欧洲文化复习资料

欧洲文化入门复习资料第一部分

Introduction

1、There are many elements constituting(组成) European Culture.

2、There are two major elements: Greco-Roman element and Judeo-Christian element.

3、The richness(丰富性) of European Culture was created by Greco-Roman element and Judeo-Christian element.

第一章

1、The 5th century closed with civil war between Athens and Sparta.

2、The economy of Athens rested on(依赖) an immense(无限的)amount of slave labour.

3、Olympus mount, Revived in 1896(当代奥运会)

4、Ancient Greece(古希腊)‘s epics was created by Homer.

5、They events of Homer‘s own time. (错)

(They are not about events of Homer‘s own time, probably in the period 1200-1100 B.C.)

6、The Homer‘s epics consisted of Iliad and Odyssey.

7、Agamemnon, Hector, Achilles are in Iliad.

8、Odysseus and Penelope are in Odyssey.

9、Odyssey(对其作品产生影响)—→James Joyoe‘s Ulysses(描述一天的生活)。 In the 20th century.

10、Drama in Ancient Greece was floured in the 5th century B.C.

11、三大悲剧大师

① Aeschylus

《Prometheus Bound》—→模仿式作品 Shelly《Prometheus Unbound》

② Sophocles(之首)

《Oedipus the King》—→ Freud‘s “the Oedipus complex” (恋母情结) —→ David Herbert Lawrence’s《Sons and lovers》(劳伦斯)447页

③ Euripides

A.《Trojan Women》

B.He is the first writer of “problem plays”(社会问题剧) 在肖伯纳手中达到高潮,属于存在主义戏剧的人物

C.Elizabeth Browning called him “Euripides human”(一个纯粹的人)

D.Realism can be traced back(追溯到) to the Ancient Greece.

To be specific(具体来说), Euripides.

12、The only representative of Greek comedy is Aristophanes. 18页

Aristophanes writes about nature. —→浪漫主义湖畔派(The lakers)华兹华兹

Swift says of him “As for comic Aristophanes, The dog too witty and too profane is.”

(新古典主义代表作家《格列夫游记》《大人国小人国》《温和的提议》用讽刺的写作手法)

13、History (Historical writing)史学创作

※ “Father of History” —→ Herodotus —→ war(between Greeks and Persians)

This war is called Peleponicion wars. 博罗奔泥撒,3

只是陈述史实,并没有得出理论。

※ “The greatest historian that ever lived.” (有史以来最伟大的历史学家) —→ Thucydides —→ war (Sparta, Athens and Syracuse)

14、The Greek historical writing writes mainly about wars.

15、受希腊文化影响的传教士St. Paul. Democritus (Materialism)

16、希腊文化中的哲学被基督教所吸收


17、① Euclid‘s Elements解析几何

It was in use in English schools until the early years of the 20th century. (历史地位)

② Archimedes

His work not only in geometry几何学,but also in arithmetic算术, machanics机械, and hydrostatics.流体静力学

选择:Give me a place to stand, and I will move the world.谁的理论(Archimedes)

18、Architecture古希腊建筑三大风格

temple—→Parthenon帕特农神庙

① The Doric style

is also called masculine style. (宏伟的)

but the Doric style is monotonous and unadorned (单调)

is sturdy (坚强的), powerful, severelooking (庄严肃穆) and showing a good sense of proportions and numbers.

② The Ionic style

is also called the feminine style. (阴柔的)

is graceful (优雅的) and elegant (优美的)。

The Ionic style often shows a wealth of ornament. (装饰性)

③ The Corinthian style

is known for its ornamental luxury. (奢侈)

19、The famous temples: The Acrpolis at Athens and the Parthenon.

20、The burning of Corinth in 146 B.C. Marked Roman conquest of Greece.

21、The melting between Roman Culture and Greek Culture. (罗马征服希腊的标志)

22、From 146 B.C., Latin was the language of the western half of the Roman Empire.

Greek that of the eastern half.

23、Both Latin and Greek belong to Indo-European language.

24、The Roman writer Horace said “captive Greece took her rude conqueror captive”。

25、The dividing range(分水岭) in the Roman history refers to 27 B.C.

26、The year 27 B.C. Divided the Roman history into two periods: republic and empire.

27、The idea of Republic can be traced back to Plato‘s republic.

28、The land area of Roman empire reached its climax in 2 to 3 century.

29、north: Scotland east: Armenia and Mesopotamia

30、In the Roman history ,there came two hundred years of peaceful time, which was guaranteed(保证) by the Roman legions(罗马军团)

31、In the Roman history, there came two hundred years of peaceful time, which was known as Pax Romana.(神圣罗马帝国)

32、名解In the Roman history ,there came two hundred years of peaceful time, which was guaranteed(保证) by the Roman legions, it was known as Pax Romana

33、The Roman Law protected(保护) the rights of plebeians (平民)。

34、The important contribution made by the Romans to the European culture was the Roman Law.

35、After 395,the empire was divided into East (the Byzantine Empire) and West.

36、Cicero西赛罗

he legal and political speeches are models of Latin diction拉丁语用词

described as Ciceronian.西赛罗式的

an enormous influence(巨大影响

) on the development of European prose.(散文)

37、Julius Caesar commentaries批评论 “I came, I saw, I conquered.”

38、Virgil Aeneid 阿尼德

39、The pantheon was built in 27 B.C.

The world‘s first vast interior space.世界上第一所最大的室内场所

40、The Colosseum(大理石像) it‘s an enormous.露天的环形影剧院

41、Sculpture(雕塑) She-wolf(母狼)

42、The representation form of Greek Democracy is citizen-assembly.古希腊民主的表现形式

43、The embodiment of Greek democracy is citizen-assembly. 古希腊民主的具体形式

论述简答

一、What is the limitation of “Democracy” in ancient Greece?(名解简答)

(How do you understand “Democracy” in ancient Greece? What is the difference between “Democracy” in ancient Greece and modern democracy?)

答:

① Democracy means “exercise of power by the whole people”, but in Greece by “the whole people” the Greeks meant only the adult male citizens.

② Women, children, foreigners and slaves were excluded from Democracy.

二、How did the Greek Culture originate and develop?

答:

① Probably around 1200 B.C., a war was fought between Greece and troy. This is the war that Homer refers to in his epics.

② Greek culture reached a high point of development in the 5th century B.C.

A. The successful repulse of the Persian invasion (入侵) early in the 5th century.

B. The establishment of democracy.

C. The flourishing (蒸蒸日上的) of science, philosophy, literature, art and historical writing in Athens.

③ The 5th century closed with civil war between Athens and Sparta.

④ In the second half of the 4th century B.C., Greece was conquered by Alexander, king of Macedon. Whenever he went and conquered, whenever Greek culture was found.

⑤ Melting between Greek culture and Roman culture in 146 B.C., the Romans conquered Greece.

三、How did the Ancient Greek philosophy develop?

答:

(1)、Three founders

1、Pythagoras

① All things were numbers.

② Scientific mathematics.

③ Theory of proportion.比例的理论

2、Heracleitue

① Fire is the primary(主要的) elements of the universe.火是万物之源

② The theory of the mingling of opposites produced harmony.矛盾的对立统一

3、Democritus

① the atomic theory.第一个原子理论开拓者

② materialism.唯物主义

(2)、Three thinkers

1、Socrates

①He hadn‘t works. We can know him from Plato’s dialogues.

②The dialectical method was established by Socrates.

2、Plato

①The Academy is the first school in the world, it was established by Plato.

②He has four works. Dial

ogues, Apology, Symposium and Republic.

3、Aristotle

①The Lyceum is the second school in the world, it was established by Aristotle.

②Aristotle is a humanist.

(2)、Five contending schools

1、The Sophists诡辩派

①Under the leadership of Protagoras.

②The representative of work is On the God.诸神论

③His doctrine教义 is “man is the measure of all things”。人是衡量一切的标准

2、The Cynics犬儒派

①Under the leadership of Diogenes.

②The word “cynic” means “dog” in English.

③He proclaimed宣扬 his brotherhood. And he had no patience with the rich and powerful.权利

3、The Sceptics置疑学派

①Under the leadership of Pyrrhon.

②His thought is not all knowledge was attainable可获得的, and doubting the truth of what others accepted as true.

4、The Epicureans享乐派

①Under the leadership of Epicurus. 选择:根据领导者的名字直接命名

②Pleasure to be the highest good in life but not sensual肉欲 enjoyment.享乐

Pleasure could be attained by the practice of virtue.通过实行道德获得

Epicurus was a materialist. He believed that the world consisted of atoms.原子

5、The Stoics斯多哥派

①Under the leadership of Zeno.

②His thought is duty is the most important thing in life.

One should endure忍受 hardship艰难 and misfortune不幸 with courage.勇气

Developed into Stoics‘ duty.

He was also a materialist.

四、What philosophy system did Plato established?

(Why do we say Plato‘s philosophy system was idealistic? Do you think Plato built up a comprehensive综合的 system of philosophy? )

答:

1、It dealt with, among other things, the problem of how, in the complex, ever—changing world, men were to attain获得 knowledge.

2、The first case and physical自然 world should take the secondary case.

3、Idealistic of philosophy.

4、Many of Plato‘s ideas were later absorbed into Christian thought. (吸收到基督教的思想中)

五、What‘s the difference between Plato and Aristotle in terms of their philosophical ideas(system)?

答:

1、For one thing, Aristotle emphasized(强调) direct observation of nature and insisted that theory should follow fact.(理论联系实际)This is different from Plato‘s reliance(依赖) on subjective thinking.(万物依赖主观思维)

2、For another, he thought that “form” and matter together made up concrete(具体的) individual(个别的) realities. (物质与意识共同构成的客观事实)Here, too, he differed from Plato who held that ideas had a higher reality than the physical world(意识高于物质)

3、Aristotle thought happiness was men‘s aim in life. Bu

t not happiness in the vulgar庸俗的 sense, but something that could only be achieved by leading a life of reason, goodness and contemplation.(善良和期待)

一句话简答题

What should be man‘s aim in life?

Aristotle‘s answer was: happiness.

六、What is the great significance of Greek Culture on the later-on cultural development?

(What positive influence did the Greek Culture exert运用 on the world civilization文化?)

答:

There has been an enduring excitement兴奋 about classical经典的 Greek culture in Europe and elsewhere别处。Rediscovery of Greek culture played a vital有生命力的 part in the Renaissance in Italy and other European countries.

1、Spirit of innovation创新精神

The Greek people invented mathematics and science and philosophy; They first wrote history as opposed反对 to mere纯粹的 annals历史记载; They speculated思索 freely about the nature of the world and the ends of life生命的轮回, without being bound in the fetters束缚 of any inherited orthodoxy.继承的习俗

2、Supreme Achievement至高无上的成就

The Greeks achieved supreme achievements in nearly all fields of human endeavour努力: Philosophy, science, epic poetry, comedy, historical writing, architecture, etc.

3、Lasting effect持续的影响

①Countless无数的 writers have quoted举例, borrowed from and otherwise used Homer‘s epics, the tragedies of Aeschylus and Sophocles and Euripides, Aristophanes’s comedies, Plato‘s Dialogues,ect.

②In the early part of the 19th century, in England alone, three young Romantic poets expressed their admiration of Greek culture in works which have themselves become classics经典之作: Byron‘s Isles of Greece, Shelley’s Hellas and Prometheus Unbound and Keats‘s Ode on a Grecian Urn.

③In the 20th century, there are Homeric parallels与…平行 in the Irishman爱尔兰 James Joyce‘s modernist masterpiece代表作 Ulysses.

七、What is the similarity and difference between Greek culture and Roman culture?

答:

1、similarity

① Both peoples had traditions rooted in the idea of the citizen-assembly.

② Their religions were alike enough for most of their deities(神) to be readily(容易的) identified (一致), and their myths (崇拜的神) to be fused.(融合)

③ Their languages worked in similar ways, both being members of the Indo-European language family.

2、difference

① The Romans built up a vast (巨大的) empire; the Greeks didn‘t, except for the brief (短暂的) moment of Alexander’s conquests, which soon disintegrated.(瓦解)

② The Romans were confident(自信的) in their own organizational power, their military and administrative capabilities.(管理国家的

能力)

八、What is the Rome historical background?

答:

1、The history of Rome divided into two periods: Before the year 27 B.C., Rome had been a republic; from the year 27 B.C., Octavius took supreme (最大的) power as emperor with the title of Augustus and Roman Empire began.

2、Two centuries later, the Roman Empire reached its climax, marked by land area‘s extension: Encircling (环绕) the Mediterranean.(地中海)

3、Strong military power: the famous Roman legions.

4、In the Roman history ,there came two hundred years of peaceful time, which was guaranteed(保证) by the Roman legions, it was known as Pax Romana.

5、Another important contribution made by the Romans to European culture was Roman Law.

6、The empire began to decline in the 3rd century.选择

① In the 4th century the emperor Constantine moved the capital from Rome to Byzantium. Renamed it Constantinople (modern Istanbul)。

② After 395 (分裂时间), the empire was divided into East (The Byzantine Empire) and West

③ In 476 the last emperor of the West was deposed by Goths and this marked the end of the West Roman Empire.

④ The East Roman Empire collapsed (崩溃) when Constantinople fell to the Turks in 1453. (英法百年战争结束)


欧洲文化入门复习资料第二部分
2006-4-28 自考365社区 【大 中 小】
第二章

1、Christianity is by far the most influential in the West. 在西方最具影响力的宗教

2、Judeo-Christian tradition constitutes one of the two major components of European culture: Judaism and Christianity.

3、The Jewish tradition, which gave birth to Christianity. (犹太教是基督教的前身) Both originated in Palestine, which was known as Canaan.

4、The ancestors of the Jews — the Hebrews. 犹太人的祖先是希伯来人

5、They called “Hebrews”, which means “wanderers”。商旅

6、About 1300 B.C., the Hebrews came to settle (定居) in Palestine.

7、The Hebrews history was recorded in the Old Testament of the Bible.

8、The Bible was divided into two sections: the Old Testament and the New Testament.

9、The Old Testament is about God and the Laws of God. 上帝与上帝的教义

10、The New Testament is about the doctrine (教义) of Jesus Christ.

11、The New Testament is, in essence (实质上), the four accounts (四福音书), written by the four disciples.弟子

12、The word “Testament” means “agreement”, the agreement between God and Man.

13、Bible is representative of Christianity and 新旧约

14、The Old Testament名词解释

The Bible was divided into two sections: the Old Testament and the New Testament. The Old Testament is about God and the Laws of God. The word “Te

stament” means “agreement”, the agreement between God and Man.

15、The New Testament名词解释

The Bible was divided into two sections: the Old Testament and the New Testament. The New Testament is about the doctrine (教义) of Jesus Christ. The word “Testament” means “agreement”, the agreement between God and Man.

16、The Old Testament consists of 39 books, the oldest and most important of which are the first five books, called Pentateuch.摩西五经

17、Pentateuch名词解释

The Old Testament consists of 39 books, the oldest and most important of which are the first five books, called Pentateuch. Pentateuch contains five books: Genesis (创世记), Exodus (出埃及记), Leviticus(教义记), Numbers (逃亡记), Deuteronomy (摩西遗言记)。

18、Genesis名词解释

Genesis is one of the five books in Pentateuch, it tells about a religious account (描述) of the origin of the Hebrews people, including the origin of the world and of man, the career (经历) of Issac and the life of Jacob and his son Joseph.

19、Exodus名词解释

Exodus is one of the five books in Pentateuch, it tells about a religious (宗教的) history of the Hebrews during their flight from Egypt, the period when they began to receive God‘s Law. Joshua brought the people safely back to canaan.

20、The Fall of Man was recorded in Genesis, Pentateuch, the Old Testament, The Bible.

21、Noah‘s Ark was recorded in Genesis, Pentateuch, the Old Testament, The Bible.

22、The Historical Books was divided into seven sections:

①Books of Joshua ② Books of Judges ③ Books of Samuel ④ Books of Kings

⑤ Books of the Chronicles ⑥ Books of Ezra ⑦ Books of Nehemiah.

23、The content of historical Books: 1200B.C. 586 B.C.

Dealing with history of the Hebrew people from their entry into Palestine around 1200 B.C., till the fall of Palestine into hands of Assyrians and Chaldeans in 586 B.C.

24、The History Books的内容

① The development of system of landed nobles.

② The development of monarchy. 君主专制

③ Establishment of the two Kingdoms. 两大王国的初步形成

④ (略看) The settlement in the highlands

⑤ (略看) Age of great prosperity under Saul, David and Solomon.

25、Joshua brought the people safely back to Canaan.

26、The first king to unite the Hebrews was Saul.

27、David established religious capital, Jerusalem to Palestine.

28、The Prophets (先知)名词解释 宣传教义并受神灵庇佑的人

For more than a thousand years in the Middle East there had been a class of people known as “Prophets” or the spokesmen of God. Earlier prophets lived in groups as temple officials. Later on there appeared in dependent prophet. Th

e Prophets can be grouped into the Major Prophets and Minor Prophets.(分为大小先知)

29、The Book of Daniel名词解释

The Book of Daniel belongs to The Old Testament of the Bible. It tells about the Hebrews being carried away into Babylon.

30、The former body of church was known as Synagogues. 犹太教的会堂是教堂的前身

31、The Pentateuch is the book of Daniel is also called torah. 摩西五经的别称

32、The story about God‘s flooding to the human being and only good-virtue being saved was recorded in Genesis, Pentateuch, the Old Testament, the Bible, which was known as Noah’s Ark.

33、By 300 A.D.each local church was called a parish and had a full time leader known as a priest.

34、Several parishes were grouped together into a large unit called diocese, which was headed by a bishop.

35、The most important bishops were called archbishops. (红衣大主教)

36、Towards the end of the fourth century four accounts were accepted as part of the New Testament, which tells the beginning of Christianity.

37、The Birth of Jesus was recorded in Matthew (马塞福音书)

38、All the generations from Abraham to David are fourteen generations.为什么十四在西方吉利

39、The Last Supper was recorded in John.

40、The Last Supper was put into an oil painting by Da Vinci in the high renaissance in Italy.

文艺复兴以人为本的标志——蒙娜丽莎

41、The Last Supper adapted from St.John, the New Testament, the Bible.

42、The story about Jesus being betrayed by Judas was known as The Last Supper.

43、The story about Jesus being pinned (钉死) in the cross to death was known as The Last Supper.

44、The first English version of whole Bible was translated from the Latin Vulgate in 1382 and was copied out by hand by the early group of reformers (改革者) led by John Wycliff.

45、Wycliff 与 Tyndale 的区别是:语言来源不同

Reformation (宗教改革) 为了 against the Latin language.

46、William Tyndale‘s version was based on the original Hebrew and Greek sources.来源

论述简答

一、What difference between Christianity and the other religions?

(What are the forceful beliefs of Christianity?)

答:

Christianity based itself on two forceful (强烈的) beliefs which separate it from all other religions.

1、One is that Jesus Christ is the Son of God, and that God sent him to earth (世界) to live as humans live, suffer as humans suffer, and die to redeem mankind.(挽回人类)

2、The other is that God gave his only begotten son (唯一的儿子), so that whosoever (whoever的强调型) believes in him should not perish, but have everlasting life. (获得永生)

加尔文主义也有这样的观点

二、

How did Christianity originate and develop in the European continent (洲)?

☆ (How was Christianity spread to Europe and became the official religion? 统治性宗教)

答:

1、The disciples of Jesus tried to spread his gospel, first among the Jews in Palestine and then in the Mediterranean region.

2、During a time of great unrest and upheaval动荡不安 in the European continent, the poor and humble found comfort in the Christian Gospel.福音(书)

3、Christianity began to draw men and women from all classes in Europe. The Romans grew tired of war and feared (害怕) the collapse (崩溃) of the empire. And they admired the courage of the Christian missionaries.传教士

4、Constantine believed that God had helped him in winning the battle (战役) and issued (发出) the Edict of Milan米兰特令 (选择) in 313. It granted (许可) religious freedom to all, and made Christianity legal.合法化

5、In 392 A.D., Emperor Theodosius made Christianity the official religion of the empire and outlawed all other religions.其他宗教不合法

6、Now Christianity had changed from an object of oppression (压迫) to a weapon in the hands of the ruling (管理) class to crush their opponents (粉碎对手)。 The Latin language became the official language.

三、What are the different translation editions of the Bible?

答:

1、The oldest extant (现存的) Greek translation of the Old Testament is known as the Septuagint. And it is still in use in the Greek Church today. But it only translated the Old Testament.

2、The most ancient extant Latin version of the whole Bible is the Vulgate edition, which was done in 385-405 A.D. By St. Jerome in common people‘s language. It became the official Bible of the Roman Catholic Church throughout the world.

3、The first English version of whole Bible was translated from the Latin Vulgate in 1382 and was copied out by hand by the early group of reformers (改革者) led by John Wycliff.

4、After John Wycliff‘s version, appeared William Tyndale’s version. It was based on the original Hebrew and Greek sources.来源

5、The Great Bible (大圣经) ordered by Henry Ⅷ in 1539 to be placed in all the English churches was in part founded on Tyndale‘s work.

6、The most important and influential of English Bible is the “Authorized”(官方版圣经) or “King James” version, first published in 1611. It was produced by 54 biblical scholars at the command of King James. With its simple, majestic (高雅的) Anglo-Saxon tongue, it is known as the greatest book in the English languages.

7、The Revised Version appeared in 1885, and the standard American edition of the Revised Version in 1901. (美国英语版)

8、The Good News Bible and the New English Bible.

四、

What is the great significance of the translations of the bible?

(What are the great influences that the English Bible has on the American and British literature?)

答:

1、It is generally accepted that the English Bible and Shakespeare are two great reservoirs (水库) of Modern English.

2、Miltion‘s Paradise Lost (失乐园), Bunyan’s Pilgrim‘s Progress, Byron’s Cain, up to the contemporary (同时期的) Hemingway‘s The Sun Also Rises, and Steinbeck’s East of Eden. They are not influenced without the effect of the Bible.


欧洲文化入门复习资料第三部分
2006-4-28 自考365社区 【大 中 小】
第三章

1、the Middle ages名词解释

In European history, the thousand-year period following the fall of the Western Roman Empire in the fifth century is called the Middle Ages.

2、The middle ages is so called because it came between ancient times and modern times. To be specific (具体说来), from the 5th century to 15th century.

3、The transitional (过渡时期) period is called the middle ages, between ancient times and modern times.

4、The transitional (过渡时期) period is called the 17th century, between the middle ages and modern times.

5、In 476 A.D. a Germanic (日耳曼) general killed the last Roman emperor and took control of the government. 西罗马476灭,东罗马1653年灭

6、Feudalism名词解释

Feudalism in Europe was mainly a system of land holding (土地所有) — a system of holding land in exchange for military service (军事力量)。 The word “feudalism” was derived (来源) from the Latin “feudum”, a grant (许可的) of land.

7、fiefs(次划分)名词解释

In Feudalism, the ruler of the government redivided the large lands into small pieces to be given to chancellors (有功的大臣) or soldiers as a reward (奖赏) for their service. The subdivisions were called fiefs.

8、vassals (占有fiefs的人)名词解释

In Feudalism, the ruler of the government redivided the large lands into small pieces to be given to chancellors (有功的大臣) or soldiers as a reward (奖赏) for their service. The subdivisions were called fiefs. The owners of the fiefs was call vassals.

9、code of chivalry (骑士制度)名词解释

As a knight, he were pledged to protect the weak, to fight for the church, to be loyal to his lord and to respect women of noble birth. These rules were known as code of chivalry, from which the western idea of good manners developed.

10、dubbing (骑士头衔加冕仪式)名词解释

After a knight was successful in his trained and tournaments, there was always a special ceremony (选择) to award him with a title, knight. This special ceremony is called dubbing.

11、knight tra

ined for war by fighting each other in mock battles called tournaments.(模拟战场)

12、The crusades ended up with the victory of Moslems.(穆斯林)

13、The Manor (领地所有制)名词解释

The centre of medieval life under feudalism was the manor. Manors were founded on the fiefs of the lords (农场主)。 By the twelfth century manor houses were made of stone and designed as fortresses. They came to be called castles.

14、After 1054, the church was divided into the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church.

15、The Catholic Church made Latin the official language and helped to preserve (保留) and pass on the heritage (传统) of the Roman Empire.

16、The word “catholic”, meant “universal”。(广泛的,无处不在的)

17、St. Jerome, who translated into Latin both Old and New Testament from the Hebrew and Greek originals. Vulgate (拉丁语圣经)

18、Early Monasticism (早期修道院制)名词解释

Between 300 and 500 A.D., many men withdrew from (放弃了) worldly contacts to deserts and lonely places. This movement developed into the establishment of monasteries (男) and convents (女) for monks and nuns. Some of the hermits (隐士) were great scholars known as “Father of the Church”, whose work is generally considered orthodox.(东正教)

19、Augustine —→ “Confession” (坦白) and “The City of God” (上帝之都)

20、St. Benedict —→ founded Benedictine Rule about 529 A.D. (专门给清修的人制定的法律)

21、The Inquisition (问讯厅) to stamp out so-called heresy.异教

22、The most important of all courses was Jerusalem. (耶路撒冷)

23、Crusades went on about 200 years.

24、There were altogether eight chief Crusades.

25、(结束) By 1291 the Moslems (穆斯林) had taken over the last Christian stronghold. They won the crusades and ruled all the territory in Palestine that the Crusaders had fought to control.

26、Carolingian Renaissance名词解释

Carolingian Renaissance is derived from Charlemagne‘s name in Latin, Carolus. The most interesting facet (一面) of this rather minor renaissance is the spectacle (有见解) of Frankish or Germanic state reaching out to assimilate (吸收) the riches of the Roman Classical and the Christianized Hebraic culture.

27、Roger Bacon‘s work was the Opus maius.

28、National Epics(民族史诗运动)名词解释

The epic was the product of the Heroic Age. It was an important and mostly used form in ancient literature. “National epic” refers to the epic written in vernacular languages—that is, the languages of various national states (民族国家) that came into being in the Middle Ages. Literary works were no longer all written in Latin. It was the

starting point of a gradual transition of European literature from Latin culture to a culture that was the combination of a variety of national characteristics.

29、Chaucer (乔叟) 的诗歌特点: ① power of observation (观察)

② piercing irony (敏锐的讽刺) ③ sense of humour ④ warm humanity (温暖的人性)

与狄更斯相似

30、Gothic名词解释

① The Gothic style started in France and quickly spread through all parts of Western Europe.

② It lasted from the mid-12th to the end of 15th century and, in some areas, into the 16th. More churches were built in this manner than in any other style in history.

③ The Gothic was an outgrowth (丰富与发展) of the Romanesque.(罗马式)

31、The Canterbury Tales:

① The Canterbury Tales was written by Chaucer.

② Chaucer introduced French and Italy writing the English native alliterative verse.(压头韵)

③ Both Chaucer and The Canterbury Tales are the best representative of the middle English.

论述简答

一、In the middle ages, what cultures began to merge (融合)?

答:

Classical, Hebrew and Gothic heritages merged (文化融合)。 It paved the way for the development of what is the present-day European culture.中世纪为现代欧洲文化铺平道路

二、Why is the middle ages is called Age of Faith (信仰的年代)?名词解释和简答

答:

1、During the Medieval (中世纪) times there was no central (中央的) government to keep the order. The only organization that seemed to unite (团结) Europe was the Christian church.

2、The Christian church continued to gain (赢得) widespread (普及的) power and influence.

3、In the Late middle ages, almost everyone in western Europe was a Christian and a member of the Christian Church. Christianity took the lead in politics, law, art, and learning (思想领域) for hundreds of years.

4、It shaped (形成) people‘s lives. That is why the middle ages is also called the “Age of Faith”。

三、How did Feudalism develop in Europe in middle ages?

答:

1、feudalism in Europe was mainly a system of land holding (土地所有) — a system of holding land in exchange for military service (军事力量)。 The word “feudalism” was derived (来源) from the Latin “feudum”, a grant (许可的) of land.

2、In order to seek the protection of large land-owners, the people of small farms or land gave their farms and land to large land-owners, but they still had freedom, they were called freemen.

3、While the people from towns and cities did not possess farms or land. They had nothing but their freedom to be given to large land-owners, and then they lost their freedom for protection. They were called ser

fs.

4、In Feudalism, the ruler of the government redivided the large lands into small pieces to be given to chancellors (有功的大臣) or soldiers as a reward (奖赏) for their service. The subdivisions were called fiefs. The owners of the fiefs was call vassals.

5、There came a form of local and decentralized (分散化的) government.

6、As a knight, he were pledged to protect the weak, to fight for the church, to be loyal to his lord and to respect women of noble birth. These rules were known as code of chivalry, from which the western idea of good manners developed.

四、What positive influence does the Crusades exert on the European Culture?

(What is the great significance of the Crusades?)

答:

1、The crusades brought the East into closer contact with the West. And they greatly influenced the history of Europe. (拉近了东西方的交流)

2、During the wars while many of the feudal lords went to fight in Palestine, kings at home found opportunities (机会) to strengthen (加强) themselves. Thus among other things, Crusades helped to break down feudalism, which, in turn led to the rise of the monarchies. (取而代之的是君主专制) 霍布斯主张君主专制

3、Besides, through their contact with the more cultured Byzantines and Moslems, the western Europeans changed many of their old ideas. Their desire (期望) for wealth or power began to overshadow (战胜) their religious ideals.

4、The Crusades also resulted in renewing people‘s interest in learning and invention. By the 13th century, universities had spread all over Europe. Such knowledge as Arabic numerals (阿拉伯数字), algebra (代数), and Arab medicine (医学) were introduced to the West.

5、As trade increased, village and towns began to grow into cities. And the rise of towns and trade in western Europe paved the way of the growth of strong national governments. (民族政府)

五、How did learning and science develop in the Middle Ages?

答:

1、Charlemagne and Carolingian Renaissance: (查理曼的文艺复兴)

① He was crowned “Emperor of the Romans” by the pope in 800.

② Carolingian Renaissance is derived from Charlemagne‘s name in Latin, Carolus. The most interesting facet (一面) of this rather minor renaissance is the spectacle (有见解) of Frankish or Germanic state reaching out to assimilate (吸收) the riches of the Roman Classical and the Christianized Hebraic culture.

2、Alfred the Great and Wessex Centre of Learning: (阿尔伏雷德大帝和威克萨斯王国)

① He promoted (奖励) translations into the vernacular from Latin works.

② He also inspired (授意) the compilation of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicles. (编年史)

3、St. Thomas Aquinas and Sc

holasticism: (经院主义--保守主义的雏形)

4、Roger Bacon and Experimental Science: (实用主义)

① Roger Bacon, a monk, was one of the earliest advocates of scientific research. (最早的支持者) 亚里士多德最早提出

② He called for careful observation (观察) and experimentation. His main work was the Opus maius.

六、How did literature develop in the middle ages?

答:

1、The epic was the product of the Heroic Age. It was an important and mostly used form in ancient literature. “National epic” refers to the epic written in vernacular languages—that is, the languages of various national states (民族国家) that came into being in the Middle Ages. Literary works were no longer all written in Latin. It was the starting point of a gradual transition of European literature from Latin culture to a culture that was the combination of a variety of national characteristics. Both Beowulf and song of Roland were the representative works of the National Epics.

2、Dante Alighieri and The Divine Comedy: (但丁与神曲)

① His masterpiece, The Divine Comedy, is one of the landmarks of world literature.

② The poem expresses humanistic ideas which foreshadowed (预示) the spirit of Renaissance.

③ Dante wrote his masterpiece in Italian rather than in Latin. (只用意大利语创作)

3、Geoffery Chaucer and The Canterbury Tales: (乔叟与坎特布雷集)

① The Canterbury Tales were his most popular work.

② Most of the tales are written in verse (诗) which reflects(反映) Chaucer‘s innovation (改革) by introducing into the native alliterative verse (压头韵诗) the French and Italian styles.

③ Chaucer is thus to be , regarded as (被看作) the first short story teller and the first modern poet in English literature.短篇写作第一人

④ Chaucer and the Canterbury Tales were representative of the Middle ages.

七、What is the difference between the vernacular language used in the National epics and the vernacular language used by Mark twain? (重点☆)

答:

1、The epic was the product of the Heroic Age. It was an important and mostly used form in ancient literature. “National epic” refers to the epic written in vernacular languages—that is, the languages of various national states (民族国家) that came into being in the Middle Ages. Literary works were no longer all written in Latin. It was the starting point of a gradual transition of European literature from Latin culture to a culture that was the combination of a variety of national characteristics. Both Beowulf and song of Roland were the representative works of the National Epics.

2、The vernacular (方言) language used by Mark twain refers to both local and colloq (地方式俗语) language used in t

he Mississippi area, with a strong characteristic of that region (地区) .Mark twain used vernacular language not only in dialogue, but also in narration. (叙述)

3、His representative works Life on the Mississippi.


欧洲文化入门听课笔记和重点总结
2006-4-28 自考365社区 【大 中 小】
1.希腊罗马Homer Author of epics Sappho Lyric poet

三大悲剧家:Aeschylus Tragic dramatist Sophocles Tragic dramatist Euripides Tragic dramatist

喜剧家:Aristophanes Comedy writer

历史学家:Herodotus wrote about wars between Greeks and Persians Father of history Thucydides wrote about wars between Athens and Sparta and Athens and Syracuse the greatest historian that have ever lived

哲学和科学:Pythagoras All things were numbers founder of scientific mathematics Heracleitue Fire is the primary element Democritus Materialist, one of the earliest exponents of the atomic theory Socrates Dissect of oneself, virtue was high worth of life, dialectical method Plato Man have knowledge because of the existence of certain general ideas

Aristotle Direct observation, theory follow fact, idea and matter together made concrete individual realities Euclid a textbook of geometry Archimedes when a body is immersed in water its loss of weight is equal to the weight of the water displaced “Give me a place to stand and I‘ll move the World”

Others Diogenes (the Cynics) Pyrrhon(the Sceptics) Epicurus (the Epicureans) Zeno(the Stoics)

4th century B.C.后半叶希腊在Alexander, king of Macedon的领导下,5th century B.C.达到顶峰,146 B.C.被罗马攻克

2.基督教和圣经Jews—以前叫Hebrews,3800B.C.穿过中东沙漠,1300B.C.Moses带领Hebrews离开埃及,开始他们的Exodus,他在Sinai山定了ten commandments in the name of God,40年后Hebrews定居Pelestine, known as Canaan,Hebrew人的历史口头传送记入the old Testament, 6th century B.C.,他们在Babylon形成synagogue(忧太集会)来发扬他们的教义。

Jesus Christ生活在第一个罗马帝国Augustus, Emperor Constantine 1于313年宣布基督教合法,Emperor Theodosius于392年宣布基督教为国教。

Hebrew人的历史口头传送记入the old Testament,旧约包含39本书,写了从1000B.C.——100A.D.的事情,最重要的前五本是Pentateuch,旧约主要由Hebrew写成,the New Testment主要是Greek的形式,包含14本书,最古老的Latin Bible叫Vulgate,在1382年被John Wycliff翻译成了英语,Greek Bible叫Septuagint

3.中世纪开始于476年西罗马帝国的衰败5-11世纪a period in which classical, Hebrew and Gothic heritage merged 1054,教堂分裂为the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church反击Moslems,开始了Crusades Charles Martel给士兵们estates known as fiefs in 732 St. Thomas Aquinas(Scholasticism)写了 Summa Th

eologica,这本书sums up all the knowledge of medieval theology他认为feudal hierarchy(层次,等级) of society is God‘s rule The power of feudal rulers is God’s will Pope is Christ‘s Plenipotentiary Charlemagne and Alfred the Great encouraged learning by setting up monastery schools. They copied various ancient books and translated the Latin works into the venacular Roger Bacon and Experimental Science one of the earliest advocates of scientific research, called for careful observation Dante(但丁) 神曲 one of the landmarks of world literature Chaucer first modern poet in English literature

4.文艺复兴与宗教改革14th and 17th Century Starting in Florence and Venice Boccaccio the greatest achievement of prose fiction in中世纪Petrarch Sonnet, father of modern poetry

文艺复兴早期的艺术家:Giotto forerunner of renaissance Brunelleschi showed a systematic use of perspective Donatello one of the first artists engaged in anatomy Giorgione made happy use of colour schemes to unify his pictures

意大利文艺复兴全盛时期的四位艺术家:Da Vinci Michelangelo Raphael Known for his Titian Oil color the most prolific of the great Venetian painters of Western World

Pre-Luther Religious Reformers John Wycliffe chief forerunner of the reformation, took up the translation of the Bible into English for the first time in 1382 Jan Hus Czech Religious leader

John Calvin 基督教教义 one of the most influential theological works Calvinism Rabelais 拉伯雷 french writer Ronsard Pleiade七星诗社代表人 法国第一个近代抒情诗人Montaigne 蒙田 散文集 French Writer Cervantes father of modern European novel spain Thomas More British writer Shakespeare 作品包括>点击下载>点击下载>点击下载>> crowned literature of England 代表欧洲文艺复兴的最高成就Copernicus The father of modern astronomy 现代天文学之父Vesalius marked the beginning of a new era in the study of anatomy (解剖学) founder of modern medicine Aldus Manutius foremost printer in Italy Machiavelli Father of political science Vosari 1492, Columbus发现了America 1487,Dias发现了the cape of good hope 1497,da Gama发现了the route to India round the Cape of Good Hope

5. 17世纪Copernicus 天体运行论 Although he did not belong to the 17th century he was the forerunner of modern medicine Kepler Kepler‘s Law (the three laws of planetary motion)德 国 the three laws formed the basis of all modern planetary astronomy and led to Newton’s discovery of the laws of gravitation Galileo 意大利 acceleration in dynamics, the law of inertia, the law of falling bodies动力加速度,惯性定律,落体定律Newton 英国Leibniz Distinguishes three levels of understanding: self-conscious(自我意识)conscious(意识)unconscious/subconscious (潜意识)他和牛顿都是caculus的创始人Milton Areopagitica, English

revolution Bacon Knowledge is power 英国 反对deductive method,创立了inductive method 认为哲学应该与神学分开Hobbes 利维坦 Materialist (knowledge come from experience) Social Contract 英国 认为最好的统治方式是monarchy Locke 政治论 Materialist views (ideas derived from sensation or from reflection) Social Contract英国在英国革命中有两个领袖,Cromwell 和John Milton Cromwell the man of action John Milton the man of thought 在英国文学史上ranks with Shakespear and Chaucer Descartes 笛卡尔 Cartesian Doubt I think therefore I am 法国 it is generally believed that modern philosophy begins with Bacon in England and Descartes in France Corneille 高乃依熙得 法国第一部古典主义悲剧,表现责任与爱情的冲突Racine the greatest tragic dramatist of French neoclassical theatre 表现情感和理性的冲突Moliere 达尔杜夫愤世嫉俗吝啬鬼 the best representative dramatist of French Classical comedies很多科学器械在被发明:microscope, telescope, thermometer, barometer, pendulum 1689,the Bill of Rights建立了the Parliament至高无上的权利法国最著名的建筑:Palace of Versailles Garden Front East Front of the Louvre英国最著名建筑:St. Paul‘s Cathedral

6.启蒙运动 the age of reason 18th century intellectual movement starting from France the most important forerunners of the enlightenment were two 17th century Englishmen John Locke and Issac Newton.Locke‘s materialist theory and Newton’s theory of gravitation

Major force of the enlightenment is French Philosophes

18世纪两大著名运动:The American War of Independence(1776)ended British colonial rule over the U.S.独立宣言The French Revolution(1789)ended the French Monarchy and the first French Republic was born in 1792人权宣言

French Philosophy and Literature Montesquieu Separation of powers法国启蒙运动的先驱Voltaire most famous of his novels Rousseau one of the greatest figures of French enlightenment Diderot

English Literature Pope spokesman in verse of the Age of Reason, translation of Homer, good at heroic couplet 擅长英雄双韵体Defoe one of the greatest fiction writer of the 18th century England 鲁滨逊漂流记Swift the foremost satirist in the English language and one of the satiric masters of all time Henry Fielding Father of the English novel

Samuel Richardson The founder of English domestic novel Samuel Johnson editor of 18世纪英国文学最著名的期刊 The Tatler 和 The Spectator, Addison 和 Steele经常在上面写文章

German Literature and Philosophy Lessing German dramastist German classicism Goethe Apprenticeship/Travels> the Greatest German Poets Schiller a founder of modern German literature Kant Waterhead of modern philosophy Propose the nebular hypothesis History of Nature and Theory of the Heavens> reason>

The Musical Enlightenment J. S.

 Bach Christianity Major musicians of the musical Enlightenment Handel 亨德尔 being his crowning masterpiece Bach and Handel showed the world Baroque musical architecture at its imposing best The Baroque period was followed by the Classical Period, roughly between 1750 and 1820 Haydn Classical period Viennese school Mozart Beethoven occupy a Pivotal position, leaning in much of his work towards the Romantic Movement in Music

7. 浪漫主义 Romanticism late 18th and early 19th century starting from the ideas of Rouseau in France and from the Storm and Stress Movement in Germany The enlightenment brought about two revolutions and they caused Romanticism to rise: the French Revolution and the Industrial revolution New economic ideas were put forward by Adam Smith in his book , which laid the theoretical groundwork for capitalism.

Romanticism in Germany The Storm and Stress Movement prepared the way for European Romanticism Goethe combined Romanticism with Classicism It was Love and Intrigue that made Schiller the best dramatist for the Storm and Stress The Jena School: Schlegel Brothers, Novalis and Tieck Heine: 海涅在1836年发表>,宣告浪漫主义在德国文学中的统治地位的结束

Romanticism in England Blake:The Lakers: Wordsworth and Coleridge Byron: is considered his masterpiece the fact that the poet died for the Greek causes made him more respected his poem expressed an ardent love of liberty and a fierce hatred of tyranny Shelley noted for his lyrics Keats famous for his sonnets Walter Scott

Romanticism in France Chateaubriand :Victor Hugo: 法国浪漫主义文学的最重要的作家。他于1827年发表的 Cromwell>是法国浪漫主义运动的一篇重要宣言。他的长篇小说巴黎圣母院 悲惨世界宣扬了“爱”与“仁慈”等人道主义精神。The greatest poet of his day George Sand:法国浪漫主义文学最杰出的女作家

Romanticism in Italy Manzoni: 约婚夫妇是意大利文学史上第一部以爱压迫的劳动人民为主人公的小说Leopardi: he was the greatest poet of Italy Romanticism

Romanticism in Russia Russia Romanticism began that way-adapting French plays and translating German and English poetry Pushkin: 俄国浪漫主义先锋(van) a Byronic character his masterpiece is 创造了俄国文学中的第一个“多余的人”的典型Lermontov: draws a fine portrait of Pushkin

Romanticism in Poland Adam Mickiewicz: beginning of Polish Romanticism is his masterpiece Art and Architecture Goya Spanish painter and etcher(蚀刻家)欧洲浪漫主义先驱 Execution of the Third of May> Children> David French Painter Delacroix 代表着法国浪漫主义绘画的最高成就Gericault French painter Turner English landscape painter Constable English landscape painter Turner and Constable代表了浪漫主义画派的最高成就

Music早期浪漫主义音乐家:Beeth

oven(贝多芬) German Composer marked the beginning of 19th century programme music Schubert(舒伯特)Austrian composer Chopin(肖邦)Polish composer Schumann(舒曼) German composer Mendelssohn(门德尔松)German composer

后期浪漫主义音乐家:Berlioz(伯辽兹)French composer Liszt(里斯特)Hungarian composer Wagner(瓦格纳)German composer Brahms(伯拉姆斯)German composer Tchaikovsky(柴科夫斯基)Russian composer

8. 马克思主义和达尔文主义 Marxism and Darwinism The Three Sources and Three Component Parts of Marxism German Classical Philosophy and Marxist Philosophy:Hegelian dialectics 黑格尔辩证法Feuerbach‘s materialism费尔巴哈唯物论Marxist Philosophy Dialectical materialism马克思主义辩证唯物论Historical materialism 马克思主义历史唯物论English Classical Political Economy and Marxist Political Economy Capital is the most important work by Marx about Marxist economics Surplus value was the source of profit, the source of the wealth of the capitalist class Doctrine of surplus value in Capital is the cornerstone of Marx’s economic theory Utopian Socialism and Scientific Socialism Robert Owen: English industrialist and social reformer Henri de Saint-Simon: French social philosopher Charles Fourier: French social philosopher

Darwinism As Newton dominated 17th century science with the discovery of the laws governing the bodies of the universe, Charles Darwin dominated the 19th century science for his discovering of the laws governing the evolution of man himself. In the history of science he takes up a position as important as these occupied by Copernicus, Galileo and Newton. Darwin was not the first man to put forward the theory of evolution Lamarck was the first man whose conclusion on the subject. However, he failed to produce any evidence, French naturalist(自然主义者)

Lyell English geologist Karl Marx

Darwin‘s works and Theories:On the origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life The Descent of Man

9. 现实主义Realism arise in the 50s of the 19th century and had its origin in France

Realism in France Stendhal 司汤达 红与黑是法国批判现实主义第一部成熟的作品 巴马修道院Balzac巴尔扎克 Balzac has been called the French Dickens as Dickens has been called the English Balzac Flaubert 福楼拜 非常重视艺术形式he is often called the first French realist包法利夫人Zora 左拉 founder of the naturalist school鲁贡玛-马卡尔家族史Maupassant 莫伯桑

Realism in Russia Gogol果戈里 the first master of fiction in Russia Chickikov A character in Shame, and hypocrisy Turgenev屠格涅夫 the first Russian author to gain recognition in the West

Dostoyevsky陀思妥耶夫斯基罪与罚卡拉马佐夫兄弟Leo Tolstoy列夫托尔

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