最新2015中央电大学前儿童语言教育形成性考核册作业1-4参考答案

电大《学前儿童语言教育》形考作业参考答案

作业1(绪论、第一章、第六章)

一、填空题:(每空1分,共25分)

1.个人的语言运用能力是一种多侧面的能力,大致包括运用社会交往规则的能力、运用语言进行认识和思考的能力。

2.学前儿童语言教育主要是研究学前儿童语言获得、语言学习和语言教育的过程。

3.学前儿童语言教育的研究方法主要有:自然观察法、调查研究法和教育行动研究法等理论与实践相结合的综合方法。

4.语言可以分为底层和上层:底层是一套音位;上层一般分为三级,分别是语素、词、句子。

5.独词句的出现和从独词句到双词句是儿童学话中的关键的两步,因为语言基本的奥秘已开始渗入这些简单的学习之中。

6.儿童掌握语言,要掌握语音、词汇、语法,并将其运用成熟。

7.前儿童语言学习受到各种因素的影响,这些因素大致可以分为生理因素、心理因素和社会因素。

8.语言观念是指人们对于语言的认识、情感、看法、态度和审美情趣等有关语言的一系列态度和看法。

9. 学前全语言教育发展的是学前儿童听、说、读、前书写以及外语等全面的语言能力。

二、判断题(每小题1分,共25分)

(√)1.在一切动物中,唯独人类具有高度发展的语言系统。

(×)2.语言是先天遗传的,生理上正常的孩子,长大就会使用语言。

(×)3.动物也有语言,我们日常说的所谓“莺声燕语”就是动物的语言。

(√)4.一个社会可以没有文字,但是不能没有语言。

(×)5.文字突破了语言交际中的时空限制,是最重要的交际工具。

(×)6.体态语可以脱离语言而独立完成一定的交际任务,所以它能代替语言交际的功能。

(×)7.聋哑的人不会说话但能够思维,这说明思维可以离开语言而单独存在。

(√)8.语言发展最重要的生理基础是人类的神经系统特别是大脑的发展。

(×)9.语言是一种非常复杂的符号结构系统,按其构成成分来说,包括音、形、义三个方面。

(×)10.语音是口头语言的物质载体,是人类发音器官所发出的声音。

(×)11.咳嗽声是人类发音器官发出的声音,也是语音。

(√)12.人类的语言是分层装置的,靠组合、替换来运转。

(√)13.语言系统的上层是音义结合体,即符号和符号的序列,是表义单位。

(√)14.组合关系是符号与符号组合起来的关系,就是构成线性序列的语言成分之间的结构关系。

(√)15.独词句体现了词和事物的联系,特别是词指称整类事物的概括性。

(√)16.双词句体现了造句的基本原理。

(√)17.0—3岁是儿童语言真正形成时期,也是儿童语言发展最迅速阶段。

(√)18.双词句体现了造句的基本原理。

(×)19.“言语”就是“语言”,两者只是名称不同,实质上没有什么区别。

(×)20.“早期阅读”是指幼儿识一些字可以自己阅读。

(×)21.轶事记录法和实况详录法对学前儿童语言教育而言是比较适宜的研究方法。

(×)22.“大班幼儿阅读能力的调查”发现并分析了幼儿园大班儿童早期阅读中所存在的问题,它属于原因调查。

(×)23.“××地区幼儿学说普通话与方言关系的调查”,通过收集幼儿学说普通话过程中存在的发音问题,

以便今后的语言教育中加以重点突破,它属于跟踪调查。

(×)24.“幼儿口头语言和书面语言发展关键时间的调查”主要调查儿童的语言发展特征随时间推移而发展变化的情况,它属于相关调查。

(×)25.行动研究属于正规性研究,其方案要求严密完善,并且随着研究与实践的进程加以调整。

三、简答题(每小题5分,共40分)

1.什么是语言能力?

答:语言能力一方面是指个人使用语言的能力(基本的语言能力),具体表现在听说读写四项;另一方面是指分析语言的能力,它是以语言和语言形式本身作为分析观察的对象进行知觉的能力,它是一种特殊的语言能力,具体表现在对各语言层次(语音、语感、语义、语法、修饰等)和各语言单位(词、词组、句子、篇章等)所具有的特征的知觉上,带有较强的直觉性。上述两方面能力互相联系、互相促进,在语言使用的动态过程中得到统一。

2. 为什么说语言是人类最重要的交际工具?

答:首先,语言是一种人类所特有的社会现象。它随着人类社会的产生而产生,也随着人类社会的发展而发展,在人类社会之外是没有语言的,社会属性是语言最为基本的一种属性。

其次,在人类的交际工具中,语言是最重要的。人类的交际工具除语言外,还有文字、旗语、红绿灯、电报代码、数学符号、化学公式以及手势、表情等。文字记录语言,处于从属地位,是最重要的辅助交际工具。旗语、电报代码、数学符号等交际工具,大多是在语言和文字的基础上产生的,且在特定领域内为社会服务,使用的范围相当狭窄。体态语只能作为辅助交际工具,代替不了语言交际的功能。

3.为什么说语言是思维工具?

答:语言和思维形影相随,不能分离。思维活动,尤其是抽象思维活动,必须借助于语言,不能离开语言而单独进行。语言也是认识成果的储存场所,思维的成果需要语言表达出来。思维离不开语言,必须在语言材料的基础上进行。没有语言,没有句子,概念也就无所依托,推理进程难以进行,思维也就不存在了。如果没有语言,思维活动不能进行,思维成果也无从表达。

4.简述对语言“约定俗成”性的理解。

答:语言符号的音义关系是由社会约定的,用什么样的“音”去表达什么样的“义”,完全由社会约定,因而这种音义的任意性关系又叫约定性。“约定俗成”的含义:第一,语言符号的语音形式和意义内容之间没有必然的、本质的联系,完全是任意的,音义结合的任意性是人类语言多样性的一个重要原因。第二,用什么样的声音形式表达什么样的意义,什么样的意义用什么样的语音表达,是由社会全体成员共同约定并共同遵守的。

符号的任意性特点是就语言起源符号创制之初而言的,符号一旦进入交际,也就是某一语音形式与某一意义结合,就对人们有强制性,每一个人都只能接受它,如果破坏约定擅自更改,就必然遭到社会的拒绝。所以,语言符号的任意性

5.简述学前儿童语言的获得理论的主要内容。

答:目前学界关于儿童语言获得的理论概括为三大类:后天环境论、先天决定论和先天与后天相互作用论。

后天环境决定论强调环境和学习对语言获得的决定性影响。认为儿童语言只是成人语言的简单翻版,否定或轻视儿童在语言获得中的主动性及其先天因素的影响。

先天决定论强调先天禀赋的作用,认为语言获得不是后天学习的结果。这种理论这种认为,儿童生来就具有一个语言学习装置。儿童接触一定数量的语言后,就会利用这种装置对语言现象进行分析,学会了具体的语言。

先天与后天相互作用论,认为认知结构是语言发展的基础,个体的认知结构来源于主体和客体之间的相互作用。语言的习得不是本能的、自然的过程,强调智力成长和语言发展之间的关系,关注儿童的经验背景和成长中的智力对其交往能力的影响。

6.影响学前儿童语言学习的社会因素有哪些?

答:(1)生理因素。生理因素包括三个方面:一是整套健全发音系统,包括肺、器官、喉头、声带、口腔、鼻腔等;二是大脑神经系统的健全,涉及到儿童接受信息、分析信息、传递信息的能力;三是感知觉系统的完善,包括视觉、听觉、触觉、味觉、嗅觉等。

(2)心理因素。心理因素包括知识经验的积累、认知能力的发展、心理素质的差异三个方面,其中最为重要的是大脑的认知能力。

(3)社会因素。较为重要的是儿童的社会生活环境,成人语言观和儿童教育观的影响。

7.学前儿童语言教育的研究任务,主要包括哪两大方面?

答:(1)进一步探索学前儿童语言教育的功能和作用

①促进学前儿童语言和行为的社会化进程;

②提高学前儿童的学习能力,促进其智力发展;

③促进学前儿童语言学习的兴趣;

④学好口语,提高早期阅读能力,为学业成就和未来成功打好基础。

(2)解释学前儿童语言发展过程及现象,揭示学前儿童语言发展的特点与教育规律,并运用规律来促进学前儿童的语言发展。

8.与传统的儿童语言教育相比,学前全语言的教育有什么新要求?

(1)传统的儿童语言教育比较强调口语能力的发展,而对学前儿童阶段的识字阅读教学和前书写能力的培养有疑义。学前全语言教育则强调了在重点发展儿童口语的同时,利用儿童极强的无意识的语言学习能力,积极培养他们对书面语言的兴趣和认知能力,促使他们尽可能早地掌握初步阅读的能力,使之成为主动的学习者和学会学习的实践者。

(2)传统的儿童语言教育仅强调母语教学,而学前全语言教育则在强调重点发展儿童母语能力的同时,也积极地对他们进行第二语言能力的启蒙。利用儿童学习语言的最佳时期,早日开发对外语语音和文字符号的认知能力与兴趣,以减少成人后的母语习惯对学习外语的不利影响。

(3)传统的儿童语言教育主要发展儿童的口语能力,而学前全语言教育的目标是以儿童整体语言能力的发展为手段,来促进儿童创造性的认知特征、情感特征、人格特征以及身体动作的发展,充分体现了儿童素质教育对全语言教育的要求。

作业2(第二章)

根据教材第二章内容,填写下列表格。请归纳出不同阶段儿童语言发展的特点,并整理出相应的语言教育活动策略。

特点教育活动

至3岁语

0—3个月:1、听觉敏锐,对语音较敏感具有一

定的辨音水平;2、与成人面对面进行“交谈”

时婴儿会产生交际倾向;3、能发出一些简单的

音节,多为单音节。

4—8个月:1、经常发出连续的音节;2、与成

人交往中出现学习规则的雏形;3、能辨别一些

语调、语气和音色的变化;4、懂得简单的词、

手势和命令,理解具有情境性;5 、出现小儿

语,会用语音来吸引别人的注意。

9—12个月:1、不同的连续音节明显增加,近

似词的发音增多;2、开始真正理解成人的语言;

3、语言交际功能开始扩展;

4、开口说话,出

现有意义的单词。

1岁—岁半:1、理解语言迅速发展;2、会给常

见的物体命名(语言泛化、窄化、特化);3、

0—4个月阶段:1.用各种语

音和声音来刺激婴儿,培养婴

儿有意倾听的习惯;2.经常和

婴儿进行面对面语言交流的

发声感染;3.开展有趣的游戏

活动,训练听音和发音能力。

4—10个月阶段:1.继续用语

言刺激婴儿,进行模仿发音练

习;2.用强化、鼓励方法进行

相互模仿,诱导婴儿发音;3.

开展语言游戏,提高听力和发

音水平。

10—18个月阶段:1.鼓励婴

儿掌握新的语音,并反复练习

和强化;2.用语言与婴儿交

继续讲“小儿语”常用省略音替代音和重叠音岁半—2岁:1、能理解的词汇数目和种类“与日俱增”;2、语言理解逐步摆脱具体情境的制约词语理解能力不断提高;3、喜欢提问,语言上出现“反抗行为”;4、掌握新词的速度猛进,处于词语爆炸阶段;5 、处于双词句为主阶段,双词句增长速度加快。

2岁—2岁半:1、基本上能理解成人所用的句子;2、语音逐渐稳定和规范,发不出的语音逐渐减少;3、能运用多种简单句句型,复合句也初步发展;4、疑问句逐渐增多;5、语言常常使用接尾策略。

2岁半—3岁:1、词汇量迅速增加,对新词感兴趣;2、能抽象句子规则,常表现出系统整合的语言内化能力;3、能说出完整的句子,出现了多词句和复合句;4、说话不流畅,表达常有“破句现象”;5、言语功能呈现出越来越丰富、准确的趋势。往,尽量让婴儿多说话。2—3岁阶段:1.在听说游戏中发展婴儿听音、辨音能力;

2.及时发现问题,纠正发音错误。

词汇1、从9个月开始真正理解语言。

2、1岁至1岁半阶段:头脑中关于词和具体事

物情景的联系越来越多,能理解更多的词和简

单的句子。

3、1岁半至2岁阶段:词汇量的迅速增加,出

现“词语爆炸现象”。理解能力不断提高,能摆

脱具体情境制约理解词语。

4、2岁至2岁半阶段:词汇迅速增长,对词义

的理解日益加深,词的概括程度进一步提高。

求知欲强烈,对新词感兴趣。

1.创设丰富的语言环境,帮助

婴儿掌握新词,扩大词汇量。

(1)用动作、实物配合法,

建立语词和实体之间的联系。

(2)经常与孩子“交谈”,提

供丰富的语言环境。

(3)运用强调和重复的方法,

帮助婴儿掌握新词。

2.开展语言游戏,发展婴儿学

习词汇兴趣。

语法1、1岁—1岁半后出现单词句。

2、1岁半到2岁后出现双词句。

3、2岁以后能运用多种简单句,并不断增加;

有时也出现复合句,但数量少,比例小。

4、随着年龄增长,儿童说话所用的句子有延伸

趋势,句中含词量增加。

5、2岁左右,婴儿开始使用疑问句,并呈迅速

增长趋势。

6、在1岁半至2岁半学会接尾策略。

7、用原有的规则去解释、同化,对句子规则进

行系统整合。

8、说话不流畅,表达常有“破句现象”。

1、为婴儿提供良好的言语示

范和榜样。

2、培养儿童多看、多听、多

说、多练的好习惯。

3、开展早期阅读,培养良好

的阅读习惯。

4、随时帮助婴儿正确使用语

言。

3至

6岁语

1、发音水平是随着年龄的增长逐步提高。

2、儿童发声母比发韵母困难,错误较多(z、c、

s、zh、ch、sh、r、n、l)。

3、儿童语音发展受到方音的干扰与影响。

4、发生语音意识。

1.开展游戏活动,提高儿童辨

音、发音能力。

2.在日常生活中自然练习发

音。3.组织念儿歌童谣、绕口

令等活动训练发音。

4.开展集体训练,纠正方言影

响。

5.养幼儿的言语表情。

6.培养幼儿语言交往的素养。

词汇1. 词汇数量随年龄增长而增加。

2. 词类范围不断扩大。

3. 词义理解的深化。

4. 不同词类词义的发展各有特点。

1. 帮助幼儿丰富词汇。

2. 帮助幼儿正确理解词义。

3. 帮助幼儿准确运用词汇。

语法1. 句型的发展:从不完整句向完整句;从简单

句到复合句;从无修饰句到修饰句;从陈述句

到非陈述句。

2. 语句结构的变化:从混沌一体到表达内容、

词性、结构层次的逐渐分化;从松散到逐步严

谨;由压缩、呆板逐渐扩展和灵活。

3. 句子含词量的增加

4. 语法意识的出现

1. 在日常生活中培养幼儿清

楚完整的表达能力

2. 用口头造句的形式培养幼

儿表达能力。

3. 用竞赛、游戏等多种形式

提高幼儿说完整句、修饰句等

不同句型的积极性。

前阅读1、幼儿已经具备阅读能力,阅读材料不是文字

材料而是图画材料,阅读的方式除了自己看以

外,还可以借助成人的帮助来阅读。

2、分析阶段:儿童对图画的理解往往是单个的

局部的,对图画内容的表达常常是出在“给事

物命名”阶段,即说出“这是什么,那是什么?”。

3、综合阶段:儿童开始能够把图上的内容经过

组织后表达出来,能够表达图画中事物之间的

联系,表达开始带有情境性,但还不连贯。

4、分析综合阶段:儿童阅读画报时,开始能够

完整地理解画面的内容,能够把看到的和说出

的统一起来,把看到并理解了的图画内容准确

而迅速地说出来。表达不仅具有情境性,而且

具有了连贯性和流畅。

1.选择适龄的读物。

2.以身作则培养家庭的阅读

氛围。

3.读书给儿童听,唤起儿童的

情感共鸣。

4.利用生活中的素材共读。

5.善用故事录音带。

6.采用多种参与形式。

作业3 (第四章)

归纳整理教材第四章内容,填写下列表格。请描述各类学前儿童语言教育活动的基本特征、主要类型、设计与实施的基本结构。

基本特征主要类型设计与实施的基本结构

文学作品学习1.围绕文学作品展开学习

活动。

2.包含感受、理解与表现

的审美目标。

3.整合相关的学习内容。

4.提供多种与文学作品相

互作用的途径。

文学欣赏:1.文学欣赏

作品的传递。2.多通道

地参与,相互作用。3.通

过形象的解释帮助儿童

理解作品。4.采用适宜

的提问方式。

文学创造:1.复述和朗

诵。2.表演。3.创编

1.初步感知文学作品

2.理解体验作品经验

3.迁移作品经验

4.创造性想象和语言表述

谈话1.谈话活动应拥有一个

幼儿感兴趣的话题。

1.日常生活中的谈

话。

1.创设谈话情境,引出谈话

话题。

2.谈话活动注重多方的信息交流。

3.谈话活动拥有宽松自由的交谈气氛。

4.谈话活动中教师起间接指导作用。2.有计划的谈话活

动。

3.开放性的讨论活

动。

2.鼓励幼儿围绕话题自由交

谈。

3.引导幼儿围绕中心话题逐

步拓展交谈内容。

4.教师隐性示范新的谈话经

验。

讲述1.讲述活动需要有一定

的讲述对象。

2.讲述活动是培养独白

语言的主要途径。

3.讲述活动具有相对正

式的语言情境。

4.讲述活动中需要调动

幼儿的多种能力。

从讲述内容:1.叙事

性讲述。2.描述性讲

述。3.说明性讲述。

4.议论性讲述。

从讲述对象:1.看图

讲述。2.实物讲述。

3.情景表演讲述。

1.感知理解讲述对象。

2.运用已有经验自由讲述。

3.引进并学习新的讲述经验

(讲述思路的指导、讲述全

面性的指导、讲述基本方式

的指导)。

听说游

戏1.在游戏中蕴含着语言

教育目标。

2.将语言学习的重点内

容转化为一定的游戏规

则。

3.在活动过程中逐步扩

大游戏的成分。

1.语音练习的游戏。

2.词汇练习的游戏。

3.句子和语法练习的

游戏。

4.表述能力练习的游

戏。

1.创设游戏情景,引发幼儿

兴趣。

2.交待游戏规则,明确游戏

玩法。

3.教师指导幼儿游戏。

4.幼儿自主游戏。

早期阅

读1.早期阅读活动需要丰

富的阅读环境。

2.早期阅读活动与讲述

活动紧密相联。

3.早期阅读活动应具有

整合性的特点。

1.阅读区活动

2.有计划的早期阅读

活动

1.幼儿自己阅读

2.师幼共同阅读

3.围绕阅读重点开展活动

4.归纳阅读内容

作业4(第三章、第五章)

根据教材第三章、第五章的要求,结合工作实际,描述并评价语言教育案例。案例可以是实际工作或教学录像、电视专题片等资料的如实记录、整理,也可以是报刊、杂志、网络等刊登的语言教育案例摘抄。页面不够可附活页。

活动目

标认知目标

情感态度目标能力目标

教育途

径专门性语言教育□谈话活动□讲述活动□听说游戏

□文学活动□早期阅读□其他

渗透性语言教育□在日常交往中□通过常规主题活动

□通过区角活动□其他

教育方法□示范模仿法□视听讲做结合法□游戏法□表演法□练习法□其他

活动准备

活动过程

活动实

来源□实际工作□教学录像□电视专题片□报刊□杂志□网络□其他以小组为单位,对上述语言教育案例进行评析。

学前儿童语言发展的评价评价方法□观察评估法□作品分析法□谈话法□档案评估法□其他

幼儿语言

发展水平

评价

发音

词汇

语句

倾听与表达

幼儿语言

学习行为

评价

参与

活动

的积

极性

兴趣□积极参与□一般参与□不参与

注意力□大部分时间注意力集中□部分时间注意力集中

□一点儿也不集中

完成语言学习任务的情况□圆满完成□基本完成□尚未完成

独立见解(列出内容)

创造性运用语言的表现(列出内容)

学前儿童语言教育活动的评

价评价方法□实地观察评价法□间接信息评价法□自我评价法□他人评价法□其他

目标的达成程度□完全达到□基本达到□未达到(具体说明)

内容和形式的适合程度□完全适合□部分适合□不适合(具体说明)

内部要素的协调程度(具体说明)

效果分析(具体说明)

其他(具体说明)

请您删除一下内容,O(∩_∩)O谢谢!!!2015年中央电大期末复习考试小抄大全,电大期末考试必备小抄,电大考试必过小抄S hanghai’s Suzhou Creek has witnessed much of the city’s history. Zhou Wenting travels this storied body of water and finds its most fascinatin g spots. Some lucky cities can boast a great body of water, like London with the river Thames and Paris with the river Seine. Shanghai is privileged enough to have two great bodies of water: Huangpu River and Suzhou Creek.Huangpu River became famous when colonists established clusters of grand buildings on its banks on what became known as the bund. Today, the bund ov erlooks the breathtaking skyline of Lujiazui financial district. Shanghai’s other body of water, however, Suzhou Creek, has been somewhat overshadowed. Suzhou Creek links the inland cities of Jiangsu province with Shanghai. When the British colonists, who arrived in the city after it was opened as a commercial port in 1843 found they could reach Suzhou, Jiangsu province, via the creek, they named it Suzhou Creek. Thanks to its location, a large amount of

最新2015中央电大学前儿童语言教育形成性考核册作业1-4参考答案

cargo and travelers were transported via the creek before rail links were established. But after a century of being utilized as a waterway to transport goods and labor, the creek grew dark and smelly. Industrial factories were established along the banks. In the 1990s it became a key task of the city government to clean the creek. Suzhou Creek, which snakes 17 km from the iconic Waibaidu Bridge downtown to the outer ring road in west Shanghai, maps the changing periods of the city’s history, including the imprints of the concessions, the beginning of industri alization and the improvement in people’s living conditions. Where the Bund began

In-between the shopping street of East Nanjing Road and the Bund, are a cluster of streets that give me the illusion that I am no longer in modern Shanghai. The streets are narrow and old and criss-cross each other. Any old residential house may turn out to be a former office of the British, constructed in the 1880s. Pawnshops and hardware stores that are hard to find elsewhere, are plentiful here.

最新2015中央电大学前儿童语言教育形成性考核册作业1-4参考答案

This area, at the confluence of Huangpu River and Suzhou Creek, is called the Bund Origin. Countless tour buses stop at the site every

最新2015中央电大学前儿童语言教育形成性考核册作业1-4参考答案

day and visitors from around the world get off to see this place, the starting point of the concessions in the city. It all started in 1872, when the former British Consulate General was constructed and the Bund began its transformation into an the financial street of the East. Now the site of the former consulate is called “No 1 Waitanyuan”, which translates to “the Bund Origin”, to honor its beginnin gs. The entire complex of this historical site comprises of five buildings, the former British Consulate General, the official residence of the consul, the former Union Church, the church apartments and the former Shanghai Rowing Club. The size of the courtyard is equivalent to that of four standard soccer fields. The building of the former consulate is a two-storey masonry building on an H-shaped plan in typical English renaissance style. The building is designed with a five-arch verandah on the ground floor with a raised terrace facing the garden, while the facade features an entry portico beneath a colonnaded loggia. It has been turned into a café where dinner and afternoon tea are available. Visitors can choose to sit indoors or outdoors to enjoy the magnificent gardens with nearly 30 ancient trees.

Yuanmingyuan Road behind the complex is also a historical site. The road has been revamped as a pedestrian shopping street and high-end brands have seized the best spots. Altogether, 14 old buildings, including those used for offices and residences constructed during 1920s and 1930s, remain. Today, it is a popular location for commercial fashion photo shoots.New Tian’an Church, or Union Church, stands at the intersection of Yuanmingyuan Road and Suzhou Creek. The church, designed in the style of the English countryside, has a capacity of 500 people. It was very popular during the concession period but was converted into factory offices after 1949. The church we see today is a replica, the original burned down in 2007. There used to be an outdoor swimming pool, the first of its kind in Shanghai, beside the church but has been filled-in and is now a small garden. Bridge of romance There is perhaps no other place that’s more representative of Shanghai than this bridge, which appears in quite a lot of movies about the city. Dozens of couples visit every day to pose for their pre-wedding photos on the bridge where Suzhou Creek begins and interconnects with Huangpu River. This is Waibaidu Bridge, or the Garden Bridge. The soon-to-be-wed couples pose in splendid attire on the bridge, leaning against the railing or sitting on the wooden floor. Some even risk walking into the middle of the road to get the perfect shot.Colorful lights illuminate the bridge throughout the night, making it a picturesque place for pre-wedding portraits and lovers to meet. Constructed in 1873 and designed by a

最新2015中央电大学前儿童语言教育形成性考核册作业1-4参考答案

British company, the 106-meter-long bridge was the first-ever major bridge in Shanghai. In 1856, the first large

wooden bridge, Wells Bridge, was built over Suzhou Creek but the bridge toll led to complaints from citizens. So 17

years later, another wooden bridge, which did not require

最新2015中央电大学前儿童语言教育形成性考核册作业1-4参考答案

最新2015中央电大学前儿童语言教育形成性考核册作业1-4参考答案

tolls, was built. People called it Waibaidu, which means

“going across for free”. The bridge was renovated as a

steel truss structure in 1907. Because nearly 40 bridges

have now been built over Suzhou Creek, the bridge is no

longer a traffic artery but is more of an observation deck

for tourists. It is a tradition in Shanghai for a grandmother to

walk across a bridge with their grandchild when he or she

reaches one month. This represents that the newborn has

overcome all the twists and turns and its journey will be

safe and smooth throughout his or her life. "Waibaidu Bridge

is always the best option becaus e it’s the icon of Shanghai. The

picture of my daughter when she was a baby held by her grandmother was also taken here. It’s like a family tradition," says Wang Xuefen, a Shanghai native who has a newborn grandson. Changning Riverside There is a 5-km stretch of waterfront by Suzhou Creek in Changning district on Changning Road from the intersection of Hami Road to Jiangsu Road. It has become a popular place to take a walk and sunbathe on the lawn. There is an overpass at the intersection of Changning Road and Gubei Road for people to enjoy the view of the creek and a 3-km plastic runway on both sides of Changning Road, which attracts people of all ages, Chinese and expat. "Jogging on the two sides gives a different feeling because the north side is next to the creek, and the south side is adjacent to the residential highrises, which is like jogging in the jungle," says Xiao Xu, a 27-year-old woman who lives nearby. The riverside used to be completely different. Dozens of textile mills, chemical plants and machine manufacturing factories were set up along the creek in the 1920s. They brought industrialization but also pollution. From the 1930s the creek could no longer be used as a source for tap water, and no living fish or shrimp could be found. "Suzhou Creek in my memory is dark and smelly. I used to go to the riverbank to watch the sewage disposal running out from the chemical plants when I was a little girl. We didn’t know it w as pollution. We thought it was a red waterfall," says Huang Qi, a 57-year-old Shanghai resident. "So the residential houses along the creek were unpopular, and only migrants with low incomes would live in that area," she says. However, things have changed. The plants were closed and turned into riverside parks and the apartments in the new highrises, especially those facing the creek, are much sought after. East China University of Political Science and Law This is the famous former Saint John’s University, China’s first-ever modern institution of higher education established by missionaries from the United States in 1879. The buildings combine Chinese and Western elements. Address: 1575 Wanhangdu Road, Changning district The old residential area After you leave the university from its east gate you will enter a shabby neighborhood that retains its original look. The alleys are narrow and the houses are overcrowded. Some things have not changed for many generations, such as raising chickens at home. Address: West Guangfu Road Moganshan Road This is an artsy street that has become very popular among artists and fashionistas in recent years. Graffiti covers the walls on the winding street, where you can find a cluster of art galleries and creative industry offices. Sihang Warehouse Four banks jointly funded the construction of this warehouse, so it is named sihang, or four banks. The warehouse, built in 1931, was used for the storage of food, first-aid supplies and ammunition during the years of war. The building, which is also a masterpiece left by the Hungarian architect Laszlo Hudec in the 1930s, has been recently transformed into a center of creative industry workshops. Address: 1 Guangfu Road, Zhabei district

请您务必删除一下内容,O(∩_∩)O万分谢谢!!!2015年中央电大期末复习考试小抄大全,电大期末考试必备小抄,电大考试必过小抄

Indonesia has emerged as a top vacation destination for Chinese this summer, along with Thailand's Phuket island and the Maldives archipelago. Encouraged by growth in Chinese travelers to Indonesia, the government in Jakarta has recently relaxed its visa policy. Since June 10, Chinese tourists can enter Indonesia through nine appointed locations, including the Soekarno Hatta International Airport in Jakarta, the Ngurah Rai International Airport in Bali and the Kuala Namu International Airport in Medan, by just getting their passports stamped on arrival. Officially, it is called the "free-visa" scheme. The new policy also means Chinese tourists can save $35 on visa fees, which will likely make trips to Indonesia more alluring. While such an arrangement allows Chinese visitors to stay up to 30 days for the purpose of traveling, those seeking extensions will need to get paid visas from that country's missions inBeijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou or Hong Kong, according to an official at the Indonesia embassy in Beijing. Santo Darmosumarto, head of the embassy's information, social and cultural section, says the new policy is aimed at strengthening people-to-people contacts between the two countries. Dai Yu, marketing director of Ctrip, a major Chinese online travel agency, says: "We've seen a nearly 50 percent growth over the previous month in the number of Chinese tourists to Bali since the policy was announced." During his trip to China in March, Indonesian President Joko Widodo proposed that his country and China aim to increase two-way visits to a maximum of 10 million people in the next few years. The Indonesian government has set their sights on greeting 2 million Chinese tourists by the end of this year, according to the official. "The Indonesian government hopes that Indonesian nationals would also be given preferential treatment while visiting China," says Darmosumarto. In 2013, the number of Chinese tourists

最新2015中央电大学前儿童语言教育形成性考核册作业1-4参考答案

who visited Indonesia stood around 807,000. Last year, it increased to 959,000, he adds. Bali remains the most popular site among Chinese tourists. In February, more than 92,200 Chinese tourists made trips to Bali, ranking first among overseas visitors, the Bali Times reported. Last year, the island witnessed more than 586,000 arrivals from China, an increase of 51 percent over 2013. "Bali isn't just for sightseeing, but also for weddings, honeymoons, golf and many outdoor activities," says Fan Wenqing, a marketing

最新2015中央电大学前儿童语言教育形成性考核册作业1-4参考答案

executive at Garuda, Indonesia's national airliner. Garuda offers three nonstop flights between Beijing and Bali, and four each week between Beijing and Jakarta. There are daily flights from Guangzhou, in Guangdong province, and Shanghai to Jakarta as well. It takes from six to eight hours on a nonstop flight to reach Indonesia

最新2015中央电大学前儿童语言教育形成性考核册作业1-4参考答案

from China. Indonesia is home to more than

17,000 islands. Tourists can tour

Yogyakarta to see Prambanam and Borobudur, two historical and religious sites, and explore the local handicraft markets. The base of a volcano, Bandung, which is also known as the "Paris of Java", is ideal for adventure-seekers. Many ecotourism destinations, such as Toba Lake in Sumatra, Tanjung Puting National Park in Kalimantan and Bunaken in Manado, are places the embassy official recommends for tourists.Indonesia boasts world-class surfing facilities along the shores of Sumatra down to Nusa Tenggara Islands. Recently, Lombok, a sister island east of Bali has gotten so much attention from Chinese travelers that some travel agencies are offering twin packages for Bali and Lombok. The best time to visit Bali is from May to October, when it doesn't rain much and the weather is cool. At press time, a weeklong package from Shanghai or Guangzhou to Bali was a little more than 3,000 yuan ($480) on Ctrip's website. Chinese tourists have taken a shine to rafting in Ubud, sightseeing in Tanah Lot, and surfing and diving in Nusa Lembongan, says Dai. Civet coffee, essential oil and woodcarvings are among the most popular products for Chinese tourists in Indonesia, she says. Indonesian food is also something that visitors shouldn't miss. Local cuisines feature many spices, including

最新2015中央电大学前儿童语言教育形成性考核册作业1-4参考答案

peppers and cloves, and coconut pulp. Fried rice, "dirty duck" and roast suckling pig are recommended. Children's illustration books first appeared in the 1600s in Europe. Their passage to China, however, took much longer, roughly 300 years. In China, children's illustration books have a history of just 100 years and their development can be divided into four stages. From early 1900s to mid 1900s, a large number of books and magazines with

illustrations appeared with the fast

development of the modern

publishing industry. The

illustration arts at that time were a mixed genre of Chinese

traditional paintings and the

western style, and most of the stories

originate from the fundamental changes that China experienced after the collapse of Qing Dynasty (1644-1911), the warlord

struggles and the war against the Japanese invasion. The second stage was from mid 1900s to late 1970s, when the "cultural revolution" (1966-76) ended. The fast development of some special publishing houses for children gave birth to a large number of illustration-story books, which made a good use of folk art techniques, such as wood board carving, frescoes, and ink and wash painting, etc. Many of the popular stories are from Chinese history and wars after 1900s. The third stage is from early 1980s to late 1990s, a golden period for the development of children's illustration books. The reform and opening-up brought in new concepts and ideas from the West to China, a country that had been closed to the West for nearly three decades. Fast development of economy, society and culture provided the writers and painters with a lot of inspiration to create new literature works and draw illustrations. China also imported large amounts of children's illustration books from the West and Japan. Many young parents in China have a strong nostalgia about children's illustration books they read in the 1980s and 1990s. This is also the last era in China's artistic innovation before the advent of the Internet period. The fourth stage is featured with the spread of the Internet and the other computerized means of art innovation. The hand-drawn children's illustration books are gradually replaced by cartoons drawn and copied by software and machines, and shown on tablets, computers, television and smart phones, instead of books. Hainan Tropical Wildlife Park and Botanical Garden is nature's haven, with no less than 4,000 rare birds and animals representing 200 species. With tropical forest covering over 90 percent of its area, the garden offers beautiful views of a wide range of tropical plants, flowers and fruit trees. The scenic spot about 25 kilometers from the center of Haikou offers a drive-thru safari tour where you can get up close with elephants, lions and bears. The "Safari on Foot" area features walking trails where visitors can see the rest of the animals, including hippos and monkeys, and feed them for a small fee. Visitors also can see what happens when you breed a lion and a tiger. Two unique attractions are rare hybrids: a liger, the offspring of a mallion and a female tiger and a tigon, which is created by a female lion and a male tiger. As a teaching center of the National Popular Science Education program, the park also serves as a second classroom for students to learn about wildlife and plants. Since it was established in 1995, it has received more than one million student visitors. At a crucial moment when pessimism has brought the Greek crisis to such a head that the country is closer to a default on its debt repayments than ever, Li offered a spark of enthusiasm to restart the stalled talks by calling on Greece and its creditors to reach a last-minute deal that will allow Greece to remain in the eurozone. Given the escalation of the country's crisis over the weekend sent a shock wave through the global stock markets on Monday, there are ample reasons to worry about the uncertainties surrounding the events in Greece and the effect a default would have on Europe, relations between China and the EU, global financial stability and the nascent global economic recovery. Greece has announced that it will hold a referendum on a bailout plan proposed last week by the country's creditors. In response, Greece's eurozone partners have refused to extend the country's bailout program and the European Central Bank capped its emergency support for the country's banks. A real danger now looms of Greece exiting the euro, which might derail the global economic recovery and damage the long-term viability of the euro as a currency. However, such a tragedy is neither certain nor unavoidable. The EU should shoulder its responsibility to prevent the Greek crisis from overshadowing the fragile global recovery. As a major customer and supplier

of the 28-nation EU, and a responsible long-term holder of Eurobonds, China's confidence in and commitment to a strong eurozone offers EU leaders the necessary support to look at the Greek crisis from a broader and longer perspective. When Li said that China will not only consider a China-EU investment platform to back European Commission President Jean-Claude Juncker's plan to revive the European economy, but also buy more bonds issued by the European Investment Bank, EU leaders should be clear that China wants to see the EU maintain its integrity and a forward trajectory. Such a confidence-building effort is particularly valuable, especially from such a large country as China which already has a huge stake and seeks to further expand it in a strong eurozone. It will be a tragedy to allow inaction over the Greek crisis to stand in the way of growth-boosting Sino-EU cooperation.

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