《电气工程及其自动化》专业英语夹带

【词汇】

电阻resistance;电流current;电压voltage;电容capacitance;电感inductance;电感特性exhibit inductance;频率frequency;

波形waveform;绝缘体insulator;导体conductor;阻值resist;能力,性能capability;耗散dissipate;容纳accommodate;电容器capacitor;电容capacitance;电感器inductor;共振,谐振resonate;发射器emitter;整流器rectifier;波长wavelength;原子atom;质子proton;电荷,负荷charge;吸引attraction;排斥repulsion;交流发电机alternator;发电机generator;势的,位

的potential终端terminal;极性polarity;正弦sine;正弦波sinewave;;周期cycle;三相threephase;偏移量offset;;电枢armature;磁场magnetic field;顶点peak;峰值peakvalue;电路ciruit;负荷,负载load;开关,电闸,转换switch;示意性的schematic;计算,考虑calculate;分

子numerator;转化的invert;支流branch;混合物compound;相等的equivalent;

方法method;刷新redraw;二极管diode;晶体管transistor;半导体semiconductor;制作fabricate;晶体crystal;结合物bond;四面体tetrahedron;本质的intrinsic;杂物,混杂物impurity;中等的moderate;极性polarity;交感interaction;损耗depletion;相反reverse;真空vacuum;泄漏leakage;数字的numerical;十进制decimal;阿拉伯数字digit;权重weight;幂power;二进制binary;位bit;乘multiply;余数remainder;综合integration;双极的bipolar;变极器inverter;便携式电脑laptop;描述depict;瞬间的momentary;逻辑门gate;图表的diagrammatic;方向,方位orientation;

芯片chip;多路器multiplexer;定理theorem;搅拌机mixer;向量vector;摩擦力friction;扭矩torque;乘积product;半径,范围radius;杠杆lever;旋转revolution;惯性inertia;补偿compensate;功work;

【短语】

工业总线industrial bus;电压差voltage difference; 电压降voltage drop;串联电路series circuit; 并联电路parallel circuit; ;

换向开关inverter switch;开关输入量discrete input; 正电荷positive charge;负电荷negative charge; 正向positive direction;负向negative direction;反向opposite direction;三相three-phase;磁场magnetic field;交流变量alternating current component;超时over time; 电场electric field; 峰值peak value;三角函数trigonometric function;均方根

root-mean-square;等值电路equal value resistors;复合电路compound circuits; 数

字转换conversion of number; 可编程控

制器programmable controller;电能electrical energy;机械能mechanical energy;惯性定律law of inertia;电枢磁场armature field;右手法则right-hand rule;采样间隔sampling interval;模拟信号analog signal;数字信号digital signal;模拟量输入analog input;接近开关proximity switch;

有功功率active power;放大区amplifier region;异步电动机asynchronous machine;开关量输出discrete output;三相交流电three-phase;有源滤波器active filter;在—之间between and;另一方面on the other hand;利用take advantage of;包围close in;由---组成be formed by;考虑take into account;支路by-pass;中性状态neutral state;挤出去force out;自由电

子free electron;电流current flow;图示graphic representation;正弦波sine wave;;;与—有关be referable to;;最小公倍数lowest common multiple;复合电

路compound circuits;并联分支parallel branch;物理类型physics types;碳族carbon family;三维的3-dimensional;外层电子outer electron;元素周期表periodic table;PN结PNjunction;N区Nregion;数字系统number system;数字值numerical value;十进制系统decimal system;二进制系统binary system;指轮开关thumb wheel switch;;超大规模集成电路very large scale integration;;真值表truth table;牵引电阻pull-up resistor;;

米每秒meters per second;角速度angular speed;外力external force;转动惯量moment of inertia;蒸汽机steam engine;绕—而走walk around;欧姆定律Ohm’s law;色条代码color chart codes;国家军用规格和标准National Military specification and standard;检查和维修inspection maintenance;保修条款;limited warranty policy;原子中性状态neutral state of an atom;电中性electrically neutral;交流正弦

波ACsine wave;三相交流电three-phase AC power;瞬时电压instantaneons voltage;有效值effective value;简单电路simple electric circuit;数字电路digital circuit elememts;人工布线manual routing;自动

布线auto routing;静力net force;线速度linear speed;角速度angular speed;加速度acceleration;

【缩写】

DC(Direct Current)直流电;

BCD(Binary-Coded Decimal)二进制编码的

十进制;CMOS(comliementary metal oxide semiconduct)互补金属氧化物半导体;

AC(Alternating Current)交流电;

RPM(revolutions per minute)转/分;

RF(Radio Frequency)射频,无线电频率;BCD(Binary Coded Decimal)二进制编码的

十进制;CEMF(CounterElectroMotiveForce)反电动势;PID(proportional integral differential)比例积分微分;PLC (programmable logic controller)可编程

逻辑控制器;ADC(analog to digital converter)·模拟/数字转换器;

【翻译】

1.Resistors are used to control voltages

and currents:电阻器被用于控制电压与电

2.Resistors are components that have a predetermined resistance.Resistance determines how much current will flow through a component.电阻器是预先设定

好的元件。电阻的大小将决定流过电阻器的电流的大小。3.A very high resistance allows very little

current to flow.很大的电阻允许很小的电

流流过

4.Sparks and lightning are brief displays of

current flow through air. The light is

created as the current burns parts of the

air.闪电是电流流过空气的现象。光是由

于电流击穿空气而形成的。

5.Metals have very low resistance.A low

resistance allows a large amount of current

to flow.金属的电阻很小。很小的电阻允许

很大的电流流过。

6.That is why wires are made of metal.They

allow current to flow from one point to

another point without any resistance.Wire

are usually covered with rubber or plastic.

这就是电线为什么用金属制成。它们允许

电流流过而没有任何阻抗。电线通常外面

包裹着橡胶或塑料。

7.High voltage power lines are covered

with thick layers of plastic to make them

safe,but they become very dangerous

when the line breaks and the wire is

exposed and is no longer separated from

other things by insulation.为了安全,高压

电线外面要包裹一层很厚的塑料。担当电

线折断并且裸露不再被绝缘体隔时是非

常危险的。

8.Making the resistance higher will let less

current flow so the volume goes down.但

电阻调大时,流过的电流迅速减少。

9.Variable resistance are also common

components.They have a dial or a knob

that allows you to change the resistance.可

变的电阻器也是普通的元件。它们有一个

刻度盘或一个按钮可供调节阻值。

10.For example,a 500Ωvariable resistance

can have a resistance of anywhere

between 0Ωand 500Ω. 例如,一个500

Ω的可变电阻器,它的阻值可以在0~500

Ω之间任意调节。

11.A glass rod becomes charged when

rubbed with silk,as does a hard-rubber rod

when Rubbed with fur.和硬橡胶棒与毛皮

被摩擦一样,玻璃棒与丝绸摩擦可以使玻

璃棒带有电荷。

12.People found that charges produce

forces of repulsion and attraction.these are

usually small forces.人们发现电荷存在吸

引力和排斥力,但这种力通常都很小。

13.Negative charges repel negative

charges,positive charge repel position

charges,and positive and negative charges

attract each other.In short,like charges

repel and unlike charges attract.负电荷排

斥负电荷,正电荷排斥正电荷,正负电荷

相互吸引。简而言之,同种电荷相互排斥,

异种电荷相互吸引。

14.On further study of charges scientists

found that all negative charges are integer

multiples of a certain very small charge.通

过对电荷的进一步研究,科学家发现所有

的负电荷的电荷量都可看做一个整数与

一个很小的电荷量的乘积.

15.Scientist also discovered that positive

charges are integer multiples of a very

small charge,the same charges are an

electron-but positive.the proton has this

charge.科学家还发现正电荷量也可看做

一个整数与一个很小的电荷量的乘积,电

荷量的大小与电子相同——但是正的。质

子具有这样的电荷。

16.Rubbing a glass rod with a silk cloth or a

hard-rubber rod with fur does not create

charge.in general,charge cannot be created

or destroyed,a fact called the law of

conservation of charge.玻璃棒与丝绸摩擦

或硬橡胶棒与毛皮摩擦并不创造电荷。通

常电荷既不能创造也不能消亡,这就是电

荷守恒定律。

17. Rubbing the glass rod with a silk cloth

removes electrons from the rod and puts

them in the cloth .This charge transfer

causes a charge unbalance on both the rod

and cloth.玻璃棒与丝绸摩擦使得电子有

玻璃棒运动到丝绸上,这种电荷的移动使

得棒和丝绸上的电荷失去平衡。

18 Electrons of an atom have orbits at

different distances from the nucleus.For

some atoms the electrons in the farthest

orbits have only weak forces binding them

to the atoms.原子核内的电子在离核不同

的位置上绕核运动,在某些原子中对离核

最远的电子只有很微弱的力将其束缚在

原子内。

19.An atom with an unbalance charge is

called an ion . Ions are charged particles

that would produce a current if they could

move.带有不平衡电荷的原子称为离子。

离子是一种带电荷的粒子,如果将离子移

动就可以产生电流。

20. Even at normal room temperatures the

outer electrons in metals receive enough

heat energy to become free, especially for

silver ,copper, gold , aluminum.

即使在正常的室温条件下,一些金属特别

是银、铜、金和铝的外层电子也能够获得

足够的热量而变成自由电子。

21.A power supply could be something as

a 9V battery or it could be as complex as a

precision laboratory power supply.电源既

可以是像9V电池一样简单,也可以像实

验室的精确电源一样复杂。

22.Variable resistors are common

components. They have a dial or a knob

that allows you to change the resistance.

This is very useful for many situations.可变

电阻器是常用的元件,它有一个刻度盘或

一个旋钮用于改变电阻,在很多场合是非

常有用的。

23.Diodes are components that allow

current to flow in only one direction. They

have a positive side and a negative side.二

极管是一种只允许电流以一个方向流过

的元件。它有一个正极和负极。

24.LEDs use a special material which emits

light when current flows through it. Unlike

light bulbs, LEDs never burn out unless

their current limit is passed.LED使用当有

电流流过时就发光的特殊材料制成。同灯

泡不同,只要电流在一定限度内,光不会

熄灭。

25.Well the letter L stands for inductance.

The simplest inductor consists of a piece of

wire.字母L代表电感,最简单的电感器由

一段导线组成。

26.Two metallic plates separated by a

non-conducting material between them

make a simple capacitor.不可导的物质隔

开两块金属块就可形成一个简单的电容

器。

27.The time required for a capacitor to

reach its change is proportional to the

capacitance value and the resistance value.

电容的充电时间同它的电容值和阻抗值

成比例。

28.When AC current flows through an

inductance a back emf or voltage develops

opposing any change in the initial current.

当交流电流过一个电感,会产生一个反向

的电动势或电压来阻止原来电流的变化。

29.Reactance is the property of resisting or

impeding the flow of AC current or AC

voltage in inductors and capacitors.电抗是

一种抵制或阻止电感器或电容器中的交

流电流或交流电压的属性。

30.To produce a drift of electrons, or

electric current, along a wire it is necessary

that there be a difference in “pressure”

or potential between the two ends of the

wire. This potential difference can be

produced by connecting a source of

electrical potential to the ends of the wire.

为了产生电子飘逸或电流,必须在一条导

线的两端有不同的“压力”或电动势。这

种不同的电动势可以通过在导线的两端

接上电压源来产生。

31.Generally transistors fall into the

category of bipolar transistors,either the

more common NPN bipolar transistorsor

the less common NPN transistors types.

一般的晶体管都属于双极晶体管,要么是

属于比较常用的NPN型双极晶体管要么

是使用较少的PNP型晶体管

32.Silicon crystals for example have very

free electrons. However if“impurities”

(different atomic structure–e.g. arsenic)

are introuduced in a controlled manner

then the free electrons or conductivity

increased.例如,硅晶体只有很少的自由

电子,但是如果以一种可控制的方法掺入

杂质(原子结构不同,例如砷),则自由

电子或可导性就增加了

33.If we take a piece of the P-type material

and connect it to a piece of N-type

material and apply voltage then current

will flow. Elextrons will be attracted

across the junction of the P and N

materials如果将一块N型材料同一块P

型材料相连,然后加上电压,将有电流流

过,电子将被吸引穿过PN结的材料

34.A silicon flake a quarter inch on a side

can hold a million electronic

components,ten times more than 30

ton ENIAC.the worlds first electronic

digital computer.边长是1/4英寸的硅片可

以容纳100万个电子元件,是30吨重的

电子计算机ENIAC元件数量的10 倍。

ENIAC是世界上第一台电子数字计算机

35. A microprocessor,for example,can

endow a machine with decision-making

ability,memory for instructiongs ,and

self-adjusting controls.例如微处理器,可

以赋予一台计算机决策的能力,指令的存

储及自适应控制

36.Eventually one billion transistors,or

electronic switches,many crowed into a

signle chip,A memorychip of such

complexity could store the of 200 long

novels:10亿个晶体管或电子开关最终可

能集中到一个芯片上,如此复杂的存储芯

片可以存储200部长篇小说的内容

37.A transistor can be configured as

diode and often are used in certain

projects,especially to adjust for thermal

varations.一个晶体管可以被设置为一个

二极管并且常被用于某些工程,尤其是用

于调节热量变化

38.A transistors is often a limitation and

at other times an asset that with zero

spacing between the P and N junctions

we have transformers or capacitors.半导体

常常作为一个限定器,有时它的优点是:

当PN结之间的距离为零时,我们就可以

得到一个相对容量较大的电容

39.The eary principal application of

diodes was in rectifying 50/60Hz AC

mains to raw DC which was later

smoothed by choke transformers or

capacitors.早期的二级管的主要应用是将

50/60Hz的交流电整流为粗糙的直流电,

然后通过扼流变压器或电容进行平滑处

40.Varactor or tuning diodes work on

the principle that all diodes exhibit some

capacitance. 变容二极管或调谐二极管的

工作原理是,所有的二级管都表现出一些

电容的特性

41.Because a single bit can only store two

values,bits are combined together into

large units in order to hold a greater range

of values:由于一位只能存储两个值,因此

要用许多位组合成大的单元来存储较大

范围的值

42.Boolean variables use a single bit to

hold their value,so can only assume one of

two possible states:布尔变量用一位来保

存它的值,所以只能表示两种可能的状态

之一。

43.Consider where a computer allocates 16

bits of storage per status variable,if we had

three status variables ,the space consumed

would be 48 bits:鉴于计算机每个状态变

量分配16位存储空间,如果我们有三个

状态变量,就需要用48位的存储空间。

44.ASCII is a computer code which uses

128 different encoding combinations of a

group of seven bits (27=128)to represent.:

译:ASCII码是一种计算机编码,它由一

组7位组成的128 (27=128)种不同二进制

编码来表示、

45.Characters are non-numeric symbols

used to convey language and meaning.in

English ,they are combined with other

characters to form words:字符是一种用来

表达语言和意义的非数字的字符,在英语

中它们同别的字符一起组成单词。

http://m.wendangku.net/doc/3ad30188fab069dc5122012a.htmlputer system normally stores

charscters using the ASCII code ,each

character is stored using eight bits of

information ,giving a total number of 256

different characts(28=256):计算机系统中

一般用ASCII码来存储字符,每个字符用

8位信息来存储,总共得到256个不同的

字符

47.Text strings are a sequence of

characters( words or multi-character

symbols)each character is stored one after

the other,each occupying 8bits of memory

storage.:字符串是一系列字符(单词或

多个字符),一个字符接一个字符存储,

每个字符占8位的存储空间。

48.Numeric information cannot efficiently

be store using the ASCII format,imagine

storing the number 123769 using ASCII,this

would consume 6 bytes,and it would be

difficult to tell if the number was positive

or negative(though we could precede it

with the character+or-):数字信息不能采

用ASCII进行有效存储,假设利用ASCII

来存储数123789将占用6个字符,并且

很难表达这个数是正或负(尽管我们可以

在这个数面前加上+或-)

49.The computer industry agreed upon a

stangard for the storage fioating point

numbers,it is called the IEEE 754

standard,and uses 32bits of memory(for

single precision),or 64 bits(for double

precision):计算机行业认可一种存储浮点

数的标准,这中标准就是IEEE754,采用

32位存储(单精度)或64位(双精度)

50.An array is a group of elements which

are all of the same type,size and name.it

can be thought of as a box with multiple

compartments ,each compartment capable

of storing one data item:一个数组是一组

类型、大小和名称都相同的元素,可以认

为它是有许多格的盒子,每个格子可以存

储一个数据项

51.The magnetic moment can be

considered to be a vector quantity with

direction perpendicular to the current loop

in the right-hand-rule direction.电磁可以

认为是一种矢量,同电流环面垂直,方向

可以由右手定则确定

52.Magnetic fields are produced by electric

currents,which can be macroscopie

currents in wires ,or microscopic currents

associated with electrons in atomic orbits:

电磁场可以由流过导线的宏观电流产生,

或者可以由在原子轨道上的电子运动引

起微观电流产生

53.Magnetic field sources are essentially

dipolar in nature ,having a north and a

south magnetic poles:在性质方面,本质

上电磁场源是两极的,具有电磁北极和电

磁南极

54.The electric force is straightforward ,

being in the direction of the electric field if

the charge Q is positive , but the direction

of the magnetic part of the force is given

by the right-hand-rule:电力的方向是直线

的,是正电荷Q电场的方向,但是力的

电磁方向由右手定则给出

55.for circular motion at a constant speed

v,the centripetal acceleration of the

motion can be derived:对于恒定速度V

进行的圆周运动,运动的向心加速度是可

以求得的

56.For an object rotating about an

axis ,every point on the object has the

same angular velocity,the tangential

velocityof any point is proportional to its

distance from the axis of rotation:对于一

个围绕一个轴旋转的物体,物体上的任何

一点都具有相同的角速度,物体上的每一

点的切速度与这点到旋转轴的距离成正

57.these rotation equations apply only in

case of constant angular acceleration ,it is

assumed that the angle is zero at t=0and

that the motion is being examined at time

t:旋转公式只适用于恒定的角加速度,

它假设t=0时角度为0,并且在时刻t可

以测得速度

8.moment of inertia is the name given to

rotational intia,it appears in the

relationships for the dynamics of rotational

motion:运动惯性是旋转惯性的名称,它

反映旋转运动动力的关系

59.the force arm is defined as the

perpendicular distance from the axis of

rotation to the line of action of the force:

力臂的定义是从旋转轴到力作用线的垂

直距离

60.it is calculated as the product of the

foce and the distance through which the

body moves and is expressed in

joules(J),ergs(erg),and ft-lb:它是通过力和

物体移动的距离的乘积来计算的,并且用

焦耳、尔格和尺磅来表示

61.Ammeters typically include a galvanom

eter;digital ammeters typically include A/D

converters as well.电流表通常包括一个电

流计,而数字电流表通常还包括A/D转

换器。

62.Generally,an amplifier is a device for inc

reasing the power of a signal.一般来说,放

大器是一个提高信号功率的器件。

63.In electromagnetism and electronics,ca

pacitance is the ability of a body to hold an

electrical charge.在电磁学和电子学中,

电容是能够保存电量的一个部件。

64.All conductors contain electric charges

which will move whan an electric potential

difference (measured in volts) is applied a

cross separate points on the material.所有

导体都含有电荷,当该材料不同端点间存

在电位差时(用伏特计测量)电荷就会移

动。

65.A dielectric is an electrical insulator that

can be polarized by an applied electric fiel

d.电介质是绝缘体,可以通过外加电场极

化。

66.Typically an inductor is a conducting wir

e shaped as a coil.典型的电感是由导线绕

成的线圈。

67.An ammeter is a measuring instrument

used to measure the electric current in a ci

rcuit.电流表是一种用来测量电路中电流

的测量仪。

68.An alternator is an electromechanical d

evice that converts mechanical energy to el ectrical energy in the form of alternating c urrent 交流发电机是机电设备,它把机械能转化成交流电形式的电能。

69.A capacitor is a passive electronic comp onent consisting of a pair of conductors se parated by a dielectric(insulator). 电容器

是一种被动电子元件,它由一对以电介质(绝缘体)分隔的导体组成。

70.In metallic conductors,such ascopper or aluminum,the movable charged particles a re electrons.在像铜或铝这样的金属导体中,可移动的带电粒子就是电子。

【段落翻译】

1. Resistance is given in units of ohms (Ω).(Ohms are named after Mho Ohms who played with electricity as a young boy

in Germany.)Common resistor values are from 100Ωto100000Ω.Each resistor is marked with colored stripes to indicate its resistance. To learn how to calculate the value of a resistor by looking at the stripes on the resistor.电阻的大小是通过欧姆数

来说明的。(欧姆数是以欧海曼·欧姆的名字命名,当他在俄国还是个孩子的时候就从事电方面的工作。)常用的电阻器阻值是100~200Ω。电阻器是通过印在上面的色条来表明它的阻值大小的。通过查看电阻器上的色条就可以知道电阻器阻值

的大小。

2. The charge of an electron or of a proton

is much too small to be basic quantity of charge for almost all practical applications.The SI unit of charge is the coulomb,with the symbol C.A coulomb of negative charge equals that of 6.242*1018 electrons. The coulomb is a derived SI unit, which means that it can be derived from SI base units.对于所有的具体应用,用电子

或质子的电荷量作为电荷的基本单位太

小了。国际单位制中电荷的单位名称是库伦,符号是C。一库伦负电荷与

6.242*1018电子的电荷量相等。库伦来自国际单位制,这意味着它可以由国际单位制中的基本单位导出。

3. Switches are devices that create a short circuit or an open circuit depending on the position of the switch. For a light switch,

ON means short circuit(current flows through the switch, lights light up). When the switch is OFF, that means there is an open circuit(no current flows, lights go out). When the switch is ON it looks and acts

like a wire. When the switch is OFF there is no connection.开关是一种根据开关的位

置来接通或断开电路的设备。对于电灯开关,ON意味着接通(电流流过开关,灯点亮)。当开关在OFF状态时,意味着开路(没有电流流过,灯熄灭)。当开关是ON 时,它看起来和起的作用就像一条导线。当开关是OFF时,就相当于导线没

有连接。

4.The transistor was developed at Bell Laboratories in 1948. Large scale commercial use didn’t come until much later owing to slow development . Transistors used in most early entertainment equipments were the germanium types. When the silicon transistor was developed it took off dramatically. The first advantages of the transistor were relatively low power consumption at low voltage levels which made large scale production of portable entertainment devices feasible. Interestingly the growth of the battery industry has paralleled the growth of the transistor industry.晶体管于1948年由贝

尔实验室开发。由于发展的缓慢直到很久以后才进行大规模的商业用途。早期大部分的娱乐设备使用的晶体管是锗型的,当硅型晶体管发展以后,很快就不用锗型晶体管了。晶体管的一个最重要的优点是工作电压相对低、能耗相对也低,因此能够利用它制造大量便携的娱乐设备。有趣的是电池工业正好同晶体管工业同步发展。

5. If the motor runs at 600r/m when the PWM drive to the motor is at a 50% duty ratio, increasing this to 60% will make the motor try to run faster. Reducing the duty ratio to 40% will slow the motor down. In a very simple “open loop”speed controller, the potentiometer on analog channel 0 is read to yield a value between

0~1023(10bit). This value is then fed into the PWM unit to allow the motor speed to be varied. In the real world, this type of controller is not very useful. While it allows the motor speed to be set, it does not

allow for change in load and a basic flaw is that the absolute speed is not knows unless an external tachometer is used.如

果当PWM调节器对电动机的负荷比设定为50%时,电动机的运转速度是600r/min。将负荷比增加到60%,电动机运行速度将加快。将负荷比降到40%,电动机的运行速度将下降。在非常简单的“开环”速度控制器中,通道0上的电位计产生的读数是0~1023(10位)。然后这个值将反馈到PWM系统来改变电动机的速度。在现实中,这种类型的控制器不要好用。虽然它能够设定电动机的速度,但它在电动机有负载时也不允许改变,并且它的一个首要缺点是除非使用外接转速表,否则无法知道电动机的绝对速度。

6. There are two problems with integers;they cannot express fractions,and the rang of the number is limited to the number of bits used,And efficient way of storing fractions is called the floating point method,which involves splitting the fraction into two parts,an exponent and a mantissa,the exponent represents a value raised to the power of .the mantissa represents a fractional value between 0

and 1.对于整数存在两个问题:他们不能表示分数,并且表示的范围受到使用的位数的限制,一种存储分数的有效方法是浮点数,它将分数分为2部分,指数和尾数,指数表达的值为2的幂次,尾数表示的是一个0-1之间的小数值、

试卷预测:一.

alternator 交流发电机automation自动控

制,自动操作;bandwidth带宽,频带宽度

built-in内置的,固定的,嵌入的

capacitance容量,电容charge负荷,电

荷,费用,充电coil线圈converter转换

器,变换器diode二极管impedance阻抗,

全电阻insulator绝缘体semiconductor半

导体senso传感器suppression抑制switch

开关,电闸threshold临界值vacuum真

空,空间

二.adj.微分的Differential ; n.打扰,干扰

Disturbance; n.以太网Ethernet ;n.频率,

周率Frequency;adj.不相容的, 矛盾的

Contradiction;n.隔绝, 绝缘Isolation;adj.

瞬间的, 刹那间的Momentary;n.极性

Polarity;n.转发器,中继器Repeater;n.排

Repusion;n.阻力,电阻,阻Resistance;vt.

模拟,模仿Simulate;n.晶体管Transiston.;n

近似值,接近,走近Approximation;n.能力,

性能,容量Capability;v.补偿,偿还

Compensate;n.损Depletionr;n.传感器,发

送器,传递器Transmitter;n.阀Valve;n.波

Wavelength;vector向量,矢量;waveform

波形;ammeter电表;

三.PLC Programmable logic controller

可编程逻辑控制器

PPI Point-to-point interface点一点接口

CNC Computerized numerical control计

算机数值控制

EIA Electronic industries association

电子工业联合会

RF Radio frequency射频,无线电频率

FCC Federal communications commission

(美国)通信委员会

CMOS Complementary

metal-oxide-semiconductor transistor互补

金属氧化物半导体

MOSFET Metallic oxide semiconductor

field effect transistor金属氧化物半导体场

效应晶体管

VLSI Very large scale integration超大规模

集成电路

CEMF Counter electro motive force反电

动势

四.

between…and在……之间;on the other

hand另一方面;take advantage of利

用;negative charge负电荷;electric field电

场;free electron自由电子;current flow电

流;sine wave正弦波;

Root-Mean-Square均方根(值);series

circuit串联电路;voltage drop电压降;truth

table真值表;

carbon brus碳刷;permanent magnet永久

磁铁;armature field 电枢场;magnetic lines

磁力线;proportional system比例系

统;sampling period采样周期;analog signal

模拟信号;baud rate 波特;discrete input开

关量输入;limit switch限位开关;proximity

switch接近开关;industrial bus工业总

线;voltage difference电压差;parallel

circuit并联电路;compound circuits复合电

路;parallel branch 并联分支;decimal

system十进制系统;programmable

controller 可编程控制器;

五..Resistance in a material arises from

the collision of electrons with the atoms

and with each other

答案2.wires 3. resistance 4. produces 1.

collisions 5.hot

六..1. What is electric potential? What is

another term people will use for it?

Electric potential is what dives current. The

term people will use is voltage.

2.What is the potential between the two

slots in a household electrical outlet?

The potential between the two slots in a

household electrical outlet is a bout 120V.

3. What is the relationship between the

potential and the current when all other

things are equal?

The greater the potential the greater the

current.

4. What can be a good analogy (although

far from perfect!) for both current and

potential?

Water.

5. What is analogous to current?

The flowrate of the water is analogous to

current.

6. What is analagous to electric potential?

The height of the waterlevel is analogous

to electric potential.

7. What is more analogous to the water

pump?

A battery is more analogous to the water

pump.

8. What is a battery?

A battery is an electron pump.

9. What can a battery do? And how?

It can push electrons directly proportional

to its voltage rating .And, it does this

thiough a chemical reaction.

10. What do most batteries maintain until

near the end of their life?

Most batteries maintain a fixed potential

until near the end of their life.

七..1. ____Metals ____ are good

conductors of electric charge, while

plastics, wood, and _rubbers _are not.

2. Materials are divided into three

categories. They are ________, _______

and _________.

3. Plastics, wood, and rubbers are used as

examples of ________.

4. ____ What Catholic saint____ is a good

example of semi-conductors.

5. Semi-conductors are a very useful _____

intermediate _________ class, not as __

conductive ________ as metals but

considerably ____ more _______

conductive than insulators.

八.1)Ohm's Law deals with the

relationship between voltage and current

in an ideal conductor.

欧姆定律涉及理想导体中的电压与电流

关系。

2) Semiconductors are any of various solid

crystalline substances, such as germanium

or silicon, having electrical conductivity

greater than insulators but less than good

conductors.

半导体是一种固态结晶物质,如锗或硅,

其导电性强于绝缘体但弱于良导体。

3) A sensor is a device, such as a

photoelectric cell, that receives and

responds to a signal or stimulus.

传感器是接收并响应信号或刺激的器件,

例如光电池。

4) Resistors can be connected in series;

that is, the current flows through them

one after another.

电阻可以串接,即电流一一流过它们。

5) In the early part of the 19th century,

George Simon Ohm proved by experiment

that a precise relationship exists between

current, voltage, and resistance.

在十九世纪早期,乔治.西蒙.欧姆通过实

验证明电流、电压和电阻之间存在着确切

的关系。

九.

1) 墙上有一个开电灯的开关。

There is a switch on the wall for turning

on the lights.

2) 定子是固定的电子部件。

The stator is in the stationary electrical

component.

3) 串联电路的所有负荷都在一排。

A series circuit is one with all the loads in a

row.

4) 电荷的单位是库仑。

The unit of electric charge is the coulomb.

5) 你那辆汽车的蓄电池容易充电吗?

Your car battery is easy to recharge

your batteries?

相关推荐
相关主题
热门推荐