Part 1 Reading comprehension
Directions: Read the following passages carefully. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished sentences. For each of them there are four choices marked A, B, C, and D. Choose the best answer to each question.
Questions 1 to 5 are based on the same passage.
As many as one in four US workers may be often angry on the job, and angry employees also are more likely to get bored, have low energy and feel trapped in their posts, according to a survey. Employees are most likely to be angered by a boss, or by a fellow employee in the workplace not being productive, or by tight deadlines or by heavy workloads, said Donald Gibson, a professor at the Yale University School of Management.
On the one hand, an unstable economic environment has produced productivity and growth; on the other, it has produced change and uncertainty, which has influenced the workplace negatively. According to Professor Gibson's survey, while a majority of employees are responding to these conditions with reports of workplace satisfaction, there remain a substantial portion who are dissatisfied, even angry at work. Obviously, anger is linked to workplace aggression, which appears to be increasing: We are weekly confronted with stories of workers taking aggressive, even violent action particularly against their bosses.
The survey found that 25 percent of those contacted said they were at least somewhat angry at work on a continuing basis. Angry employees tend to have less energy and interest in the job, and tend also to be bored. And angry employees tend to feel trapped in the job. The study did not discuss what percentage of angry workers are likely to use violence. It did find that they feel less loyal (忠诚的) to the employer. There have been a number of workplace shootings in the United States over the years, which is really worrisome.
1.According to Professor Gibson, employees may get angry if
A. the boss is less loyal to them
B. the boss is violent towards them
C. other employees take aggressive actions
D. other employees haven't done much work
2.What does the word "unstable" in Paragraph 2 probably mean?
3.Which of the following is NOT mentioned as a cause for anger?
A. Employees get very bored.
B. There is great working pressure.
C. There is change and uncertainty.
D. Employees get stuck in their work.
4.What can be inferred from the passage?
A. Angry workers are more likely to lose their jobs than others.
B. The relation between employees and employers is the primary
reason for anger.
C. Economic environment might be the root cause for anger at
D. A considerable number of angry workers develop their
dissatisfaction into anger.
5.Which of the following is the best title for the passage?
A. Causes for Angry Workers.
B. Frequent Anger in US Workplace.
C. Increasing Violence of Angry Workers.
D. Conflicts between Employers and Employees.
Questions 6 to 10 are based on the same passage or dialog. Judging from recent surveys most experts in sleep behavior agree that there is virtually an epidemic of sleeplessness in the US. "I can't think of a single study that hasn't found Americans getting less sleep than they ought to," says Dr. David. "Even people who think they are sleeping enough would probably be better off with more rest."
The beginning of our sleep-deficit (睡眠不足) crisis can be traced to the invention of the light bulb a century ago. From diary entries and other personal accounts from the 18th and 19th centuries, sleep scientists have reached the conclusion that the average person used to sleep about 9.5 hours a night. The best sleep habits once were forced on us, when we had nothing to do in the evening down on the farm, and it was dark. By the 1950s and 1960s, that sleep schedule had been reduced dramatically to between 7.5 and 8 hours, and most people had to wake to an alarm clock. "People cheat on their sleep, and they don't even realize they're doing it," says Dr. David. "They think they're ok because they can get by on 6.5 hours, when they really need 7.5, 8 or even more to feel ideally (理想地) vigorous."
Perhaps the most merciless robber of sleep, researchers say, is the complexity of the day. Whenever pressures from work, family, friends and community mount, many people considered energetic if you say you only need 5.5 hours' sleep. If you've got to get 8.5 hours, people think you lack drive and ambition.
To determine the consequences of sleep deficit, researchers have put subjects through a set of psychological and performance tests requiring them, for instance, to add columns of numbers or recall a passage read to them only minutes earlier. "We've found that if you're in sleep deficit, performance suffers," says Dr. David. "Short-term memory is weakened, as are abilities to make decisions and to concentrate."
6.What can we learn from Dr. David's words in Paragraph 1?
A. All studies have found that Americans should get more sleep.
B. All studies have found that Americans have realized their
C. One study has found that Americans get less sleep than they
D. One study hasn't found anything wrong with Americans' sleep
7.According to the author, how long should people sleep?
A. About 5.5 hours.
B. About 6.5 hours.
C. 7.5 hours or more.
D. 9.5 hours or more.
8.What do people usually think of those who only sleep 5.5 hours a
A. They have a lot of drive.
B. They have a lot of energy.
C. They don't have ambition.
D. They don't need much sleep.
9.Why are Americans getting less sleep nowadays?
A. Because there is an epidemic of sleeplessness.
B. Because the light bulb was invented a century ago.
C. Because they want to show people they have ambition.
D. Because they are under great pressure in many aspects.
10.What is a consequence of lack of sleep in the psychological and
performance tests in Paragraph 4?
A. People's overall memory is affected.
B. People's abilities to concentrate decline.
C. People don't have abilities to make decisions.
D. People can't remember numbers or passages.
Questions 11 to 15 are based on the same passage or dialog.
Not long ago, 20,000 middle- and high-school students were surveyed (调查). 92 percent of the teenagers admitted having lied to their parents in the previous year, and 73 percent of them call themselves as "serial
liars", people continually lying. Despite these admissions, 91 percent of all those people said they were "satisfied with my own character". Think how often we hear the expressions "I'll call you" or "I'm sorry, but he stepped out". And then there are professions, such as lawyers and consultants (顾问), whose members seem to specialize in shaping the truth to suit clients' (当事人) needs. Little white lies become widespread, and the reasons we give each other for telling lies are familiar. "What's wrong with that?"
How often do we praise people for how well they look, or express our appreciation for gifts, when we don't really mean it? Surely, these "nice lies" are harmless and well intended, a necessary social lubricant (润滑剂). But, we should remember the words of English novelist Sir Walter Scott, who wrote, "What a tangled (错综复杂的) web we weave (编), when first we practice to deceive." Even seemingly harmless lies can have unexpected consequences. Psychological obstacles disappear; the ability to make more distinction can become dull; the liar's awareness of his chances of being caught may become dull. By itself, that kind of lie is of no great consequence.
Still, the endless build-up of these lies does matter. Once they've become common enough, even the small untruths that are not meant to hurt will encourage a certain doubt and loss of trust. When trust is damaged, the community as a whole suffers; and when it is destroyed, societies collapse. Are all white lies to be avoided at all costs? The most understandable and forgivable lies are an exchange of the principle of trust for the principle of caring, like telling children about Santa Claus, or lying to someone to give him a surprise party. But a president of an institute says, "Still, we must ask ourselves if we are willing to give our friends and associates the authority to lie to us whenever they think it is for our own good."
11.Which of the following statements is NOT true about the survey?
A. Most of the school students surveyed said they had lied.
B. A larger percent of the students said they had lied constantly.
C. Most of the students didn't feel sorry about their lying behavior.
D. Those students who had never lied were happy about their
12.What does "And then there are professions, such as lawyers and
consultants, whose members seem to specialize in shaping the truth to suit clients' needs" in Paragraph 1 mean?
A. These professions encourage their members to tell lies.
B. The members working in these professions tell nothing but lies.
C. Lawyers and consultants change the truth to benefit their
D. Lawyers and consultants tell the truth because their clients need
13.What is the meaning of the quotation from Sir Walter Scott "What
a tangled we
b we weave, when first we practice to deceive"?
A. Telling lies is the first step for a person to form a deceiving
B. After we lie the first time, we need to tell more lies to cover up
the first one.
C. If you tell lies, people around you will tell lies, too, so a web
will be formed.
D. Once you start to tell lies, your character will gradually become
14.What does the author say about white lies?
A. Not all white lies should be avoided.
B. Nice little lies won't hurt our trust in each other.
C. We should give our friends the authority to tell us little white
D. We should tell white lies only when giving a friend a surprise
15.Which of the following best describes the author's attitude toward
"nice lies" mentioned in the passage?