定语从句

1.定语从句的定义:用作定语的从句叫定语从句。

2.先行词:被定语从句所修饰的名词或代词。

3.定语从句的位置:紧跟先行词(名词或代词)之后。

4.引导词:引导定语从句的词(包括关系代词和关系副词)。

﹙1﹚关系代词:that/who/whom/which/as

﹙2﹚关系副词:when/where/why

5.引导词的位置:位于定语从句之前(先行词之后)。【as除外】

6.引导词的功能(作用):

﹙1﹚连接先行词和定语从句。(相当于桥梁)

I like the book (which I bought). 我喜欢(我买的)这本书

﹙2﹚在定语从句中充当一定的成分(关系代词充当主语或宾语,关系副词充当状语)。

This is the man (who studied with me). (关系代词做主语)

This is the man (with whom I studied). (关系代词做宾语)

=This is the man (whom I studied with).

这就是那个(和我一起学习的)男人。

①直接由引导词引导定语从句

The man (who you’re talking to ) is my friend.

那个(你正在交谈的)男人是我的朋友。

②由介词+关系代词(whom/which)引导

该介词通常可以放在关系代词之前,也可放在从句之尾。

The man (to whom you’re talking )is my friend.

那个你(正在交谈的)男人是我的朋友。

I need a pencil (with which I can write a letter)--很地道

= I need a pencil (which I can write a letter with).

我需要一只(能用来写信的)笔。

I need a piece of paper (on which I can write a letter).---很地道

=I need a piece of paper (which I can write a letter on).

我需要一张(能用来写信的)纸。

The man (who/whom/that 都可以) I talked about at the meeting is from Peking University.

=The man (about whom I talked at the meeting)is from Peking University.

(我在会议上提到的那个)男士来自北京大学

The palace (which/that 都可以) I often pay a visit to was built in the 17th century. =The palace to which I often pay a visit was built in the 17th century.

(我常去拜访的)那个宫殿修建于17世纪。

每个动词都有很多的介词搭配,比如:look at, look up ,look into, look down,look forward 等

如果有介词,那么介词就要提前到whom/which 等引导词前。

如果没有介词,则无需担心前置问题。

小窍门:

介词只能加宾语,whom 也只能做宾语,which 可做主语也可做宾语,

所以介词后只能有:介词+which, 介词+whom

特别温习:(定语从句基础)

1) 定语从句有限制性和非限制性两种。限制性定语从句是先行词不可缺少的部分,去掉它主句意思往往不明确;非限制性定语从句是先行词的附加说明,去掉了也不会影响主句的意思,它与主句之间通常用逗号分开,例如:

This is the house which we bought last month.

这是我们上个月买的那幢房子。(限制性)

Thehouse,which we bought last month, is very nice.

这幢房子很漂亮,是我们上个月买的。(非限制性)

2) 当先行词是专有名词或物主代词和指示代词所修饰时,其后的定语从句通常是非限制性的,例如:CharlesSmith, who was my former teacher, retired last year. 查理·史密斯去年退休了,他曾经是我的老师。

My house,which I bought last year, has got a lovely garden. 我去年买的的那幢房子带着个漂亮的花园。

This novel,which I have read three times, is very touching. 这本小说很动人,我已经读了三遍。

3) 非限制性定语从句还能将整个主句作为先行词, 对其进行修饰, 这时从句谓语动词要用第三人称单数,例如:

He seems not to have grasped what I meant, which greatly upsetsme. 他似乎没抓住我的意思,这使我心烦。

说明:关系代词that和关系副词why不能引导非限制性定语从句。

今日知识点非限定性定语从句(主句和定语从句之间用逗号隔开)

①直接由引导词引导定语从句。

②由介词+关系代词(whom/which)引导。

I live in a house far away from the city, in front of which is a big tree.

我住在远离城市的房子里,它前面有棵大树。

There is an apple tree standing at the gate, on which are many apples.

门口有一株苹果树,上面结满了苹果。

This is the man to whom I gave the book.

这个人就是我给了书的那个男人。

由“代词/名词+of+whom/which”或“of which/ whom +名词/代词”(先行词指人用whom,指物用which)引导。One, some, any, none,all, both, several, many, most, neither, either等词、数词、分数或百分比与of whom或of which连用。

He has five children, two of whom are abroad.

(比较:He has five children, and two of them are abroad.)

他有五个孩子,两个都在国外。

We have three books, none of which is/are interesting.

(比较:We have three books, but none of them is/are interesting.)

我们有三本书,没有一本有趣。

除why和that不能引导非限定性定语从句外,其余引导词都可以,用法同限定性定语从句一样。但要注意以下区别。

1.在形式上非限定性定语从句与主句有逗号隔开。

2.非限定性定语从句的作用:它只是补充说明先行词的情况,翻译时可译成两个句子。

The engineer, whose leg was badly hurt, was quickly sent to hospital.

(那位工程师被很快送往医院,其腿部受了重伤)

The engineer whose leg was badly hurt was quickly sent to hospital.

(那位腿部受了重伤的工程师被很快送往医院)

定语从句

主语时只能用who, 做宾语时用whom;

指物做主语,宾语都用which; 关系副词用when或where,也不能省略。

The man, _who_is sitting on the chair, is my father.

坐在椅子上的人是我父亲。

The woman, _whom_ I met yesterday, is my English teacher.

昨天遇到的那位女士是我的英文老师。

The city, _which_ is far away, is very beautiful.

离得很远的那座城市非常漂亮。

He went to America, _where_ his parents live.

他去了父母居住的美国。

whose引导非限定性定语从句:

The house, whose window faces south, is mine.

窗户朝南的屋子是我(住)的。

=The house, the window of which faces south, is mine.

=The house, of which the window faces south, is mine.

那个房子是我的,其窗户朝南。

定语从句中关系代词that/which/who的基本用法)

一、当先行词是物时,关系代词(that/which)只用that的情况。

1.当先行词被序数词或形容词的最高级修饰时。

This is the best film that has been shown this year.

这是今年上映的最好的电影。

This is the first book (that) I borrow from the library.

这是我从图书馆借来的第一本书。

※He is the firs t student that/who came to school today.

这是今天来学校的第一个学生。

2.当先行词为两个或两个以上分别指人和物的名词时。

He talked about the teachers and the school (that) he had visited.

他谈论了一下他所参观的学校和老师们。

3.当先行词本身是all的,用that。(all that=what)

All that (what) I want to say to you is“Thank you”.

=All (what) I want to say to you is “Thank you”.

我想对你说声“谢谢”,

Go over all that (what) we learned.

复习一下我们所学习过的内容。

=Go over all (what) we learned.(that在定语从句中充当宾语可以省略)

4.先行词为something, anything, nothing, everything, thing时,用that.

I’ll tell you anything (that) I know.

我会告诉你我所知道的一切。

5.当先行词前有all, much, little, many, (a) few, every, some, any, no, only, the very, one of, the only, the last, the next等修饰语时。

这是一本我非常感兴趣的书。

※ This is one of the books in which I'm very interested

这是其中一本我感兴趣的书。

This is the only book (that) I read.

这是我读过的唯一一本书。

He is the only one of the boys that likes playing the piano.

他是唯一一个喜欢弹钢琴的男孩儿。

All the glasses that were on the table fell off onto the floor.

桌上所有的玻璃杯都掉到了地上。

6.(人,物),当先行词在以who或which开头的特殊疑问句中时,

用that引导以避免混淆.

Who is the man that is talking with the lady?

和那位女士谈话的男士是谁?

Which of you that know the answer can come to the front?

你们谁知道答案的能到前面来?

7.当先行词是在定语从句中作表语时,用that.

He likes the girl that she used to be.

他喜欢这个女孩过去的样子。

(他还是喜欢曾经的她)

二、当先行词是物时,关系代词(that/which)只用which的情况。

1.作介宾且介词置于引导词之前时.

The room in which he lives is very large.

他住的这个房间非常大。

2.引导非限定性定语从句时(主,宾都用which, 都不能省略).

Football, which is a very interesting game,is played all over the world.

足球,这项非常有趣的运动,全世界都在踢。

The house, which I visited yesterday, isvery large.

我昨天去拜访的那幢房子非常大。

3.which指整个句子的内容或部分内容,引导非限定性定语从句.

He always makes fun of me, which upsets me.

他总是开我玩笑,这让我很不爽。

定语从句定语从句中关系代词与引导词的基本用法

第一. 当先行词是物时,关系代词(that/which)只用that的情况。

第二. 当先行词是物时,关系代词(that/which)只用which的情况。

第三. 其他特殊情况.

1.先行词是these, those指人时,关系代词只用who.Those who are playing over there are my students.那些在一旁玩耍的是我的学生。

2.先行词是人称代词(he, she…)时,关系代词只用who.He who doesn’t reach the Great Wall is not

a true man.不到长城非好汉。

3.不定代词someone, anyone,everyone, no one, somebody, anybody, everybody作先行词时,关系代

词用who.Anybody who breaks the rules would be punished.

违反纪律的人要受到惩罚。

注意:Anybody在意思上指“全部”。语法上只做第三人称单数用。

4.①先行词是the only one of +可数名词复数,在定语从句中作主语时,定语从句中的谓语用单数形式(因为此时的先行词是the only one,而不是of 后的可数名词复数).This is one of

the students who are late.这是其中一位迟到的同学。

5. 当先行词是the way, 在定语从句中充当方式状语时(the way表"以…方式/方法"),引导词通

常用that或省略,也可用in which.I don’t like the way (that) you speak.=I don’t like the way in which you speak.=I don’t like the way (which/that) you speak in.(不规范)

我不喜欢你说话的方式。

注意:介词不能放在末尾

【运用定语从句时应注意的几个问题】

1.关系代词在定语从句中作主语时,定语从句的谓语动词应和先行词的人称和数保持一致。This is one of the books which were written by MarkTwain.这是马克吐温所写的书中的一本。(先行词是books,因此动词应用were。)

2.关系代词或关系副词在从句中充当一个句子成分,因此要注意避免从句中句子成分的重复出现。This isthe most beautiful place that I have visited it. (错误)

This is the most beautiful place that I have visited. 这是我参观过的最美的地方。

(去掉it,因that代替先行词the most beautiful place在定语从句中作visit的宾语,再加it就多余了。)

The school where I worked there is a big one.(错误)

The school where I worked is a big one.我所工作过的学校是一所大学校。

(去掉there,因where既引导定语从句,又在从句中代替in the school作状语。)

3.关系代词在定语从句中作主语时不可省略。The books were on the table were given to you.(错误)The books that were on the table were given to you.桌上的那些书是给你的。(关系代词that 作主语不能省)

4.“one of the +复数名词”后的定语从句中谓语动词的单复数情况。“one of the +复数名词”时,复数名词是先行词,所以谓语动词常用复数形式。如果“one of the +复数名词”前面有the very /only 等修饰语,则谓语动词用单数形式,因为先行词是,而不是复数名词。如:He is the only one of the students who speaks Japanese inour class.他是我们班唯一说日语的学生。(the only one是先行词)He is one of the students who speak Japanese in ourclass.他是我们班里说日语的学生之一。(students是先行词)他是我们班唯一会讲日语的学生。

5.定语从句中关系代词或关系副词的选择取决于它们在从句中所充当的句子成分。如作主语和宾语用关系代词;作状语,用关系副词。I’ll never forget the day when I went abroad myself.我永远记得我独自在国外的日子。I’ll never forget the days that we spent together.

我永远不会忘记我们一起度过的那些日子。

重要规律总结:

the day (minute)等表时间的单数名词后+先行词when

the days(minutes)等表时间的复数名词后+先行词that 、which

【“介词+关系代词”十种情况】

在定语从句中,介词+关系代词结构是一种较为复杂的问题。注意把握这种特别的结构:

1.介词+which在定语从句中分别作时间、地点和原因状语,代替相应的关系副词when,where和why。PK记忆密码:介词+which合化 when/where/why

如:I still remember the day on which (=when)I first came to school.

我仍然记得初来学校的那一天。

The factory in which (=where)I work is a large one.

我工作的工厂是一个大工厂。

This is the reason for which (=why) he was late.

这就是他为什么迟到的原因。

2.介词+which(指物)/ whom(指人)在定语从句中作地点状语,表示存在关系,定语从句主谓一般要倒置。

PK记忆密码:打南边来了一个喇嘛;背上背着一个胖娃娃

They arrived at a farmhouse, in front of which sat a small boy.

他来到一处农舍,前边坐着一个小男孩。

I saw a man, on the head of whom stood a bird.

我看见一个人,他的头上站着一只鸟。

3.介词+ which(指物)/ whom(指人)在定语从句中作目的、方式或地点状语。这种结构中的介词一般受动词或介词后的名词所制约。如:

PK记忆密码:找定从里的动词看它应该搭配什么介词

Could you tell me for whom you’ve bought this coat?

你能告诉我这件衣服是给谁买的吗?

The man, from whom I learned the news, is an engineer.

这人是一位工程师,我是从他那里得到这消息的。

4.介词+which/whom,用于被动结构的定语从句中,作状语,说明动作的发出者。如:

PK记忆密码:被动的使用是为了更加强调动作发出者的厉害。

The wolf by which the sheep was killed was shot.

伤害羊的那只狼被打死了。

The man by whom the wolf was shot was a good hunter.

打死狼的那人是个好猎手。

在定语从句中,介词+关系代词结构是一种较为复杂的问题。注意把握这种特别的结构:

5.不定代词+of+which/whom,在定语从句中作主语,说明整体中的部分,常用的不定代词有:both, all, any, some, each, none, most等。

特别注意:部分与整体的关系三种情况

a. 部分不属于整体。如none of

b. 部分是整体的一部分。如some of

c.部分等于整体。如all of

三者皆算做部分与整体的关系。

There are a lot of books here, none of which belongs to me.

这儿有许多书,可一本也不属于我。

Yesterday Mary bought a few clothes, all of which were expensive.

昨天玛丽买了一些衣服,它们都很贵。

6.数词+of+which/whom,在定语从句中作主语,说明整体与部分的关系。数词可以是基数词、序数词、分数或百分数。

特别注意:

a. 在表示部分与整体的 A of B 的结构中,

谓语动词的单复数情况要与A保持一致。

b.表示人只能用数次+of + whom, 而不是who.

可直接记忆。

In our class there are fifty-four students,twenty-five of whom are girls.

我们班有54名学生,25人是女生。

Two watches were stolen, one of which wasmine.

两只手表被偷了,其中一只是我的。

7.介词+ which(指物)/ whose(指人)修饰后边的名词。

特别注意:这是whose的表达升级结构。

谓语动词仍然与A保持一致

I saw some trees, the leaves of which(=whose leaves) were black with disease.

我看见一些树,他们的叶子因害病而发黑。

I live in a house, the windows of which(=whose windows)are all broken.

我住在一所房子里,其窗都破了。

8.介词+ which(指物)/ whose(指人)修饰后边的名词。

特别注意:这种结构的作用,竟然是修饰后面的名词。

希望这个知识点对考试有帮助。

It rained all night and all day, during which time the ship was broken into pieces. 雨下了一天一夜,就在这期间轮船撞碎了。

The driver was the man from whose room she had stolen the maps.

司机就是那个人,她从他的房间偷走地图。

9.形容词最高级+of+which/whom结构,在定语从句中,表部分关系。如:

特别注意:

部分与整体的关系,谓语动词仍然与A保持一致

China has thousands of islands, the largest of which is Taiwan.

中国有成千上万个岛屿,其中最大的是台湾岛。

In our class there are twenty girls, the cleverest of whom is Li Hua.

我们班有20名女生,最聪明的是李华。

10.介词+which+不定式。此种用法多见于正式文体中,相当于一个定语从句。如:

特别注意:括号注释

At last he had something about which to write home.

(wirte about somthing home)

home 副词(往家,向着家)

他终于有了给家里写信的内容了。

He had no key with which to open the door.

(open the door with the key)

他没有开门的钥匙。

He has a small room in which to live.

(live in a small room)

他有一个住的小房间。

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