A. unusual, whatever, escape, traditions, present, grey, moulded, shape, here
1) Students were forbidden to play games, to sing (except sacred music), to hunt or fish or even to dance.
2) When people went anywhere on a visit, the pretty English girls all kissed them.
3) Erasmus, Bacon, Milton, Cromwell, and Newton (or Wordsworth, Byron, Tennyson, etc.)
My coming to Cambridge has been an unusual experience. From whatever country one comes as a student one cannot escape the influence of the Cambridge traditions---and they go back so far! Here, perhaps, more than anywhere else, I have felt at one and the same time the past, the present and even the future. It‘s easy to see in the old grey stone buildings how the past moulded the present and how the present is giving shape to the future. So let me tell you a little of what this university town looks like and how it came to be here at all.
The story of the University began, so far as I know, in 1209 when several hundred students and scholars arrived in the little town of Cambridge after having walked 60 miles from Oxford.
Of course there were no colleges in those early days and student life was very different from what it is now. Students were of all ages and came from anywhere and everywhere. They were armed; some even banded together to rob the people of the countryside. Gradually the idea of the college developed, and in 1284, Peterhouse, the oldest college in Cambridge, was founded.
Life in college was strict; students were forbidden to play games, to sing (except sacred music), to hunt or fish or even to dance. Books were very scarce and all the lessons were in the Latin language which students were supposed to speak even among themselves.
In 1440 King Henry VI founded King‘s College, and the other colleges followed. Erasmus, the great Dutch scholar, was at one of these, Queens‘ College, from 1511 to 1513, and though he wrote that the college beer was ―weak and badly made‖, he also mentioned a pleasant custom that unfor tunately seems to have ceased.
―The English girls are extremely pretty,‖ Erasmus said, ―soft, pleasant, gentle, and charming. When you go anywhere on a visit the girls all kiss you. They kiss you when you arrive. They kiss you when you go away and agai n when you return.‖
Many other great men studied at Cambridge, among them Bacon, Milton, Cromwell, Newton, Wordsworth, Byron and Tennyson.
A. 1) a) 2) b) 3) a) 4) c)
1) They usually wear black gowns—long gowns that hang down to the feet are for graduates, and shorter ones for
2) Women students do not play a very active part in university life at Cambridge, but they work harder than men. C.
1) meadows, green, peaceful, bending into, intervals, deep coloured, reflection, contrasts, lawns
2) peace, scholarship, peace, suggest, stretches, charmingly cool, graceful
Now let me give you some idea of what you would see if you were to talk around Cambridge. Let us imagine that I am seeing the sights for the first time. It is a quite market town and the shopping centre extends for quite a large area, but I notice more bookshops than one normally sees in country town s, and more tailors‘ shops showing in their windows the black gowns that students must wear—long gowns that hang down to the feet for graduates and shorter ones for undergraduates.
In the centre of the town is the market place where several times each week country traders come to sell their produce. Everywhere there are teashops, some in modern and many in old buildings, reached by climbing narrow stairs. There is a great deal of bicycle traffic, mainly undergraduates who race along thoughtless of safety, with long scarves (in various colours to denote their college) wound round their necks.
Continuing, I find my way to the river which flows behind the college buildings and curls about the town in the shape of a horseshoe. This narrow river is the Granta, and a little farther on changes in name to the Cam. It flows slowly and calmly. The ―Blacks‖, as this part of the town behind the colleges is called, have been described as the loveliest man-made view in English. It is indeed beautiful. To the felt, across the stream, there are no buildings, merely meadows, colleges‘ gardens and lines of tall trees. Everything is very green and peaceful. On the river bank are willow trees with their branches bending into the water and, at intervals along the river, stone bridges cross the stream and lead into the colleges which line the bank. The deep coloured brick or stone of college
walls, sometimes red and sometimes grey, is 500 years old. The walls rise out of their own reflection in the water and their colour contrasts charmingly with glimpses of the many green lawns.
Walking along the river bank, where the only sound is the noise of gentle wind in the tree tops, I came to my college, King‘s College. Across a bridge and beyond a vast carpet of green lawn stands King‘s College Chapel, the largest and most beautiful building in Cambridge and the most perfect example left of English fifteenth-century architecture.
The colleges join one another along the curve of the river. Going through a college gate one finds one is standing in an almost square space of 70 yards known as a ―court‖. Looking down into the court on all sides are the buildings where the students live. The colleges are built on a plan common to all. There is a chapel, a library, and a large dinning-hall. One court leads to another and each is made beautiful with lawns or a fountain or charming old stone path. The student gets a good impression of all the English architectural styles of the past 600 years---the bad as well as the good.
There are 28 colleges, excluding three for women students. Women students do not play a very active part in university life at Cambridge, but they work harder than men.
It is difficult to walk around the quite courts of the colleges without feeling a sense of peace and scholarship. And the sense of peace that green lawns always suggest to me is found in the town too, for often one is surprised to meet open stretches of grass in the midst of the streets and house giving a charmingly cool countryside effect and re minding one of the more graceful days of eighteenth century. I‘ll finish as I began on that note, the feeling one has here of the past in the present, of continuing tradition and firm faith.
A. 1) b) 2) c)
“F ive Secrets” for Getting a Student Visa
Secret One: Get free, accurate information by visiting the US Embassy website.
Secret Two: Be thoroughly prepared.
Bring: I-20 form or IAP form;
Standardized test score reports (TOEFL, GRE, GMAT, LSAT, etc.);
All letters and e-mails from the school, esp. those discussing financial aid;
Evidence of funding for the applicant‘s studies;
Any other documents that might be important.
Secret Three: Answer the questions that are asked. Don‘t give the visa officer a prepared speech.
Secret Four: Tell the truth.
Secret Five: Come back to China in two ways:
1) Come back to see your family and maintain your ties to China.
2) Come back to China after graduation.
On March 7, US Consul General David Hopper and three other officials from the Visa Section of the American Embassy met with students at Peking University. One of the officials presented ―Five Secrets‖for getting a student visa.
Get free, accurate information on applying for a student visa. Visit the US Embassy website. There is no charge for using these resources. Why pay to get the same information from other sources?
Be thoroughly prepared. Make sure you bring:
● Y I-20 form (or IAP-66 form);
●Your standardized test score reports (TOEFL, GRE, GMAT, LSAT, etc.);
●All letters and e-mails from the school, especially those that discuss scholarships, assistantships, fellowships
and other forms of financial aid;
●Evidence of funding for your studies (bank documents, etc.);
●Your business cards (if you have a job);
●Any other documents that you think might be important.
Answer those questions that are asked. Don‘t give the visa officer a prepared speech! Here‘s an example of what to avoid.
Visa officer：Hi, how are you today?
Applicant：I‘m going to study chemical engineering at X University.
Visa officer：X University? I've been to the campus many times.
Applicant：I will surely return to China and find a good job with a major multinational company.
Visa officer：So tell me, what color is the sky?
Applicant：I was given a teaching assistantship because the school believes my test scores and credentials are excellent．
These people are not communicating, and the applicant is not advancing his cause!
Tell the truth. If the visa officer thinks you‘re lying, you won‘t ge t a visa.
Come back to China. We mean that in two ways：
1. Come back to see your family and maintain your ties to China．Keep up your friendships and professional
contacts here．Students returning on vacation d on‘t eve n need to come in for an interview；they can simply use the drop-box service offered at many CITIC Bank locations.
2. Come back to China after you graduate. Use those advanced skills and theories that you learn in the US to
make China a better place．
1) You are not well suited for it. / You do not have the necessary qualities or abilities for it.
2) You cannot go back to the previous situation. /You cannot change your mind.
3) You can‘t change halfway the subjects you choose to study.
B. 1) b) 2) a) 3) c) 4) a) 5) a) 6) b)
In the text, John criticizes the British university system for being too specialized in their curriculum, and argues that the American system is a better one. But Peter, the US student, doesn‘t agree. In the debate, encourage students to refer to the points made by Peter or john in the conversation. They may also use their own experience at a Chinese university to support their viewpoints.
John‘s arguments for a broader course of study:
—Students who follow a broader course will have a better understanding of the world in general, and they will be more flexible in their jobs, so that if things go wrong they will be able to change jobs more easily.
—Things are changing so rapidly that we have to change with them. Too much emphasis on specialization makes it difficult for us to renew or update our knowledge.
—The majority of British students never use 90 percent of what they have studied at university, because what they learned is too academic and difficult.
Peter‘s arguments against John:
—There are too many subjects today. You won‘t be competent in anything if you don‘t focus. Life is short. You can‘t do everything.
—People usually know what they want to do in high school.
—There are not many alternatives if students want to learn enough to be competent in their subject.
—American students with a first degree don‘t have the depth of knowledge they should have.
—Specialization is particularly important in sciences.
—People need to acquire a lot of pure knowledge, particularly in technical and scientific areas. The importance of pure knowledge should not be underestimated.
John: I disagree, Peter. I don‘t think it really matters what your educational background is. Anyone who is bright enough is going to do well whatever their education.
Peter: But John, …
John: In fact, I think some people carry on with their education when they would do a lot better to get out and start building their own careers by learning things in real life.
Peter: Yes, but the whole point is, life is getting so much more complicated these days that unless you carry on with your studies you just can't cope.
John: For certain things, and certain people, okay. But to my mind, the big problem in education is that you specialize too quickly. I mean, in England, you start specializing from the third year in secondary school, when you're about 14. And it gets steadily narrower until you do your A-levels in only two or three subjects.
You either do languages, or natural sciences, or social sciences.
Peter: But surely these days you have to, John—you can't possibly study everything, because there's just too much. John: Yes, but how many kids at the age of 16 really know what they want to do? How many of them are convinced that the three subjects they've chosen, or have been recommended, are the ones that will let them follow the careers they eventually decide on?
Peter: Oh, I think most young people who stay on at school have a fair idea of what they want to do.
John: I'm not so sure, Peter. And after all, that's not the end of it. When they get to university in England, the subjects they study are so narrow that they are only good for one thing; so they are stuck with it.
Peter: But I don't really see that there is any alternative if people are going to learn enough to be competent in their subject. They've got to specialize early, and I suppose those that realize they've made a mistake can always swap to something else.
John: Ah, but that's just it. You can't. Suppose you study languages at university and then decide that you are not cut out for it and would like to be a doctor. You've burnt your bridges. You can't just change horses in midstream; you've got to go right back to the beginning and you lose years. I think the American system is much better.
Peter: In what way?
John: Well, for your first degree you've got to study a fairly wide range of subjects, and you can choose them yourself, within certain limits.
Peter: Fine, but doesn't that mean that American students with a first degree don't have the depth of knowledge they should have?
John: Should have for what?
Peter: Well, they often aren't accepted for postgraduate work in England with just a first degree.
John: Maybe not, but I don't really think that's important. They come out with a pretty good general knowledge in
a wide area. After all, when you think about a lot of the stuff English students have to study, what good is it
to them afterwards? I'm sure the majority of British students never use 90 percent of what they studied at university.
Peter: That may be true of some arts subjects, but what about the sciences?
John: Even there, a lot of what they do at university is so academic and abstruse that they will never be able to put it to any practical use. I'm sure they would benefit far more from on-the-job experience. And if they've had a broader course of study they've got two advantages.
Peter: How do you mean?
John: First of all, they will have a better understanding of the world in general, so they will be more flexible in their jobs, and then if things do go wrong they will be able to switch jobs more easily.
Peter: That all sounds very simple, but I think you're still underestimating the amount of pure learning that you need these days, particularly in technical and scientific areas. I mean even at school these days, children have to learn far more things than we did when we were at school.
John: All the more reason why we should not try to concentrate on such a few things at such an early age. Things are changing so rapidly these days that we have to change with them. When we were younger, there was a pretty good chance that we would be able to carry on in the profession we'd chosen until we retired. But these days, people have got to be prepared to change their jobs and learn new skills as technology moves ahead. Take just the area of the office, for example. How many offices...
domestic, diversity, flexibility, more than 3,600, campuses, enrolled students, industries, about 3 million, Harvard, Stanford, community colleges, state universities, faculties, ethnic minorities, subjects and course options, student, consumer, flexibility, specialize, a higher education, postsecondary, a new career, retired people
That a record 453,787 foreign students from 180 countries attended colleges and universities in the US in the past academic year is perhaps the most vivid indication that there are important advantages in American higher education.
No other country receives even half as many foreign students, yet international students represent only 3% of the total enrollment at US colleges and universities. In all, some fifteen million students attend America's institutions of higher education.
These statistics illustrate four major features of the American higher education system which make it attractive to both domestic and foreign students: size, diversity, flexibility and accessibility.
Today there are more than 3,600 institutions of higher education in the United States. Some of the large state university systems, such as those in New York, California and Texas, comprise dozens of campuses and hundreds of thousands of enrolled students. Indeed, higher education has become one of the biggest "industries" in the US, employing some three million people.
The range and diversity of institutions and programs of study in the US are even more impressive. The system encompasses both prestigious private universities such as Harvard and Stanford, which are among the best in the world, and local publicly-funded community colleges; both huge state university campuses enrolling 40,000-50,000 students and tiny private institutes with fewer than 100 students.
American higher education is diverse in other ways, too. Not only do most colleges and universities enroll foreign students, but foreign faculty and visiting scholars play an important role on many campuses, particularly the large universities. In most comprehensive institutions, there are as many female students as male, and the numbers of students and faculty from ethnic minorities, particularly Asian-Americans and Hispanic-Americans have been steadily increasing. As a result, the campus communities of many American universities reflect in microcosm the diversity of larger society.
Higher education in the US is also unique in offering an enormous variety of subjects and course options, ranging from Aerospace Engineering to Women's Studies and from Art to Zoology. Because it is dependent on tuition for funding, higher education in the US is student-centered and consumer-oriented; institutions teach what students want to know and what society as a whole thinks is useful. For example, the large public universities of New York, Ohio State University, and the University of Texas at Austin offer hundreds of different degree programs and have academic catalogs listing thousands of courses.
The variety of programs and courses contributes to the flexibility of the American system. Undergraduates usually begin their program taking "general education," "liberal arts," or "core curriculum" courses—in order that they might become more "well-rounded" students—and only later select their major in many cases, not until their second year.
Because they do not specialize from the very beginning, undergraduate students have more options than their
counterparts in other countries. Not infrequently, American undergraduates change their mind and decide to take a different major, but this does not oblige them to start over, for at least part of their course work can still be applied to the new degree.
Most academic programs include "elective courses" which students can sometimes take outside their main field of study. This gives them added choice in planning their education, and enables them to broaden their perspective by learning about other subjects. Thus, much is left up to student, who is expected to choose from a bewildering variety of institutions, degree programs and courses, and often must depend on his/her academic advisors for help in planning a program of study.
The size, diversity and flexibility of the American higher education system all contribute to its accessibility. Americans take for granted that everyone, regardless of their origin, should have a right to a higher education, and opportunities do exist for a large percentage of college-age young people to pursue postsecondary studies. It should be remembered that in the US the category "higher education" can encompass vocational, technical, professional and other specialized training.
Fundamental to American culture is the high value it places on education. At whatever level, education is considered a form of self-improvement, which can lead to new career opportunities, economic advances and personal betterment, regardless of one's age. An increasing number of older, "non-traditional" students are attending college and university in the US, many having gone back for additional training or to prepare for a new career. Moreover, as many as fifteen million Americans, including large number of retired people, enroll in noncredit college courses (in other words, courses not leading to a degree) every year.
【答案】A.1) b) 2) a) 3) a) 4) c) 5) b)
1. little use for the liberation of African people
2. to overcome the social and technological backwardness
1.formal education, society
2. catalyst, social change
A. the world`s best, the most appropriate
B. integrate education and life, and education and production
C. we should judge a child or and an adult by their academic ability
III. the formal education system, society as a whole, cooperativeness, a desired to serve
We know that something called ―education‖ is a good thing. And all African states therefore spend a large proportion of government revenue on it. But, I suspect that for us in Africa the underlying purpose of education is to turn us into black Europeans, or black Americans, because our education policies make it quite clear that we are really expecting education in Africa to enable us to emulate the material achievements of Europe and America. We have not begun to think seriously about whether such material achievements are possible or desirable.
The primary purpose of education is the liberation of man. To ―liberate‖ is to ―set free‖. It implies impediments to freedom having been thrown off. But a man can be physically free from restraint and still be unfree if his mind is restricted by habits and attitudes which limit his humanity.
Education is incomplete if it enables man to work out elaborate schemes for universal peace but does not teach him how to provide good food for himself and his family. It is equally incomplete if it teaches man to be an efficient tool user and tool maker, but neglects his personality and his relationship with his fellow human beings.
There are professional men who say, "My market value is higher than the salary I am receiving in Tanzania." But no human being has a market value—except a slave. When people say such things, in effect they are saying, "This education I have been given has turned me into a marketable commodity, like cotton or sisal." And they are showing that, instead of liberating their humanity by giving it a greater chance to express itself, the education they have received has degraded their humanity. Their education has converted them into objects—repositories of knowledge like rather special computers.
We condemn such people. Yet it is our educational system which is instilling in boys and girls the idea that their education confers a price tag on them—which ignores the infinite and priceless value of a liberated human being, who is cooperating with others in building a civilization worthy of creatures made in the image of God. Part 2
A formal school system, devised and operated without reference to the society in which its graduates will live, is of little use as an instrument of liberation for the people of Africa. At the same time, learning just by living and doing in the existing society would leave us so backward socially and technologically that human liberation in the foreseeable future is out of the question. Somehow we have to combine the two systems. We have to integrate formal education with the society and use education as a catalyst for change in that society.
Inevitably it takes time to change. We have not solved the problem of building sufficient self-confidence to refuse what we regard as the world's best (whatever that may mean), and to choose instead the most appropriate for our conditions. We have not solved the problem of our apparent inability to integrate education and life, and education and production. We have not solved the problem of overcoming the belief that academic ability marks out a child or an adult as especially praiseworthy, or as deserving a privileged place in society.
This is not a failure within the formal education system. It is a failure of society as a whole. Indeed, the educationalists have advanced in these matters more than other sections of the community. But our society has not yet accepted that character, cooperativeness and a desire to serve are relevant to a person's ability to benefit from further training.
For beauty and for romance the first place among all the cities of the United Kingdom must be given to Oxford. The impression that Oxford makes upon those who, familiar with her from early years, have learnt to know and love her in later life is remarkable. Teeming with much that is ancient, she appears the embodiment of youth and beauty. Exquisite in line, sparkling with light and colour, she seems ever bright and young, while her sons fall into decay and perish. "Alma Mater!" they cry, and love her for her loveliness, till their dim eyes can look on her no more.
And this is for the reason that the true lovableness of Oxford cannot be learnt at once. As her charms have grown from age to age, so their real appreciation is gradual. Not that she cannot catch the eye of one who sees her for the first time, and, smiling, hold him captive. This she can do now and then; but even so her new lover has yet to learn her preciousness.
A. 1) c) 2) d) 3) b)
B. 1) T 2) F 3) T
Dear Ann Landers:
I buried my husband yesterday. We were married for 23 years. My hand is not very steady but I must write this letter. Perhaps it is grief therapy for myself, but whatever the reason I hope you will not think I am out of my head.
Our marriage was what you might call "average". We had more than our share of arguments, but on balance we had more fun together than most couples our age. I am Italian and Bill was Irish. Maybe that explains a few things. Anyway, I loved him very much and I know he loved me.
We had an argument Wednesday night. It was a bitter quarrel and we both said things we shouldn't have. Thursday morning I fixed Bill a good breakfast but we didn't speak. I figured we'd patch things up at supper. That afternoon at 4 o'clock he was dead. It was a massive heart attack, his first. By the time I reached the hospital, he was gone.
Years ago you gave some advice on how to have a good marriage. You said, "Never go to bed mad." How I wish I had taken that advice. It's awful to know that our last words were angry ones.
I hope every married couple who reads this will ask themselves this question: "If I never see my beloved again, what were the last words we spoke to one another?" That's something to think about, isn't it? Too Late For Me!
1) Donald, whom Olivia loves, has proposed marriage to her.
2) She cannot make up her mind because it is wartime and she does not have enough time to know more about Donald and ensure her feelings.
3) She thinks Donald probably just wants to marry himself off before he is killed in the war.
Olivia: Donald has asked me to marry him.
Marcia: Has he? That's wonderful! Olivia!
Olivia: Is it?
Marcia: Well... yes.., don't you think it is?
Olivia: I'm not sure. I'm really not.
Marcia: Why not? Don't you love him?
Olivia: Yes... I think so. But is that a good reason to get married? Now? With a war going on?
Marcia: I don't think I understand.
Olivia: Well, it's.., how shall I say it...? Oh, I find it very difficult to explain!
Marcia: Are you afraid he may be... may be...
Olivia: Killed? Yes, of course. But that isn't the reason.
Marcia: Well, what is it, then?
Olivia: It's just that I feel that.., how can I put it...? If there weren't a war on, things would be different. We'd have more time together. More time to decide. How can I be sure I really love him? Or that he loves me? I sometimes think that he wants to get married now because he thinks it may be his last chance.
Marcia: To do what?
Olivia: To get married, of course.
Marcia: Oh, I see. I mean, I think I'm beginning to understand now.
Olivia: What would you do if you were me? I mean, would you..do you think I should...
Marcia: It's hard to say. I just don't know.
Olivia: Neither do I. That's the problem!
A. broken down, exceptional, three, solicitor, proceedings, alcoholic, brute, judge, court
1) two, consent to divorce
2) five, the other‘s consent
3) two, Evidence for desertion can be provided
4) adultery, cannot bear to live with the other
5) one party‘s unreasonable behaviour, cannot continue living with him or her, Consultation with a solicitor
As the law stands today, it has to be shown that a marriage has irretrievably broken down before a divorce can be granted, and, unless the circumstances are exceptional, you must have been married for three years before you can apply for a divorce.
If you genuinely feel that your marriage has broken down beyond repair, your nearest divorce court can supply you with a booklet called Undefended Divorce, which outlines the necessary steps to take and five facts or grounds on which you can prove to a judge that your marriage has truly broken down. Briefly, they are as follows:
1. Separation for a period of two years by mutual consent with both partners agreeing to divorce.
2. Separation for a period of five years. In this case, either partner can start divorce proceedings without the other's consent.
3. Desertion for a period of two years, but you will have to supply evidence to show that you have been genuinely deserted.
4. Adultery, plus the fact that you cannot bear to continue living with your partner, although this does not have to particularly relate to the adultery. You will also have to produce substantial evidence to prove that adultery really has taken place.
5. Unreasonable behaviour, to the extent that you cannot expect to continue living with your partner. Again, you'll have to provide evidence to support this claim and, in many cases, it's wise to consult a solicitor before starting any proceedings on such grounds. Your personal idea of unreasonable behaviour may be very different from that held by the law. Boozy nights out with the boys might not make a man a roaring alcoholic, just as a possibly provoked slap might not brand him as a brute in the eyes of a judge. So make sure you really know what's required to satisfy the court first.
A. 1) a) 2) b) 3) c)
B. 1) F 2) F 3) F 4) T
People nowadays find it hard to believe that Helen and I had a working honeymoon. We spent it in tuberculin testing, partly because the work was overdue and partly because we hadn't the money to do anything very exotic.
For all that, we had a wonderful time. I did the testing and Helen did the writing as I injected the cows and called out their skin measurements. Our headquarters was the old Wheatsheaf Inn at Carperby.
After our marriage on a cold, sunny November day in Thirsk Church we drove west to Richmond. It was in the era when everybody's idea of a big night was going to the cinema, and that was what we did. We went to the Zetland in Richmond, then drove through the darkness, over the moors, down the steep bank to Redmire and so to Carperby.
We hadn't expected anything to eat at that hour but the owner, Mrs. Kilburn and her niece, Gladys, produced a delicious hot meal. Those two good ladies fed us like royalty during our stay there, piling the dining table with Yorkshire fare. Enormous breakfasts of home cured ham and fresh eggs, massive dinners of roast beef and Yorkshire puddings and apple pies drowned in cream. And always, on the table, a foot high Wensleydale cheese--the old kind of "wet" Wensleydale cheese which perhaps did not satisfy the technical purists but was exquisite to eat.
Our bedroom, with its brass bedstead, looked out over the old roofs of the village houses across the Ure to the hills beyond, and I still feel that wherever Helen and I might have spent our honeymoon we could not have found greater beauty.
This feeling persisted over the next few days, and the sun shone determinedly and we drove from one grey-stone farmhouse to the other, luxuriating in the surroundings of Wensleydale and Coverdale.
I can remember Mr. Butterfield of Melmerby being highly amused at our kind of honeymoon and bursting into half-stifled laughter as we moved from barn to barn on his farm.
I had a lot of fun, too with Mrs. Allen of Gayle, that marvellous village set off incomparably by its stream rushing over the shelving rock. I was having lunch with Mrs. Allen on the Tuesday after testing her husband's cattle when she teased me, as she often did, about getting married. When I replied unemotionally that the ceremony was fixed for the following day she couldn't believe me.
"But you are coming here to do the second injection on Thursday!" she said.
I nodded. "That's right. And I'll be bringing my wife with me."
"But aren't you going on a honeymoon?" Her eyes were wide.
"Of course," I replied airily. "We're coming here."
It was a wonderful punchline and when I left the farm the poor lady was still incredulous. But all her doubts were resolved when I turned up on Thursday with Helen, and she gave my new wife a proper Dales welcome.
The day was idyllic. The Allen farm stretched away over the high moors to Oughtershaw, a piece of bleakest Yorkshire, but smiling in the sunshine through its bare miles of tufted grass. The air had the sharp sweetness which is found only on the topmost Permines. And that was where Mr. Allen first referred to Helen as my "missus". I really knew I was married then.
B. 1) d) 2) b)
C. 1) T 2) F 3) T
―But what if I break my arm again?‖ my five year-old daughter asked, her lower lip trembling. I knelt holding onto her bike and looked her right in the eyes. I knew how much she wanted to learn to ride—how often she felt left out when her friends pedaled by our house. Yet ever since she‘d fallen off her bike and broken her arm, she‘d been afraid.
―Oh honey,‖ I said. ―I don‘t think you‘ll break another arm.‖
―But I could, couldn‘t I?‖
―Yes,‖ I admitted, and found myself struggling for the right thing to say. At times like this, I wished I had a partner to turn to. Someone who might help find the right words to ma ke my little girl‘s problems disappear. But after a disastrous marriage and a painful divorce, I‘d welcomed the hardships of being a single parent and had been firm in telling anyone who tried to fix me up that I was terminally single.
―I don‘t think I want to ride,‖ she said and got off her bike.
We walked away and sat down beside a tree.
―Don‘t you want to ride with your friends?‖ I asked.
―And I thought you were hoping to start riding your bike to school next year,‖ I added.
―I was,‖ she said, her voice almost a quiver.
―You know, hon,‖ I said. ―Most everything you do comes with risks. You could get a broken arm in a car wreck and then be afraid to ever ride in a car again. You could break your arm jumping rope. You could break
you r arm at gymnastics. Do you want to stop going to gymnastics?‖
―No,‖ she said. And with a determined spirit, she stood up and agreed to try again. I held on to the back of her bike until she found the courage to say, ―Let‘s go!‖
I spent the rest of the afternoon at the park watching a very brave little girl overcome a fear, and congratulating myself for being a self-sufficient single parent.
As we walked home, pushing the bike as we made our way along the sidewalk, she asked me about a conversation she‘d overheard me having with my mother the night before.
―Why were you and grandma arguing last night?‖
My mother was one of the many people who constantly tried to fix me up. How many times had I told her
―no‖ to meeting the Mr. Perfect she picked out for me. She just knew Steve was the man for me.
―It‘s nothing,‖ I told her.
She shrugged. ―Grandma said she just wanted you to find someone to love.‖
―What grandma wants is for some guy to break my heart again,‖ I snapped, angry that my mother had said anything about this to my daughter.
―You‘re too young to understand,‖ I told her.
She was quiet for the next few minutes. Then she looked up and in a small voice gave me something to think about.
―So I guess love isn‘t like a broken arm.‖
Unable to answer, we walked the rest of the way in silence. When I got home, I called my mother and scolded her for talking about this to my daughter. Then I did what I‘d seen my brave little girl do that very afternoon. I let go and agreed to meet Steve.
Steve was the man for me. We married less than a year later. It turned out mother and my daughter were right.
A. 1) d) 2) d)
B. 1) T 2) F 3) T
C. a) Getting the groom to church on time
b) Dressing the bridegroom
c) Having the wedding ring ready
Until Jack and Jill did me the signal honor of asking me to be their best man I could not understand this best
man business at all.
Surely, I said to myself, the bridegroom is the best man—the bravest, the luckiest, most desired man.
Not his sidekick, the guy whose only job is to produce the wedding ring at the appropriate time so that the groom can pop it on the bride‘s third finger—left hand!
How wrong one can be! This is the voice of experience.
Just listen to me and maybe you will have second thoughts about who is the best man.
First of all the best man must be a bachelor.
They dare not ask a married man. Marriage men are experienced—know what it is all abo
Bachelors know nothing of those mysteries which convert a miss into a missus to the endless preparations which go into managing this.
For the information of those who have not had the experience, let me tell you.
A best man is some kind of Boy Scout. You know, a chap brimming over with bonhomie, dedicated to good turns—that sort of man.
He must make the path seem straight and even when really it is not a path at all but a burning deck with a cargo of hobgoblins.
He is the bridegroom's steadying influence, the cheerful chap who sees to everything, and keeps his head in all the emergencies.
Responsibilities—dear me, I'll tell you. Do you know I dared not even let myself go at last night's party? There was so much to do this morning.
The best man is responsible for getting the groom to church on time. Yes, the best man has to help dress the groom. See to it that his pockets don't bulge with the usual paraphernalia.
And then I had to make sure that we had extra handkerchiefs—a vicar told me to see to that one.
Above all I had to make sure of the ring. All Jack did was keep asking about it. I nearly had a nervous breakdown checking again and again that it was actually in my pocket.
Had I taken it out, even once, I'm sure I'd have lost it.
You've no idea of what I went through before we got to the church—my worries melted away the moment our enchanting bride arrived with her wonderful retinue.
Beauty and light came in with the bride and her lovely bridesmaids.
Since their arrival all has been well, very well with me.
Feast your eyes upon them, ladies and gentlemen. They are charm itself. As soon as they appeared the scene changed, everything became sweetness and light, and I became the happiest form of mortals. They are my good fairies. In their presence the hobgoblins dare not materialize.
And so, ladies and gentlemen, it is, on their behalf, my great pleasure to thank Jack for the super way in which he proposed the toast of the bridesmaids who like myself wish Jill and you everything that is best in the new life which you are now starting.
A. 1) c) 2) c) 3) b) 4) d) 5) d)
B.1) F 2) T 3) F 4) F 5) T 6) T
Perhaps the greatest impediment to friendship in marriage is the amount a couple usually see of each other．Friendship in its usual sense is not tested by the strain of daily, year-long cohabitation. Couples need to contrive separate interests (and friend ships) as well as mutually shared ones, if they are not to become accustomed to the more attractive elements of each ot her‘s personalities．
Married couples are apt to exert themselves for guests—being amusing, discussing with passion and point—and then to relapse into dull exhausted silence when the guests have gone. They may compound the boredom by starting to accuse each other of points of inattention or illogicality or ―disloyalty‖ that they noticed in the other．As in all friendship, a husband and wife must strive to interest each other, and to spend sufficient time sharing absorbing activities to give them continuing common interests. But at the same time they must spend enough time on separate interests with separate people (with out jealousy on the other‘s part) to preserve and develop their separate personalities and keep their relationship fresh．
For too many highly intelligent working women, home represents chore obligations, because the husband only tolerates her work and does not participate in household chores. For too many highly intelligent working men, home represents dullness and reproaches—from an overdependent wife who will not gather courage to make her own life．
In such an atmosphere，the partners grow further and further apart，both love and liking disappearing．For too many couples with children, the children are allowed to command all time and attention, allowing the couple no time to develop liking and friendship, as well as love, allotting them exclusive parental roles.
We live in an industrial society with universal education and universal suffrage and the ability to control the number of children we can cope with. Yet we nurture many gender prejudices suited only to slave or tribal societies.
However almost in spite of ourselves—in spite of our conditioning—we are seeing friendship between men and women. Most of the media deride the possibility—after all, if every man is not to regard every woman as dangerous prey and every woman is not to regard every man as a dangerous source of loot and flattery, a major
part of sensational reporting and fiction is lost.
But it seems that friendship is possible between people of different gender. And it is also possible between people who are sexually involved with each other. It does not seem too soon for friendship to be recognized as a desirable component of the marital relationship. There can be few more rewarding activities than learning to make friends with your marriage partner.
Boston Herald, Iraq, e-mails, articles, her friends‘ comments, fight the war, report on the fighting
The wife’s friends:
would not have let him go, taking care of the three children, aged 9,7and 5, the danger
is it worth, unbearable, always huddled against me at night, kept asking me when Daddy was coming home, never said anything but she would glance her fat her‘s photo next to his articles every morning, support my husband, bring us the news, did what his career asked him to do
My husband is on the front lines in Iraq. Not as a soldier, but as a reporter. When I told my friends about his latest assignment, each had the same reaction, "Did you tell him no? If he was my husband, I wouldn't let him go."
They remind me, as if I'd somehow forgotten, that he has left behind our three young children for weeks, perhaps months. Maybe, they whisper, forever. He'll be risking his life, they say, for some news.
Is it worth it?
I understand the implication behind the questions, that my husband is more concerned with the trajectory of his career than the welfare of his family. I understand the pity they feel for me because of the burden suddenly heaped on my shoulders to be a somewhat single mother to three children - 9, 7, and 5. I understand because I've sometimes wrestled with the same thoughts.
During the past seven weeks, there have been moments I've found myself lying awake in the bleak hours before dawn, in a bed we used to share, trying to reconcile myself to the belief that his professional goals as a journalist are compatible with our goals for our family. In those dark moments, only the glow of the computer screen alerting me to an e-mail from him chased away the shadows of doubt.
As difficult as this uncertain time apart has been for us, the toll it's taken on my children has been immeasurable.
My 5-year-old daughter devised a schedule to determine which of the children would keep me company in my empty bed at night. Whether it was her turn or not, I can usually wake to find her huddled against me. My 7-year-old son has many questions about the range of Iraqi missiles. Though I've never allowed my children to watch the evening news, National Public Radio has been my constant companion, and his ears prick up at any mention of the war, and he queries me about "Osama Hussein." Most troubling of all, my 9-year-old daughter has said nothing. She has asked no questions, shed no tears, and she merely glances at the photo of her father prominently displayed on the page next to his articles each morning. And all three are probably the only kids at their schools who can find Iraq on a map.
Now that war has interrupted the flow of our e-mail, my only contact with my husband is via his articles in the Boston Herald, a newspaper he has served for a decade. In an odd way, those articles written for thousands provide a more intimate connection to my husband than the e-mails he wrote to me. I think it's because, from a distance, it's somehow easier for him to reveal himself to strangers than to the woman who aches for him.
In the end, when friends ask, "Is it worth it?" I can answer yes. He, like other reporters from other countries, is presenting us with the truth.
Each time we turn on our radios, click on our televisions, flip open our newspapers, we overlook the risks reporters take to bring us the news. We forget that a camera and tape recorder do not defend against bullets and land mines. Perhaps it never occurred to us, as we watched how the battle was going on, that someone stayed behind to film it.
It has often been said that journalists write the first drafts of history. In one of our last correspondences, I told him about my friends' comments. He responded with his usual eloquence, "I'm not here to fight the war, just to report on the fighting."
So when my friends ask, I tell them it wasn't a matter of letting him go or making him stay. My husband just does what his career asks him to do.
A．1) F 2) T 3) F 4) F 5) F
Traditional weddings in Japan:
has her belongings taken to the place of her husband-to-be, says her prayers at the altar, the parents of the bride and the bridegroom
Traditional weddings in India:
putting a red mark on his forehead, meaning that he is now ready to have children, a decorated horse, place garlands of flowers on each other, they now belong to each other
Traditional weddings in Siberia:
a celebration of their main occupation-fishing, the end of the fishing season, bowls of fish eggs, the hope that the newly married couple will have many children, the g room‘s house by boat
Traditional Christian weddings:
a veil, modesty, marriage vows
Unusual forms of weddings:
under water, a fitness display
Well, as we mentioned at the beginning of the program someone in the news is about to get married and that person is me. I'm going to be getting married in Adelaide this Saturday and the BTN team asked me to bring along a photo of my bride-to-be. So I did. Here we are. Her name's Catherine. This is actually a photo of her when we went on a recent skiing trip together. But my wedding—of course, our wedding—is not the biggest news story of the year, but the BTN team thought that it was a really good time to see how all sorts of different people celebrate marriage.
Of course, brides and grooms have been getting married in one way or another ever since people first lived on earth. And it's believed that in really ancient times the wedding ceremony probably wasn't really very gentle. The man picked his bride and that was that, as they thought. But then again, on the other hand, who's to say that it never happened the other way round? Marriage ceremonies, of course, have changed a lot since then and are certainly a lot less painful, I hope. But they're still very different in different parts of the world.
A traditional wedding, for example, in Japan, begins with the bride taking most of her belongings to the house of her husband-to-be. Relatives and friends help carry her things on bamboo poles. Before she leaves, the bride says prayers at her altar. These days, the bride travels by bus if her husband lives a long way away. Traditional weddings now only take place in country areas. The wedding itself is a very private affair, only attended by the bride and groom and their parents. They are married by a priest in the Japanese Shinto religion.
Now in India most people marry according to the Hindu religion. The wedding day begins with groom's mother blessing her son. She puts a red mark on his forehead as a sign that he is now to have children. The groom then goes to his bride's house for the wedding ceremony. He rides a decorated horse because this adds to the day's festivities. The groom is greeted and blessed by the bride's mother. In India, many marriages are arranged by the couple's parents. Part of the wedding ceremony sees the bride and groom placing garlands of flowers on each other. This shows that the bride and groom now belong to each other.
In Siberia, a small tribe of people have been celebrating marriages the same way for thousands of years. They belong to an ancient tribe called the Ouchi. The Ouchi are famous for their embroidered clothes and for their dancing. The wedding ceremony is also a celebration of the Ouchi's main occupation—fishing. The women dance with bowls of fish eggs which represent the hope that the couple getting married will have plenty of children. The eggs are given to an elderly relative of the groom. The Ouchi never hold weddings until the end of the fishing season. Then there's usually plenty to celebrate. The bride and groom travel to the groom's house by boat and there's no shortage of family and friends to tell them they have both made a good catch.
Well, weddings can be celebrated on a small scale or on a grand scale. And one of the grandest weddings of recent times took place in July 1981 in London. The occasion was the royal wedding of Prince Charles and Lady Diana Spencer. It was a Christian wedding, full of tradition. Lady Diana wore a veil, which represents modesty. Brides have worn veils for more than 2,000 years. The royal couples were asked to take the traditional marriage vows. Well, these days many people still get married in churches. But often couples decide to wed in really quite unusual places. Four months ago, a couple in Adelaide decided to get married under water. They were both diving instructors and for them it seemed only fitting to share the occasion with their fishy friends.
That's in the US and it could only happen there. A couple who met at an aerobics class decided to mm their marriage into a fitness display. The happy couple bounced down the aisle without a muscle out of place. The bride said that her mother didn't mind a bit and thought that it was for fun. Fun, huh? It's all lunatic.
That's all for today. My wedding is not going to be like that at all. I think our wedding's going to be great. That's all for today. I'm going to be away on my honeymoon for two weeks and Basia Bonkowski will be presenting the program while I'm away. So until next time on BTN from me anyway. Oh, goodness, it's wedding time. Cheerio!
Jerry`s wedding eleven years ago to a Chinese-American was "both white and red", he said, with his bride wearing a white wedding gown at a Protestant church ceremony (because both he and his wife are Christians) and then changing to a red dress after the wedding for their reception banquet at a Chinatown restaurant.
Another Chinese-American friend in California sent us their wedding invitation. Following the American custom, he included a smaller envelope and card for us to send back to tell them if we would attend the wedding or not. But instead of using the usual white color for the envelope and cards, he and his bride chose Chinese red. The invitation itself combing English and Chinese, just as their church wedding ceremony did.
A. 1) F 2) T 3) T 4) F 5) T 6) T
1) She takes care of the Jotmsons' children when their mother is sick.
2) When they got to the theater, they found that the G movie wasn‘t there any more. The theater was showing an X-rated movie called GIRLS.
3) Since she didn‘t know what X meant, she thought a movie about "girls" would be fine for little girls.
Jack: Did you hear what happened to Helga? She almost lost her job.
Mary: I didn't know she had one.
Jack: Well, it's just a part-time job. Helga takes care of the Jotmsons' children when their mother is sick. Mrs.
Johnson hasn't been well lately.
Mary: What happened? Why did Helga almost lose her job?
Jack: Well, there was a children's movie advertised at the neighborhood theater last Saturday. It was one of those G movies, for general audiences.
Mary: I suppose Helga took the Johnson children to the movie. Wasn't that all right?
Jack: Yes, but here is what happened. When they got to the theater, they found that the G movie wasn't there any more. The theater was showing an X-rated movie called GIRLS.
Mary: X-rated movies are really bad, aren't they?
Jack: They're even worse than R-rated ones which teenagers aren't supposed to see. But Helga didn't know what X meant, and she thought a movie about "girls" would be fine for little girls.
Mary: Did the theater let her in?
Jack: No, but Helga tried to make them let her in. The manager had to call Mrs. Johnson. That's how she almost lost her job.
A. 1) F 2) T 3) T 4) F 5) F 6) F
Judy watched a bit of TV last night. Before the football came on, she switched over just to protest, for she couldn‘t bear football, and thus she saw the end of the film The Graduate. When the football came on, she turned over to a programme on foxes. After the foxes, she turned over back to see who won the football, but only saw the beginning of the News. Then she packed up and went to bed.
Stuart: What did you do last night then? Did you work all night?
Judy: Yes, I did some work, but I watched a bit of TV ... Got to relax, you know.
Stuart: Did you watch the football?
Judy: No, no I didn't. I can't bear football.
Judy: Yes. I really hate it. Well, actually, just before the football came on, I switched over just to ... just to protest. Stuart: What did you see then?
Judy: Well, I saw the programme before ... just the end of a film that was on before the football. It looked quite good actually. It's a shame I didn't switch on earlier. It was some kind of love story ... with Dustin Hoffman, you know, The erm ...
Stuart: The Graduate?
Judy: That's it. The Graduate.
Stuart: Yes. I know. I've seen that. Yes, good film.
Judy: Yes, and nice music. And then, when the football came on I turned over.
Stuart: Terrible, terrible!
Judy: I hate it! I really can't stand it.
Stuart: It was a great game!
Judy: Yes? Who was playing?
Stuart: England, of course. What did you see then, that was more important than football?
Judy: Foxes. Yes, a good programme on foxes. Yes, they spent ages watching these foxes in a house. They were watching them all night and these little baby foxes. It was tremendous.
Stuart: Yes, sounds all right.
Judy: Yes, it was good—better than football ... and then, then I turned over, back to the other channel to see who won the football, but I missed it and I just saw the beginning of the news and packed up and went to bed. Stuart: Well, I'm sorry you missed it. It was a good game.
Judy: Who did win?
Stuart: England, of course. Who do you think? Six nil. Yes.
Judy: Must have been quite good then!
Stuart: Yes, it was good, actually. It was very good.
A. 1) b) 2) c)
B. 1) F 2) F 3) F
Topic: How the movies are produced
Thesis: There are six basic steps that are normally followed in the production of a full-length film.
Steps: First step—finding a property; two types of properties
1) An original story
e.g. Star Wars, Back to the Future, Rocky
2) A property from a novel, play, or musical
e.g. The Sound of Music, Tess, The Godfather
Second step—writing the script; two options
1) The original writer takes part in the production of the script
2) Directors write the scripts themselves
Good morning, ladies and gentlemen! Let's start this introduction to filmmaking with a simple question: How many of you have seen a movie this week? It doesn't matter if it was at the theater or just on your own TV... Uhhuh, just as I thought, almost all of you have.
Of course, most of us love the movies—the magic, the escape that they provide, but most of us rarely stop to think about the process of making a movie. Just what does it take to get that movie from the idea stage to the final product? What are the decisions that must be made? What problems are encountered? Exactly how does a movie studio go about making a movie? These are precisely the topics that we will be exploring today.
There are six basic steps that are normally followed in the production of a full-length film. I'll outline them for you.
The first step is rather obvious--to make a film you must have an idea.., a story...some topic for the project. The studio must find a property. That's a key word, folks—property, p-r-o-p-e-r-t-y. You all know the common meaning of this word, of course, but in filmmaking the word "property" has a very specific meaning. A property is the story on which the movie will be based. Okay, it's the story on which the movie is based. You are probably wondering why we call it a property. Well, it belongs to someone; it is that person's "property" and must be acquired by the studio, sometimes for quite a large sum of money.
There are basically two kinds of properties. The first is an original story that has never appeared anywhere before—never been in a book, or magazine, or another film. In other words, the story is intended from the very beginning to be made into a movie.
Star Wars is one good example of this type of property—you do remember that famous science fiction film, don't you? Another example is Back to the Future—oh, and also Rocky. All of these were based on a story written only for the purpose of making a movie.
Actually though, the majority of properties, for famous films at least, come from novels, plays, or musicals that are already published. Examples of this type of property include The Sound of Music, which was originally a play, Tess, a famous novel, and The Godfather, which was also first a novel.
Okay, that's step number one—finding a property.
Well, now we have the property. The next step is to prepare a script from that property. This part of the process can take several months or sometimes even a year or more. It's quite a lengthy and time-consuming process. During this time, the scriptwriter, producer, and director usually work very closely with each other.
Recently, there has been a trend to also have the original writer—the original property owner— take part in the production of the script. This means that if the property is taken from a book or play, the original author of the book or play is involved in writing the script. This is a good trend, I think. Who could possibly know the story better or understand it more clearly than its original creator?
Another option, however, is for directors to write scripts themselves. This often occurs because scriptwriters are not only responsible for the dialog, but they also must specify what kind of camera shots they want used. For instance, in all scenes, and especially long scenes that don't have any dialog, the scriptwriter must describe what the camera should focus on, what should be in the center of the shot, what mood the image should present. Directors have much more experience with camera work and often prefer to write the script themselves for this reason.
So that's step number two—writing the script.
A. 1) a) 2) a)
B. 1) F 2) F 3) T
Topic: How movies are produced
Thesis: There are six basic steps that are normally followed in the production of a full-length film.
Steps: Third step—casting the film; two types of casting
1) Building the movie around a famous star
Advantages: A famous star is a great asset to the film. It attracts fans automatically. Financial
success of the movie depends on how many people come to see it.
Disadvantages: Famous star are very expensive. They take attention away from the story itself.
They distract the audience.
2) Casting movies with unknown actors and actresses
Advantages: Movie centers around the story itself. Make the movie more believable.
Fourth step—filming the movie; done in two types of places
1) Soundstages—both pictures and dialogs are recorded.
2) Partially filmed on location—in a real setting.
Note: all the scenes with a big star can done first, or all the scenes shot at the same location can be filmed at the same time.
Okay, now the script is finished and approved, and we are ready for the next step—a very critical step indeed—the casting of the film.
The success or failure of a movie can depend on the ability of the actors and actresses to convince us that they really are the characters that they are portraying. The producer and the director must choose the cast very, very carefully. This step of choosing the actors and actresses is called casting. Got it? Casting is choosing the actors and actresses, the cast of the movie.
There are, in general, two types of casting. The first and the most common approach is to build the movie around a famous star. It is obvious that having a well-recognized name in the cast is a great asset to the film. Having someone, like Tom Cruise, Meryl Streep, or Harrison Ford will automatically attract large numbers of their fans to the movie. And of course, the financial success of the movie depends on how many people come to see it.
Now, there is also a second type of casting, and it has worked very well at times. Although it is true that top stars can attract audiences, they are also very, very expensive. With this in mind, some producers and directors cast their movies with unknown actors and actresses, concentrating on who fits the part the best, not who has the biggest name.
Actually, this approach, as I said, can work quite well because sometimes a big star can actually take attention away from the story itself. In other words, the stars distract the audience! The audience focuses on the star, not on the story. One example of this second type of casting is the movie E. T., which is, in fact, one of the most popular movies of all time.
Unknown child actors and actresses were hired and the movie centered around the story itself. The producer and director probably thought that unknown actors would make the movie more believable. A big star might actually hurt that movie.
Well, on to the next step.
After the casting has been completed, the fourth step, filming the movie, can begin. Filming any kind of major motion picture usually takes about six to eight months. Now, you might not know this, but filming rarely takes place in the same order as the story. The reason for shooting in a different time order is that all the scenes with a big star can be done first, or all the scenes shot at the same location can be filmed at the same time. So what happens is this: The order scenes are filmed in and the order they appear in the movie are almost always completely different. It would be inconvenient and costs would increase dramatically if scenes were filmed in the order that we see them in the finished movie.
The filming itself is done in two types of places. The first is studio buildings called soundstages. They were given this name because both pictures and dialogs are recorded there. These soundstages can be made to appear like almost anything—from a fourteenth-century town to a small hotel room.
In addition to soundstages, most movies are partially filmed on location—in a real setting. On location means that the actors, actresses, film crew, and other necessary personnel must travel to a place like, maybe, a South American jungle or downtown Paris, or wherever, for filming certain scenes.
This makes the movie more interesting and realistic. Indoor scenes can easily be filmed on a soundstage, but scenes that require extensive use of outdoor scenery or use famous places as backgrounds must be done on location to be realistic.
As you can imagine, the costs of filming on location are enormous. People and equipment must be flown to the place, living accommodations must be found, and food has to be provided for a large number of people. There are lots of practical problems like these. The added realism of filming on location adds a lot of expense to a film.
2) we never fond it difficult to occupy our spare time
3) We used to enjoy civilized pleasures
4) All our free time is regulated by TV
5) It demands and obtains absolute silence and attention
6) Whole generations are growing up addicted to it
7) It is a universal pacifier
8) rubbishy commercials or spectacles of sadism and violence
9) vast quantities of creative work
10) they can‘t keep pace with the demand and maintain high standards as well
11) becomes a village, is reduced to preliterate communities, utterly dependent on pictures and the spoken word
12) It encourages passive enjoyment
13) It cuts us off from the real world
14) from communicating with each other
15) how totally irrelevant television is to real living
―Yes, but what did we use to do before there was television?‖ How often we hear statements like this! Television hasn‘t been with us all that long, but we are already beginning to forget what the world was like without
it. Before we admitted the one-eyed monster into our homes, we never fond it difficult to occupy our spare time. We used to enjoy civilized pleasures. For instance, we used to have hobbies; we used to entertain our friends and be entertained by them; we used to go outside for our amusements to theatres, cinemas, restaurants and sporting events. We even used to read books and listen to music and broadcast talks occasionally. All that belongs to the past. Now all our free time is regulated by the ―goggle box‖. We rush home or gulp down our meals to be in time for this or that programme. We have even given up sitting at table and having a leisurely evening meal, exchanging the news of the day. A sandwich and a glass of beer will do anything, providing it doesn‘t interfere with the programme. The monster demands and obtains absolute silence and attention. If any member of the family dares to open his mouth during a programme, he is quickly silenced.
Whole generations are growing up addicted to the telly. Food is left uneaten, homework undone and sleep is lost. The telly is a universal pacifier. It is now standard practice for mother to keep the children quiet by putting them in the living-room and turning on the set. It doesn‘t matter that the children will watch rubbishy commercials or spectacles of sadism and violence – so long as they are quiet. There is a limit to the amount of creative talent available in the world. Every day, television consumes vast quantities of creative work. That is why most of the programmes are so bad: it is impossible to keep pace with the demand and maintain high standards as well. When millions watch the same programmes, the whole world becomes a village, and society is reduced to the conditions which obtain in preliterate communities. We become utterly dependent on the two most primitive media of communication: pictures and the spoken word.
Television encourages passive enjoyment. We become content with second-hand experiences. It is so easy to sit in our armchairs watching others working. Little by little, television cuts us off from the real world. We get so lazy – we choose to spend a fine day in semi-darkness, glued to our sets, rather than go out into the world itself. Television may be s splendid medium of communication, but it prevents us from communicating with each other. We only become aware how totally irrelevant television is to real living when we spend a holiday by the sea or in the mountains, far away from civilization. In quiet, natural surroundings, we quickly discover how little we miss the hypnotic tyranny of King Telly.
1) It came from Alan‘s eldest son.
2) Because there were lots of children in a film about gangsters in New York.
3) They visited ordinary schools and stage schools and Christmas shows all over America, and looked for American children in Britain, too. Alan saw about 100 videos of Christmas shows and auditioned over 10,000 children.
4) All the clothes had to be in the right style but in small sizes, even the gangster hats.
B. 1) c 2) e 3) a 4) b 5) f 6) d
Mike: Welcome to Radio Time, and this month's edition of Film World. I'm very pleased to have Alan Parker with me for today's program. Alan, you made one of the most famous and popular children's films of all time—Bugsy Malone. Tell me, when did you first think of the idea for Bugsy Malone?
Alan: Well, I have to say that I didn't think of the idea myself. It came from my eldest son.
Mike: Ah, so you knew it was a good idea for a children's film.
Alan: Yes. I took the idea and wrote the full story. That was in 1973.
Mike: Was it difficult to write?
Alan: No, it was more difficult to get the money to make the film. A lot of people thought it was a strange idea—lots of children in a film about gangsters in New York.
Mike: Is it a true story?
Alan: Not quite. But there were two gangs in New York in 1929, the year of my story.
Mike: How did you choose the actors?
Alan: That was a lot of work. We visited ordinary schools and stage schools and Christmas shows all over America.
And we looked for American children in Britain, too. I saw about 100 videos of Christmas shows, and we auditioned over 10,000 children for the cast.
Mike: So there was a lot of competition to get a part?
Alan: Oh yes, but there always is.
Mike: How long did it take to film Bugsy Malone?
Alan: Eleven weeks. The filming was quite quick in fact. But we had to do a lot of work first. We needed 300 costumes, I remember. And all the clothes had to be in the right style but in small sizes, even the gangster hats.
A.1)T 2)F 3)T 4)T 5)F 6)F 7)F 8)F
B.1) a) 2) b) 3) a) 4) c) 5) b) 6) b) 7) b) 8) c)
Matthew: Television is undoubtedly a great invention, but one of the main criticisms of it is that people just aren't selective enough. Lesley, you‘ve got a television; how do you pick out the sorts of programmes you want
Lesley: I try and look at the prograxnmes that are on to decide which particular ones interest me, rather than you turning it on a seven o'clock and you leaving it on until half-past eleven when the programmes finish. Matthew: Do you think of television though as a great time-waster?
Lesley: Un ...I think it can be a time waster and it depends on how particular people are about…what you know, what they want to see. Um, it can just be a sort of total amusement for someone and totally consuming without really considering what it is they're watching.
Matthew: Aha, but how do you prevent it coming into your life and taking over your evenings and at the same time perhaps get…get out of the television some of the sort of best things—best programmes that... that undoubtedly are on television?
Lesley: Well, I suppose one of the problems is...will depend on what a person's life style is, and that if he has other outside interests which are equally important to him as television, he will then, you know, be more careful about which programmes he wants to watch because he has time which he uses…wants to use for other things.
Matthew: Do you think though that... that in…in a sense television has killed people's own er...sort of , creativity or their ability to entertain themselves because…well, if they're bored all they do is just turn on the television?
Lesley: Yes, I think that is a danger, and I think that‘s…in fact…is what is happening to a lot of people who use it as their...their main field of amusement and... because they don't have other outside interests and even when people come round, they'll leave the television on and not be, you know, particularly interested in talking to them. You know the television will be the main thing in the room.
Matthew: Henrietta, would you let your children spend many afternoons and evenings watching television or would you encourage them to go out and play?
Henrietta: Well, it‘s interesting. This... in fact, we really have had a policy of um... almost total restriction of viewing. I mean, my children are very small, they're four-and-a-half and two-and-a-half, and it's only very recently that we have even got into the habit of watching Playschool. I do tend to... um... I do try to... in fact I succeed in restricting their viewing solely to that and a couple ofprogrammes that follow it, but I don't like to see a child sit with an open mouth in front of a television set hour after hour, but I'm not anti-television at all. I myself watch quite a lot; I watch some comedy, I watch um... serials.., um the recent serialization of Jane Eyre was beautifully done and very interesting. I watch the news avidly. Matthew: Peter, have you got a television?
Peter: I have, in fact I've got two televisions.
Matthew: Do you watch them a lot?
Peter: Er...no I...I watch very seldom. In fact, I find that I watch television most when I'm most when I'm working hardest and I need some sort of passive way of relaxing, something which requires nothing of me, then I watch television a lot. When I've got more energy left...um ...in my own private time, in my free time, then I find I do more different things. I do things like um reading, or going out, or working on any thing…my hobbies.
Matthew: Do you think though that people can live a perfectly happy life if they haven't got a television? Peter: Oh, yes, I think people who don't have a television or people who don‘t watch television can be expected to be happier. You can…if they never watch television, you can assume, I think, or you can guess that they are happier people than the people who watch a lot of television, because I think that television goes with the kind of life which leaves you with nothing to spare, nothing left. You have to be given potted, passive entertainment.
Matthew: But in that case you ...you seem as though you're completely against television. Is that true?
Peter: No, it's not. I...I have a television, in fact I have two as I said, but I...I ...I think there's a dilemma, a difficult situation. Television in itself is very good; a lot of the information and a lot of the programmes are very instructive; they introduce you to things you may never have thought of before or never have heard about before. But in watching, it makes you very passive; you sit for hour after hour and you get very receptive and very unquestioning and it seems to me the important thing in life is to be active, to do things, to think things and to be as creative as possible, and television prevents this.
【答案】1) d) 2) d) 3) c) 4) b) 5) a)
Michael: I want to do something tonight for a change, let's go out.
Brian: All right, let's go to the movies.
Jane: In this heat? Are you joking?
Brian: We can go to an outdoor movie. Do you think I'd suggest an indoor one in the middle of the summer in San Diego?
Michael: I'd rather go out for a meal.
Jane: Yes, that sounds a better idea. The outdoor movies are so uncomfortable.
Brian: Why don't we do both at the same time? We could pick up some take-away food and eat it in the movie. Michael: That sounds like fun. What a good idea.
Jane: But they never show any good films in the summer. At least not any of the new ones. All you get is the old classics.
Brian: And what's wrong with them?
Jane: Oh nothing, it's just that we've seen them all half a dozen times.
Brian: But that's why they're classics. They're worth seeing again and again.
Michael: You've got a point there, Brian. My main objection to outdoor movies is that you can never hear properly.
You hear all the traffic from outside.
Brian: Well, we can find a foreign film with subtitles; then you don't need to hear the sound.
Jane: Supposing it's a musical.
Brian: Oh, trust you to say that! I think it would be fun to sit watching an old film and eating a meal at the same time.
Jane: Last time I went to an outdoor movie, I bought a bar of chocolate to eat as I went in. It was a horror film and I was so shocked I just sat there holding my bar of chocolate until the interval when I found it had
melted in my hand and run all down my dress. That was an expensive evening out.
Michael: Well, we won't go and see a horror film, darling, and take-away meals don't melt.
1) It is taken from a Greek word and a Latin word.
2) TV provides jobs for hundreds of thousands who make TV sets and broadcasting equipment. It also provides work for actors, technicians, and others who put on programs.
3) Some hospitals use TV to allow medical students to get close-up view of operations.
4) By the mid-1960s, 90 percent of the households in the United States had at least one TV set
5) Communications satellites televise programs ―live‖ from all over the world.
6) By the middle 1960s, the national networks were broadcasting most of their programs in color.
Television, or TV, the modern wonder of electronics, brings the world into your own home in sight and sound. The name television comes from the Greek word tele, meaning ―far‖, and the Latin word videre, meaning ―to see‖. Thus, television means ―seeing far‖. In Great Britain, the popular word for television is ―telly‖.
As an industry, TV provides jobs for hundreds of thousands who make TV sets and broadcasting equipment. It also provides work for actors, technicians, and others who put on programs. As an art, television brings the theater and other cultural events into the homes. Its influence on the life of average Americans is calculable: It can influence their thoughts, their likes and dislikes, their speech, and even their dress. It can also add to their store of knowledge. Through advertising television helps businesses and manufacturers sell their products to millions of persons. Television has brought political campaigns closer to the voters than in former days. Educational TV stations offer teaching in various subjects ranging from home nursing to art appreciation. Many large schools and universities have ―closed—circuit‖ television equipment that will telecast lectures and demonstrations to hundreds of students in different classrooms; and the lecture can be put on video tape to be kept for later use. Some hospitals use TV to allow medical students to get close-up view of operations.
In 1946, after World War II, TV began to burst upon the American scene with a speed unforeseen even by the most optimistic leaders of the industry. The novelty of seeing TV pictures in the home caught the public‘s fancy and began a revolution in the world of entertainment. By 1950, television had grown into a major part of show business. Many film and stage stars began to perform on TV as television audiences increased. Stations that once telecast for only a few hours a day sometimes telecast around the clock in the 1960s.
With the development of programming also came the introduction of television in full color. By the middle 1960s, the national networks were broadcasting most of their programs in color. The obvious appeal of television, whether in color or black-and-white, can be documented by the increasing number of TV sets in homes around the country. By the mid-1960s, 90 percent of the households in the United States had at least one TV set, and 12 percent had two or more sets. TV had become a part of the daily life of the adults and children of America.
The programs that people watch are not only local and national ones. Since the launching of the first communications satellite, more and more programs are televised ―live‖ from all over the world. Television viewers in San Francisco were able to watch the 1964 Olympic Games in Tokyo by means of a communication satellite named Syncom. The Olympic Games in Mexico City and in Munich, Germany, were also telecast live as were parts of the historic visit of President Nixon to the People‘s Republic of China.
It looks as if the uses of television—in education, entertainment, and communication—appear to be endless. Certainly it is one of the major modern wonders of electronics in our changing world.
Watching television is the most popular leisure-time activity in Britain. Peak viewing time is between 7:30 and 10 o‘clock in the evenings.
The two age groups which watch television most are children between 5 and 14 and people over 50. Children aged 5 to 14 watch television on average for 23 hours a week. The over-fifties watch on average for 17 hours a week.
Television is divided between BBC1, BBC2 and the commercial station, ITV. There is no great difference between BBC1 and BBC2 and ITV, but programmes on BBC2 tend to be of a more intellectual or cultural nature.
Programmes before 9 pm are also suitable for children, so programmes with scenes of violence or sex are usually shown after this time. Most viewers in Britain switch off the television after about 10:30 and go to bed. Those who want to stay up can often watch a film or a "chat show", an interview with a famous personality, until 1
However , the most popular programmes of all are the news bulletins.
1) They are farms that grow vegetables for city people to eat fresh.
2) It‘s a farm that grow plants and flowers to sell.
3) They protect the plants from the cold in the winter but let them get plenty of light, so the plants can be grown all through the year.
1) canned, frozen
2) flowers, garden plants, home gardens, yards, window boxes
3) buildings, furniture, firewood
Grain, vegetables and fruits are found on most farms. All of them are food for animals and people.
Grain can be fed to animals just as it is harvested. But before people use them grains are usually made into flour or breakfast cereal. Bread, macaroni, and cereals all come from grain.
Tomatoes, beans, potatoes, beets, lettuce, carrots and onions are field and garden vegetables. Can you think of any others? Vegetables are good for people and for some animals such as pigs and rabbits.
Farms that grow vegetables for city people to eat fresh are called truck farms. Truck farms are usually close to big cities. Each day hundreds of loads of fresh vegetables are brought to stores on the farmers' trucks. Without the truck farmers people in cities would not eat well. And without city people who eat fresh vegetables, the truck farmers would have no work.
There are many kinds of fruit. Apples, pears, peaches, cherries, oranges, grapefruit, and berries are a few kinds. You will be able to think of other kinds that you like. Most fruit is grown on specialized farms. But many general farms have some fruit to use and sell also.
Like vegetables, fruit is sold fresh in markets. But a large part of both fruit and vegetable crops is sent to factories to be canned or frozen.
In warm parts of our country farmers grow cotton, rice, tobacco, sugar cane, and peanuts.
Specialized farms raise flowers and garden plants. They are sold to florists and to families for home gardens, or yards, or window boxes. A farm that grow plants and flowers to sell is called a nursery. Most nurseries have glass buildings, called hothouses or greenhouses. The hothouses are heated to protect the plants from cold in the winter but let them get plenty of light, so they can be grown all through the year.
Some farms grow only trees. Some of these are Christmas tree farms. Others are large forests where trees are grown for their wood. The wood is used for buildings, furniture and firewood. Some tree farms grow only nut trees.
1) The UN agencies report that the market value of pesticides in developing countries last year was about three thousand million dollars.
2) The agencies called for worldwide acceptance of Food and Agriculture and World Health Organization pesticide rules. They say this would help guarantee the safe production of and trade in pesticides.
Two United Nations agencies are expressing concern about the safety of some pesticides used to kill insects. They report that about thirty percent of all pesticides sold in developing countries fail to meet widely accepted rules for quality. They say these products are a serious threat to human health and the environment.
The UN Food and Agriculture Organization and the World Health Organization gave the warning.
In developing countries, pesticides are used mainly for agriculture. Pesticides kill insects and other organisms that threaten crops. Pesticides also are used for public health. They control insects that spread disease, such as mosquitoes that spread malaria.
The UN agencies report that the market value of pesticides in developing countries last year was about three thousand million dollars. They say the estimated market value of pesticides worldwide was thirty-two thousand
Officials say poor quality pesticides often contain harmful chemicals. These chemicals often are banned or restricted in some countries.
Possible causes of low quality in pesticides include production problems and failure to use the right chemicals. Officials say the active chemicals in many pesticides are stronger than those permitted by many governments. They also say poor quality pesticides may contain poisonous substances or substances that are not pure.
Officials say the quality of pesticide containers and product information on the containers are other concerns. They say information on the containers often fails to explain the active chemicals and how to use the product safely.
The WHO says products listing false information have been sold for years in some areas. The agencies say the problem of poor quality pesticides is widespread in parts of Africa south of the Sahara Desert. They called for worldwide acceptance of Food and Agriculture and World Health Organization pesticide rules. They say this would help guarantee the safe production of and trade in pesticides.
Officials say the agencies' rules are especially important for developing countries. They say developing countries often lack systems for testing pesticides.
A.1) c) 2) d) 3) b)
That‘s because they‘re making an investment all the time, but are still not sure whether or not they can make profits.
Interviewer: Cattle raising and beef in the US is big business, isn't it?
Bob Beck: Yes, it's the largest business—cattle business.
Interviewer: It must be a very profitable business then.
Bob Beck: Uh, not necessarily.
Interviewer: It's not necessarily a profitable business?
Bob Beck: At times, it's not profitable. Your production costs get... it's a supply and demand market, and if your supply is larger than your demand...
Interviewer: So the price is fluctuating all the time...
Bob Beck: Right. It fluctuates, and it can get below production costs.
Interviewer: But you never know. For instance, next year, you don't know what it'll bring on the market.
Bob Beck: No, technically it takes a year and a half from the time you breed the cow, until you get the calf, until the calf's marketable.
Bob Beck: You've got a year, to a year and a half, tied up there.
Interviewer: So, you're making an investment all the time.
Bob Beck: Right. So you're not sure.
Interviewer: It sounds like it might be a very insecure kind of existence. Wonder why it is that people want to be farmers or ranchers then...
Bob Beck: I think the majority of it is you like it. It's one thing. It's a breed of people. They like it. If you don't like what you're doing, why...
Interviewer: What is there about it? You live essentially in a rural area. Doesn't that feeling of isolation ever bother you?
Bob Beck: No. It's getting too crowded.
Interviewer: Too crowded!
Bob Beck: Too many people!
Interviewer: I can see that, for instance, in a city, you have restaurants to go to, movie theaters—all kinds of things available to people, a lot of conveniences which you don't have in the more rural areas. What do
people who farm and ranch do for recreation and relaxation, for instance... erm...
Bob Beck: Well, I think a lot of it is if you're a livestock raiser, you'll go check your cows in the evening instead of going to a movie.
Bob Beck: That's as much recreation as driving through a bunch or cows, and if you like them, you enjoy that. Interviewer: In terms of the way of life, to a lot of people, it would seem that it's a very hard life. It means a lot of hard work. I mean, you have a schedule—whether you feel like it or not, you have to get out and feed
animals, and so forth. Would you regard that as one of the difficult things about it, or is that...
Bob Beck: No.
Interviewer: …just sort of... part of it?
Bob Beck: For me, if I had to go to a desk every morning, that'd kill me.
A. paid off, fall back on, a security, operating expenses, complete disaster
1) Some of them cook the meals, clean the house and take care of the kids every day.