯、强奸犯、盗窃犯还有劫车犯,为什么要冒险呢?―我不想卷进去‖已经成为全国性的信条。

2 开过了几个州以后,我还在想着那个想搭便车的人。把他一个人留在沙漠中倒并没有让我有多么不安。让我不安的是,我多么轻易地就做出了这个决定。我甚至根本没把脚从油门上抬起来。我很想知道,现在还有人会停车吗?

3 我想到我此行的目的地——新奥尔良。那里是田纳西?威廉姆斯的剧作《欲望号街车》的背景地。我回想起布兰奇?杜波依斯的名句:―我总是依赖陌生人的善意。‖

4 陌生人的善意。听起来好怪。如今这年头还有谁能指望陌生人的善意吗?

5 要验证这一点,一个办法是一个人从东海岸旅行到西海岸,不带一分钱,完全依靠美国同胞的善意。他会发现一个什么样的美国?谁会给他饭吃、让他歇脚、捎他一程呢?

6 这个念头激起了我的好奇心。但谁会这么不切实际、愿意去尝试这样一次旅行呢?好吧,我想,那不如我来试试?

7 满37岁那个星期,我意识到我这辈子还从没冒过什么险呢。所以我决定来个观念的跨越,美洲大陆那么宽——从太平洋去大西洋,不带一分钱。要是有人给我钱,我会拒绝。我只接受搭顺风车、提供食物和让我歇脚的帮助。这将是在这片金钱至上的土地上的一次身无分文的旅行。我的最终目的地是北卡罗来纳州的―恐惧角‖(即开普菲尔),它象征着我沿途必须克服的所有恐惧。

8 1994年9月6日,我早早起床,背起一个50磅重的包,朝金门桥走去。我从背包里拿出一个牌子,向过路的车辆展示我的目的地:―美利坚‖。

9 司机们隔着挡风玻璃念出这个词,然后笑了。两个女人骑自行车经过。―有点含混,‖其中一个说。一名带有德国口音的年轻男士走上前来问,―你这个?美利坚'‖在哪儿?‖

10 实际上,整整六个星期的时间里我试图找出答案。我搭了82次便车,行程4223英里,穿越了14个州。在旅途中,我发现其他人跟我一样有担心。人们总是在警告我当心别的某个地方。在蒙大拿州,他们叫我留神怀俄明州的牛仔,而在内布拉斯加州,人们提醒我说艾奥瓦州的人可不如他们友好。

11 然而,在我所去的每个州,我都受到了友善的对待。我诧异于美国人执意帮助陌生人的能力,甚至于在看来与自己的最大利益相冲突时他们也绝不袖手旁观。有一天,在内布拉斯加,一辆四门小轿车在路肩停下。我走到车窗边,看到两位穿着节日盛装的瘦小老妇人。

12 ―我知道这年头不该带搭便车的,但这里前不着村后不着店的,不停车感觉真不好。‖自称―维‖的司机说。她和姐姐海伦是去内布拉斯加的安斯沃思看眼科医生的。

13 她们为我停了车,我都不知道是该亲吻她们呢还是该责备她们。这个女人是在告诉我,她宁肯冒生命危险也不愿意因为没为一个站在路边的陌生人停车而感到内疚。她们在一个高速路口把我放下时,我望着维。我们俩异口同声地说,―小心。‖

14 有一次我在雨中没能搭上便车。一名长途卡车司机停了车,他把刹车踩得那么重,车子都在草地路肩上滑行了一段。司机告诉我他有一次被搭便车的人持刀抢劫了。―但我不愿意看到有人在雨里站着。‖他补充说,―现在大家都没有良心了。‖

15 然而,我发现,总体而言,人们还是挺有同情心的。艾奥瓦州一对中年夫妇为了帮我找宿营地领着我走了一个小时。在南达科他州,一个女人让我在她家住了一晚之后递给我两张贴了邮票的明信片:一张是让她知道我这趟旅行结果如何;另一张是要第二天寄出的,告诉她我在哪里,免得她为我担心。

16 听说我没钱,又不愿意接受钱,每个州的人们都会给我买食物或者和我分享他们手头有的东西。在加州的尤凯亚,一位国家公园管理员给了我一些胡萝卜,一名大学生给了我几大袋有机西红柿和瓜类。艾奥瓦州的一名妇女给了我两大包全麦饼干,两罐果汁汽水、两个金枪鱼罐头、两个苹果和两块鸡肉。

17 拥有最少的人往往给予的最多。在俄勒冈一个叫迈克的房屋油漆工注意到天气十分寒冷,就问我有没有外套。我回答说―有件薄的‖,他开车带我去他家,翻遍了车库,递给我一件肥大的绿色军大衣。

18 在俄勒冈的另一个地方,一个叫蒂姆的锯木厂工人邀请我去他们破旧的家里和他家人一起吃了顿简单的晚餐。他给了我一本《圣经》,然后又要把家里的帐篷给我。我拒绝了,因为我知道那极有可能是这家人最值钱的一样东西了。然而蒂姆执意让我接受,所以最后我只好同意。

19 我感激我所遇到的所有人,感谢他们让我搭车,给我食物,给我提供住处,送我礼物。但最友善的举动是,他们是那么自然真诚。

20 有一天,我走进了田纳西州的詹姆斯敦一家当地商会。在这座古老建筑里一个男人从他凌乱的桌子旁站起身。―请进,‖59岁的巴克斯特?威尔逊说。他是那儿的执行会长。

21 我向他打听在当地露营的事。他递给我一本当地露营地的小册子。―需要我帮你打电话吗?‖他问。

22 我一看露营得花12美元,就回答,―不用了,没事。我也不知道我该怎么做。‖

23 这时他看见了我的背包。―这里差不多每个人都会让你在他们的地里支帐篷的,如果那是你所想要的话。‖他说。

24 这话就对了,我想。―有没具体的方位?‖我问。

25 ―跟你说吧,我有个大农场,在从这儿往南大概10英里。要是你五点半能在这儿,我可以开车带你去。‖

26 我接受了,于是我们开车去了一幢华丽的乡村住宅。突然,我意识到他是邀请了我到他家过夜。

27 我们走进厨房时,他的妻子卡萝尔正在炖牛肉块。她是一名七年级的科学老师,简直就是南方魅力的化身。

28 巴克斯特解释说,当地人是―不爱外出的山里人‖,他觉得自己也是这么一个人。―我们很少在家里招待客人,‖他说,―招待的话,一般是亲戚。‖他的这番透露让我那一夜变得更加不同寻常。

29 第二天我下楼时,卡萝尔问我愿不愿意去学校跟她班上的孩子们谈谈我的旅行。我告诉她我可不想怂恿一帮七年级的孩子去搭便车游遍美国,但卡萝尔说孩子们应该接触到外面的世界是什么样子——包括好的一面和坏的一面。―他们需要了解真相,‖她说。

30 我同意了。没过多久,我就被安排给学校每个班讲话。所有的孩子都彬彬有礼而且聚精会神。他们的问题不断冒出来:哪儿的人们最友善?我穿坏过多少双鞋?有没有人试图轧死我?别的地方的猪脚也有这么好吗?我有没有爱上过谁?我最害怕的是什么?

31 尽管我并没有打算这么做,我发现爱国主义的语调贯穿了那天下午的讲话。我告诉学生们,我对美利坚的信念如何重新燃起了。我告诉他们,生活在一个人们仍然愿意帮助陌生人的国度里,我有多么自豪。我告诉他们,我当初计划这次旅行时脑子里的问题已经得到明确的解答。的确,不管你是谁,你仍然可以依赖陌生人的善意。

第二单元

选择乐观

里奇?德沃斯

1 假如你预料某事结局不妙,结果可能真会如此。悲观的想法很少落空。不过这个法则反过来也成立。假如你觉得会有好事发生,通常就会交上好运!乐观与成功之间似乎有一种天然的因果关系。

2 乐观和悲观都具有强大的力量,我们每个人必须选择其一,来塑造自己的前途和理想。每个人的生命中都有足够的幸运与不幸——丰富的哀伤和喜悦、充足的欢欣与痛苦——令我们找到或乐观或悲观的理由。我们可以选择哭或是笑、祝福或是诅咒。这完全取决于我们自己:用什么样的眼光去看待生活?是积极向上,还是垂头丧气?

3 我信守积极向上的态度。对积极的东西我浓墨重彩,对消极的东西则一笔带过。我是乐天派,既是天生如此,也因后天选择所致。诚然,我知道生命中会有伤痛。我已经七十多岁了,经历过不止一次的危机。但是,当一切尘埃落定,我发现生命中的美好远比丑恶多。

4 乐观的态度不是奢侈品,它是我们生活的必需品。你看待生活的方式将决定你的感受、你的表现,以及你与他人相处得怎样。反过来,悲观的想法、态度和期待也会自成因果:它们是能自我实现的预言。悲观会制造出无人愿往的黑暗之地。

5 多年前,我驱车去一个加油站加油。那天天气很好,我的心情也不错。当我走进加油站付油钱时,服务员问我:―你感觉怎样?‖这问题有点古怪,不过,我感觉很好,于是便照实回答了他。―你脸色不好,‖他回答。这话让我大吃一惊。我告诉他我的感觉从未像现在这么好,但已不像开始那么底气十足了,而他则毫无顾忌地继续大讲我的气色如何差,还说我肤色发黄。

6 在离开加油站的时候,我觉得有点心神不宁。驶出一个街区之后,我把车停在路旁,对着镜子看着自己的脸。我感觉如何?我的脸色那么差吗?一切都正常吗?等我回到家里,我已经开始觉得有点想吐。我的肝脏出了毛病吗?是不是染上了什么怪病?

7 再次光顾那个加油站时,我还是感觉很好,我弄明白了个中蹊跷。这个地方不久前把墙漆上了一种抢眼但又难看的黄色,墙面反射的光线使里面的每一个人看起来都像得了肝炎。不知道有多少人有过与我类似的反应。和一个根本不认识的人的一次短短对话竟然改变了我整整一天的心情。他说我面带病容,没过多久,我就真的觉得不舒服。那一句消极的话就大大影响了我的感觉和行为。

8 唯一比否定态度更有力量的是积极的肯定,充满乐观与希望的话语。最让我心存感激的一件事情,就是我生长的这个国度有着伟大的乐观主义传统。如果一种文化从整体上采取积极向上的态度,不可思议的事情也能变成现实。人们若把世界看作光明与希望之地,他们将被赋予努力进取和成就功业的力量。

9 乐观不意味着幼稚。在保持乐观的同时,你仍然能意识到问题的存在,意识到有些问题非常棘手。乐观带来的改变在于面对问题的态度。比方说,这些年我总是听到有人

抱怨用于太空计划的钱是被白白浪费了。他们会说:―与其花4亿5千5百万美元把一个人送上月球,为什么不把这些钱用来解决地球上的贫穷问题呢?‖但当你追问他们打算如何用这些钱来消除贫困时,大多数人又会无言以对。我对他们说:―告诉我一个解决办法,我会为你们筹到钱。‖以积极的方式思考如何解决问题,而不是对花在别的项目上的金钱妄加挑剔。实际上,美国的太空计划带来了许多有价值的发现,全人类都从中受益。

10 乐观精神使我们的注意力从消极的否定态度转向积极的、建设性的思考。乐观主义者更关心如何解决问题,而不是毫无意义地怨天尤人。事实上,如果没有乐观精神,像贫穷这样严重而且现正存在的问题是无望解决的。解决这样的问题需要一个梦想家——一个拥有九死不悔的乐观、矢志不移的坚韧和无限信心的人。何去何从,由你决定。Listen and Respond

Task One Focusing on the Main Ideas

Choose the best answer to complete each of the following sentences according to the information contained in the listening passage.

1 According to the passage Michael was ________.

A) a curious person

B) always an optimist in his life

C) always a victim in his company

D) an employee who liked complaining

2 If something bad happened or someone came to him complaining Michael would ________.

A) choose to be a victim

B) be more likely to be in a bad mood

C) choose to accept the bad thing or the complaining

D) choose the positive side of life

3 In Michael‘s opinion ________.

A) those people who like to complain will often affect our mood

B) we should do some morning exercises to cheer us up

C) how we live our life is decided by our attitude to life

D) optimists have more chances of success than pessimists

4 From Michael the speaker has learned that ________.

A) each morning he must say something to himself

B) everyone may have a chance of success

C) every day we have a choice to live fully

D) it‘s not easy to be an optimist

Task Two Zooming In on the Details

Listen to the recording again and fill in each of the blanks according to what you have heard.

1 If an employee was having a bad day , Michael was there telling the employee how to look on the positive side of the situation.

2 Each morning when Michael woke up he would remind himself to be in a good mood and choose the positive side of life; if something bad happened, he would choose to learn from it and not to be a victim of it.

3 In Michael‘s opinion, life is all about choices . Every situation in life is a choice. You choose how you react to situations; you choose how people will affect your mood; you choose how you feel. The bottom line is: It‘s your choice how you live your life.

4 The author decided to follow Michael‘s example and believed that if he chose to be an optimist he might feel better , enjoy life more and might have more chances of success .

Read and Explore

Task One Discovering the Main Ideas

1 Answer the following questions with the information contained in Text A.

1) According to Rich DeVos, what is the relationship between optimism and success?

According to Rich DeVos, there seems to be a natural cause-and-effect relationship between optimism and success.

2) Why should each of us choose between optimism and pessimism to shape our outlook and our expectations?

Because there is enough good and bad in everyone‘s life and this serves as a rational basis for us to choose either optimism or pessimism.

3) What is the author‘s choice? Why does he make such a choice?

Rich DeVos chooses to highlight the positive and slip right over the negative, because he is an optimist by choice as much as by nature. And he found that the good in life is far greater and more important than the bad.

4) What does the author‘s experience in the service station tell us?

It tells us that a negative attitude may have a profound effect on the way we feel and act.

5) What‘s the meaning of the sentence ―Optimism doesn‘t need to be naive‖(Para. 9)?

We can be optimists and still recognize that problems exist and that some of them are not dealt with easily.

2 Text A can be divided into three parts with the paragraph number(s) of each part provided as follows. Write down the main idea of each part.

Part: One; Paragraph(s): 1-3; Main Idea: It is necessary to choose optimism to shape our outlook and expectations.

Part: Two; Paragraph(s): 4–7; Main Idea: The author illustrates the effect of negativism through his own experience.

Part: Three; Paragraph(s): 8-10; Main Idea: The author suggests that we direct our attention to positive and constructive thinking rather than to negativism.

Task Two Reading Between the Lines

Read the following sentences carefully and discuss in pairs what the author intends to say.

1) An optimistic attitude is not a luxury; it‘s a necessity. (Para. 4)

An optimistic attitude is not something that is enjoyable but unnecessary. It is essential for our life.

2) Pessimism creates a sad and hopeless place where no one wants to live in. (Para. 4)

If you are a pessimist, you will find that the environment you live in is always dull, uninteresting and hopeless.

3) That seemed like an odd question, but I felt fine and told him so. (Para. 5)

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