研究生英语U1-7课文原文及翻译

课文原文1-7 Unit 1 The Hidden Side of Happiness

1 Hurricanes, house fires, cancer, whitewater rafting accidents, plane crashes, vicious attacks in dark alleyways. Nobody asks for any of it. But to their surprise, many people find that enduring such a harrowing ordeal ultimately changes them for the better.Their refrain might go something like this: "I wish it hadn't happened, but I'm a better person for it."

1飓风、房屋失火、癌症、激流漂筏失事、坠机、昏暗小巷遭歹徒

袭击,没人想找上这些事儿。但出人意料的是,很多人发现遭受这样一次痛苦的磨难最终会使他们向好的方面转变。他们可能都会这样说:“我希望这事没发生,但因为它我变得更完美了。”

2 We love to hear the stories of people who have been transformed by their tribulations, perhaps because they testify to a bona fide type of psychological truth, one that sometimes gets lost amid endless reports of disaster: There seems to be a built-in human capacity to flourish under the most difficult circumstances. Positive responses to profoundly disturbing experiences are not limited to the toughest or the bravest.In fact, roughly half the people who struggle with adversity say that their lives subsequently in some ways improved.

2我们都爱听人们经历苦难后发生转变的故事,可能是因为这些故

事证实了一条真正的心理学上的真理,这条真理有时会湮没在无数关于

灾难的报道中:在最困难的境况中,人所具有的一种内在的奋发向上的能力会进发出来。对那些令人极度恐慌的经历作出?积极回应的并不仅限于最坚强或最勇敢的人。实际上,大约半数与逆境抗争过的人都说他们的生活从此在某些方面有了改善。

3 This and other promising findings about the life-changing effects of crises are the province of the new science of

post-traumatic growth. This fledgling field has already proved the truth of what once passed as bromide: What doesn't kill you can actually make you stronger. Post-traumatic stress is far from the only possible outcome. In the wake of even the most terrifying experiences, only a small proportion of adults become chronically troubled. More commonly, people rebound-or even eventually thrive.

3诸如此类有关危机改变一生的发现有着可观的研究前景,这正是创伤后成长这一新学科的研究领域。这一新兴领域已经证实了曾经被视为陈词滥调的一个真理:大难不死,意志弥坚。创伤后压力绝不是唯一可能的结果。在遭遇了即使最可怕的经历之后,也只有一小部分成年人会受到长期的心理折磨。更常见的情况是,人们会恢复过来—甚至最终会成功发达。

4 Those who weather adversity well are living proof of the paradoxes of happiness.We need more than pleasure to live the best possible life. Our contemporary quest for happiness has shriveled

to a hunt for bliss-a life protected from bad feelings,free from pain and confusion. 4那些经受住苦难打击的人是有关幸福悖论的生动例证:为了尽可能地过上最好的生活,我们所需要的不仅仅是愉悦的感受。我们这个时代的人对幸福的追求已经缩小到只追求福气:一生没有烦恼,没有痛苦和困惑。

5 This anodyne definition of well-being leaves out the better half of the story, the rich, full joy that comes from a meaningful life. It is the dark matter of happiness,the ineffable quality we admire in wise men and women and aspire to cultivate in our own lives. It turns out that some of the people who have suffered the most, who have been forced to contend with shocks they never anticipated and to rethink the meaning of their lives, may have the most to tell us about that profound and intensely fulfilling journey that philosophers used to call the search for "the good life".

5这种对幸福的平淡定义忽略了问题的主要方面—种富有意义的生活所带来的那种丰富、完整的愉悦。那就是幸福背后隐藏的那种本质—是我们在明智的男男女女身上所欣赏到并渴望在我们自己生活中培育

的那种不可言喻的品质。事实证明,一些遭受苦难最多的人-他们被迫全力应付他们未曾预料到的打击,并重新思考他们生活的意义—或许对那种深刻的、给人以强烈满足感的人生经历(哲学家们过去称之为对“美好生活”的探寻)最有发言权。 6 This broader definition of good

living blends deep satisfaction and a profound connection to others through empathy. It is dominated by happy feelings but seasoned also with nostalgia and regret. "Happiness is only one among many values in human life," contends Laura King, a psychologist at the University of Missouri in Columbia. Compassion, wisdom, altruism, insight, creativity-sometimes only the trials of adversity can foster these qualities, because sometimes only drastic situations can force us to take on the painful process of change. To live a full human life, a tranquil, carefree existence is not enough. We also need to grow-and sometimes growing hurts.

6这种对美好生活的更为广泛的定义把深深的满足感和一种通过移情与他人建立的深切联系融合在一起。它主要受愉悦情感的支配,但同时也夹杂着惆怅和悔恨。密苏里大学哥伦比亚分校的心理学家劳拉?金认为:“幸福仅仅是许许多多人生价值中的一种。”慈悲、智慧、无私、.洞察力及创造力—有时只有经历逆境的考验才能培育这些品质,因为有时只有极端的情形才能迫使我们去承受痛苦的改变过程。只过安宁的、无忧无虑的生活是不足以体验一段完整的人生的。(此文来自袁勇兵博客)我们也需要成长-尽管有时成长是痛苦的。

7 In a dark room in Queens, New York, 31-year-old fashion designer Tracy Cyr believed she was dying. A few months before, she had stopped taking the powerful immune-suppressing drugs that

kept her arthritis in check. She never anticipated what would happen: a withdrawal reactions that eventually left her in total body agony and neurological meltdown. The slightest movement-trying to swallow, fqr example-was excruciating. Even the pressure of her cheek on the pillow was almost unbearable.

7在纽约市皇后区一间漆黑的房间里,31岁的时装设计师特蕾西?塞尔感到自己奄奄一息。就在几个月前,她已经停止服用控制她关节炎的强效免疫抑制药。她从没预见到接下来将要发生的事:停药之后的反应最终使她全身剧烈疼痛,神经系统出现严重问题。最轻微的动作—比如说试着吞咽—对她来说也痛苦不堪。甚至将脸压在枕头上也几乎难以忍受。

8 Cyr is no wimp-diagnosed with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis at the age of two, she had endured the symptoms and the treatments (drugs, surgery) her whole life. But this time,she was way6 past her limits, and nothing her doctors did seemed to help. Either the disease was going to kill her or, pretty soon, she felt she might have to kill herself.

8塞尔并不是懦弱的人。她在两岁时就被诊断得了幼年型类风湿性关节炎,一生都在忍?受着病症和治疗(药物、手术)的折磨。但是这一次,她实在不堪忍受了,她的医生所做的一切似乎都不起作用。要么让疾病结束她的生命,要么她就得很快了结自己的生命了。

9 As her sleepless nights wore on, though, her suicidal thoughts began to be interrupted by new feelings of gratitude. She was still in agony, but a new consciousness grew stronger each night: an awesome sense of liberation, combined with an

all-encompassing feeling of sympathy and compassion. "I felt stripped of everything I'd ever identified myself with," she said six months later. "Everything I thought I'd known or believed in was useless-time, money, self-image, perception. Recognizing that was so freeing."

9然而,在经历了若干个不眠之夜后,她想自杀的念头开始被新的

感激之情所打断。虽然她仍然感到痛苦,但一种新的意识每一夜都变得更加强烈:一种令人惊叹的解脱感,结合着一种包容一切的同情和怜悯

的情感。“我感到一切我曾经用来认同?自己身份的东西都被剥夺了,”六个月后她这样说道,“一切我认为我知道或相信的事物—时间、金钱、自我形象、对事物的看法—都毫无价值了。意识到这一点真是让我感到解脱。”

10 Within a few months, she began to be able to move more freely, thanks to a cocktail of steroids and other drugs. She says now there's no question that her life is better. "l felt I had been shown the secret of life and why we're here: to be happy and to nurture other life. It's that simple."

10在几个月内,得益于类固醇加其他药物的鸡尾酒疗法,她开始能够更加自如地活动了。她说,毫无疑问她现在的生活状况有了好转。“我感觉我窥探到了生命的秘密以及我们生存的意义,那就是快乐地生活,同时扶持他人。就这么简单!”

11 Her mind-blowing experience came as a total surprise. But that feeling of transformation is in some ways typical, says Rich Tedeschi, a professor of psychology at the University of North Carolina in Charlotte who coined the term "post-traumatic growth". His studies of people who have endured extreme events, like combat, violent crime or sudden serious illness show that most feel dazed and anxious in the immediate aftermath; they are preoccupied with the idea that their lives have been shattered. A few are haunted long afterward by memory problems, sleep trouble and similar symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder 7. But Tedeschi and others have found that for many people-perhaps even the majority-life ultimately becomes richer and more Gratifying.

11她这种不可思议的经历完全是个惊喜。但是北卡罗来纳大学夏洛特分校心理学教授里奇?特德斯基认为,这种转变的感觉从某些方面看

却是很典型的。里奇?特德斯基教授首创了“创伤后成长”一词。他对

那些经历了诸如搏斗、暴力犯罪、突患重病等极端事件的人群进行了研究,这些研究表明,在刚经历不幸后大多数人随即都会感到茫然和焦虑。他们一心想的就是,自己的生活完全被毁了。有少部分人事后很久了还

不断被记忆问题、失眠以及类似的创伤后应激障碍所折磨。但特德斯基和其他学者发现,对很多人(可能甚至是绝大多数人)来说,生活最终会变得更加丰富和更加令人满足。

12 Something similar happens to many people who experience

a terrifying physical threat. In that moment, our sense of invulnerability is pierced, and the self-protective mental armor that normally stands between us and our perceptions of the world is torn away. Our everyday life scripts-our habits,

self-perceptions and assumptions-go out the window, and we are left with a raw experience of the world.

12许多经历过恐怖的人身威胁的人会遇到类似的情况。在事情发生的那一瞬间,我们的安全感被冲破了,平时处于我们与我们对世界的种种看法之间的自我保护的精神盔甲被剥离了。我们的日常生活轨迹(我们的习惯、自我认识和主观意念)全部被抛到九霄云外,只剩下对世界的原始体验。

13 Still, actually implementing these changes, as well as fully coming to terms with a new reality, usually takes conscious effort. Being willing and able to take on this process is one of the major differences between those who grow through adversity and those who are destroyed by it. The people who find value in adversity aren't the toughest or the most rational. What makes

them different is that they are able to incorporate what happened into the story of their own life.

13尽管如此,要实际实现这些转变并完全接受新的现实,通常需要有意识地付出努力。是否愿意并有能力承担这个过程,就是那些在灾难中成长和那些被灾难所摧毁的人之间主要的区别之一。认为灾难有价值的人并不是最坚强或最理性的人。使他们与众不同的是他们能够将所遭遇的事融入他们自己的人生历程中。”

14 Eventually, they may find themselves freed in ways they never imagined.Survivors say theyhave become more tolerant and forgiving of others, capable of bringing peace to formerly troubled relationships. They say that material ambitions suddenly seem silly and the pleasures of friends and family paramount-and that the crisis allowed them to recognize life in line with their new priorities.

14最终,他们可能会发现自己以从未想到过的方式获得了解脱。幸存者往往说他们变得更加宽容,也更能原谅别人,能够缓和原本糟糕的关系。他们说物质追求突然间变得很无聊,而朋友和家庭带来的快乐变得极为重要,他们还说危机使他们能够按照这些新的优先之事来重新认识生活。

15 People who have grown from adversity often feel much less fear, despite the frightening things they've been through. They are surprised by their own strength, confident that they can

handle whatever else life throws at them. "People don't say that what they went through was wonderful," says Tedeschi. "They weren't meaning to grow from it. They were just trying to survive. But in retrospect, what they gained was more than they ever anticipated."

15从灾难中成长起来的人尽管经历过恐怖的事情,但他们的恐惧感往往大为减少。他们对自己的力量感到吃惊,相信不管今后生活中将要遭遇什么,他们都能应付。特德斯基说:“人们不会说他们所经历的是美好的。他们并不是特意要通过这样的经历来成长。他们只是尽其所能生存下来。但回顾起来,他们的收获远远大于他们所预料的。

16 In his recent book Satisfaction, Emory University psychiatrist Gregory Berns points to extreme endurance athletes who push themselves to their physical limits for days at a time. They cycle through the same sequence of sensations as do trauma survivors: self-loss, confusion and, finally, a new sense of mastery. For ultramarathoners, who regularly run 100-mile races that last more than 24 hours, vomiting and hallucinating are normal. After a day and night of running without stopping or sleeping, competitors sometimes forget who they are and what they are doing.

16埃默里大学精神病学家格列高利?伯思斯在他的近作《满足》中指出,极限耐力运动员每次训练都要使自己的身体连续数天处于极限状

态。他们和经历创伤的幸存者所经历的感觉过程一样:自我失落,困惑,最后获得一种新的驾驭感。对于经常跑超过24小时的l00英里比赛的超级马拉松运动员来说,呕吐和产生幻觉是常事。在一昼夜不停歇不睡觉地跑步之后,竞赛者有时会忘了自己是谁,忘了自己在干什么。

17 For a more common example of growth through adversity, look to one of life's biggest challenges: parenting. Having a baby has been shown to decrease levels of happiness. The sleep deprivation and the necessity of putting aside personal pleasure in order to care for an infant mean that people with newborns are more likely to be depressed and find their marriage on the rocks. Nonetheless, over the long haul, raising a child is one of the most rewarding and meaningful of all human undertakings. The short-term sacrifice of happiness is outweighed by other benefits, like fulfillment, altruism and the chance to leave a meaningful Legacy.

17更普遍的在逆境中成长的例子要数生命中最大的挑战之一:为人父母。生育孩子一直被认为会降低幸福程度。为了照顾婴儿而睡眠不足并且必须将自己的消遣撇到一边,意味着有了新生儿的人更有可能感到抑郁并且面临婚姻的危机。然而,长远看来,养育孩子是所有人类活动中最有意义、最值得去做的一件事情。短时间内牺牲了幸福,却有了更多的收获,比如满足感、无私以及有机会留下一笔意义深远的遗产。

18 Ultimately, the emotional reward can compensate for the pain and difficulty of adversity. This perspective does not cancel

out what happened, but it puts it all in a different context: that it's possible to live an extraordinary rewarding life even within the constraints and struggles we face. In some form or other, says King, we all must go through this realization. "You're not going to be the person you thought you were, but here's who you are going to be instead-and that turns out to be a pretty great life."

18总之,情感上的回报可以弥补灾难带来的痛苦和艰难。这种精神收获并不能抵消所发生的苦难,但是它可以把这些苦难全部放在另一个不同的背景中来看待,..那就是即使我们面临约束和挣扎,我们仍然可以生存得极有价值。金指出,我们所有的人都必须以这样或那样的形式经历这种觉悟。“你将不再是自己心目中曾经的你,取而代之的是一个新的你—而事实会证明生活从此将非常美好。”

Unit2 Commercialization and Changes in Sports

1.Throughout history sports have been used as forms of public entertainment. However,sports have never been so heavily packaged, promoted, presented and played as commercial products as they are today. Never before have decisions about sports and the social relationships connected with sports been so clearly influenced by economic factors. The bottom line has replaced the goal line for many people, and sports no longer exist simply for the interests of the athletes themselves. Fun and "good games" are now defined in terms of gate receipts, concessions revenues, the sale of media rights, market shares, rating points, and advertising potential. Then, what happens to sports when they become commercialized? Do they change when they become dependent on gate receipts and the sale of media rights?

1在整个历史长河中,人们都是把体育当作某种形式的公众娱乐。

然而,体育从未像今天这样作为一种商业产品被如此盛大地包装、推广、呈现和开展,有关体育的决策以及与体育相关的社会关系也同样从未如此显然地受到商业因素的影响。对许多人来说,账本底线已取代了球门线,体育不再只是为了运动员们自身的兴趣而存在。今天,乐趣和“好比赛”的定义取决于门票收入、特许权收人、媒体传播权的出售、市场份额、收视率以及广告潜力。那么,当体育变得商业化时,它会怎样?

当体育变得依赖于门票收人和媒体传播权的出售时,它会发生变化吗?

2.We know that whenever any sport is converted into commercial entertainment, it success depends on spectator appeal. Although spectators often have a variety of motives underlying their attachment to sports, their interest in any sporting event is usually related to a combination of three factors: the uncertainty of an event's outcome, the risk or financial rewards associated with participating in an event,and the anticipated display of excellence or heroics by the athletes. In other words, when spectators refer to a "good game" or an "exciting contest", they are usually talking about one in which the outcome was in doubt until the last minutes or seconds, one in which the stakes' were so high that athletes were totally committed to and engrossed in the action, or one in which there were a number of excellent or "heroic" performances. When games or matches contain all three of these factors, they are remembered and discussed for a long time.

2我们知道,每当任何一项体育运动被转化为商业性娱乐活动时,它的成功就依赖于观众的兴趣。尽管观众对于体育的拥护背后潜藏着多种动机,但他们对体育比赛的兴趣通常与三种相结合的因素有关:比赛结果的不确定性,参加一项比赛相关的风险或经济回报,以及预期中的运动员的卓越、英勇表现。换句话说,当观众提及一场“不错的比赛”

或一场“激动人心的比赛”时,这场比赛,通常在比赛即将结束的最后几分钟甚至儿秒钟时,结果仍然扑朔迷离;或者比赛涉及高额奖金,因而运动员们都全身心地投入比赛。或者比赛展示了许多出色的或者“英雄式”的表现。只要运动比赛包含所有这三方面因素,人们就会长时间记得并讨论这场比赛。

http://m.wendangku.net/doc/2ce26aa1e45c3b3566ec8b7c.htmlmercialization has not had a dramatic effect on the format and goals of most sports. In spite of the influence of spectators, what has occurred historically is that sports have maintained their basic format. Innovations have been made within this framework, rather than completely dismantling the design of a game. For example, the commercialization of the Olympic Games has led to minor rule changes in certain events, but the basic structure of each Olympic sport has remained much the same as it was before the days of corporate endorsements and the sale of television rights.

3商业化对于大多数体育运动的结构和目标没有太大的影响。尽管观众会对其产生影响,但在历史上,运动项目保持了它们的基本结构。创新也是在这一框架内进行的,并不会完全废除这项运动的基本设计。例如、奥运会的商业化导致了某些赛事规则的微小变化但其每项运动的基本结构还是和商家赞助及电视转播权出售之前基本一致。

http://m.wendangku.net/doc/2ce26aa1e45c3b3566ec8b7c.htmlmercialization seems to affect the orientations of sport participants more than it does the format and goals of sports.

To make money on a sport, it's necessary to attract a mass audience to buy tickets or watch the events on television. Attracting and entertaining a mass audience is not easy because it's made up of many people who don't have technical knowledge about the complex athletic skills and strategies used by players and coaches. Without this technical knowledge, people are easily impressed by things extrinsic to the game or match itself; they get taken in by hype. During the event itself they often focus on things they can easily understand. They enjoy situations in which players take risks and face clear physical danger; they are attracted to players who are masters of dramatic expression or who are willing to go beyond and their normal physical limits to the point of endangering their safety and well-being; and they like to see players committed to victory no matter what the personal cost.

4看来,与运动的结构和目的相比,商业化更多的是影响运动参与者的取向。若要通过一项运动盈利,就必须吸引广大观众买门票或在电视上观看比赛。吸引和娱乐广大观众并非易事,因为这些观众中有很多人没有技木性的知识,因而不懂得运动员和教练采取的复杂竞技技巧和策略。由于缺乏这些技术性知识,人们容易受到运动或赛事之外的东西的影响,容易受到天花乱坠的宜传的迷惑。在比赛期间,他们经常关注那些他们容易理解的事情。他们喜欢那种运动员冒险并明显面临身体危险的情境,他们喜爱那些搜长戏剧化表现或者愿意超越正常的生理极限

以致威胁到自己的安全和健康的运动员。他们喜欢看到运动员不惜代价,立志求胜。5.For example, when people lack technical knowledge about basketball, they are more likely to talk about a single slam dunks than about the consistently flawless defense that enabled a team to win a game.Similarly, those who know little about the technical aspects of ice skating are more entertained by triple and quadruple jumps than by routines carefully choreographed and practiced until they are smooth and flawless.Without dangerous jumps, naive spectators get bored. They like athletes who project' exciting or controversial personas,and they often rate performances in terms of dramatic expression leading to dramatic results.They want to see athletes occasionally collapse as they surpass physical limits, not athletes who know their limits so well they can successfully compete for years without going beyond them.

5比如,当人们缺乏篮球方面的技术知识时,他们更津津乐道于某一个灌篮,而不会关注球队取胜必需的因素:自始至终配合得天衣无缝的后防。同样,那些对滑冰技术知之甚少的人,他们更感兴趣的是三连跳或四连跳,而不是那些精心设计并训练直至流畅、完美的舞步。没有惊险的跳跃,无知的观众会感到厌倦。他们喜欢那些表现得激动人心或有争议性的运动员。他们往往根据戏剧化的表现是否导致戏剧化的结果

来评价比赛。他们想看运动员在超越自己极限时偶尔的突然失败,而不是多年来稳操胜券,熟知自己极限而不去超越它的运动员。

6.When a sport comes to depend on entertaining a mass audience, those involved in the sport often revise their ideas about what is important in sport. This revision usually involves a shift in emphasis from what might be called an aesthetic orientation to a heroic orientation In fact, the people in sport may even refer to games or matches as "show-time", an iey may refer to themselves as entertainers as well as athletes. This does not mean that aesthetic orientations disappear, but it does mean that they often take a back seat to the heroic actions that entertain spectators who don't know enough to appreciate the strategic and technical aspects of the game or match.

6当一项体育运动变得依赖于娱乐广大观众时,对于运动中什么才是重要的,运动参与者们往往会改变观念。这一改变常常意味着重心从所谓的美学取向向英雄主义取向转变。其实,运动员可能甚至把运动或比赛称为“表演秀”,并把自己称作表演者兼运动员。这并不意味着美学取向不复存在了,但是这确实意味着与英雄主义行为相比,它们常常退居其后。英雄主义行为吸引着那些没有足够的知识欣赏运动或比赛的策略和技术的观众。

7.As the need to please naive audiences becomes greater, so does the emphasis on heroic orientations. This is why television

commentators for US football games continually talk about danger, injuries, playing with pain, and courage. Some athletes, however, realize the dangers associated with heroic orientations and try to slow the move away from aesthetic orientations in their sports. For example, some former figure skaters have called for restrictions on the number of triple jumps that can be included in skating programs. These skaters are worried that the commercial success of their sport is coming to rely on the danger of movement rather than the beauty of movement. However, some skaters seem to be willing to adopt heroic orientations if this is what will please audiences and generate revenues. These athletes usually evaluate themselves and other athletes in terms of the sport ethic, and they learn to see heroic actions signs of true commitment and dedication to their sport.

7取悦无知观众的需求越强烈,就越会强调英雄主义取向。这就是为什么美国橄榄球比赛的电视评论员喋喋不休地谈论危险、受伤、带伤比赛和胆量。不过,有些运动员意识到了与英雄主义取向随之而来的危险,并试图在他们的运动中放慢偏离美学取向的步伐。比如,一些前花样滑冰运动员已经呼吁限制滑冰项目中三连跳的数量。这些滑冰运动员担心,他们的体育项目在商业上的成功正越来越依赖于动作的危险性,而不是动作的美感。然而,另外一些滑冰运动员似乎愿意采取英雄主义取向,只要这样能取悦观众,获得收入。这些运动员用体育道德规范去

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