英语国家社会与文化 复习资料


I. Explain the following terms:

1. Benjamin Franklin

Benjamin Franklin was one of the founding fathers of the United States of

America. He participated in writing the Declaration of Independence and making the US Constitution.

2. King Arthur

It is said that he was the King of England in the 15th century and united the British and drove the Saxons back with his magical sword, Excalibur. His real existence is in doubt. He is the central figure of many legends

II. Choose the best answer.

1. The first inhabitants in Britain were _____.

A. the Normans

B. the Celts

C. the Iberians

D. the Anglo-Saxons

2. The largest lake in Britain is _____.

A. the Lough Neage

B. Windermere Water

C. Coniston Water

D. the Lake District

3. Which part of Britain is always fighting?

A. England B . Scotland C. Wales D. Northem Ireland

4. The Tories were the forerunners of _______ , which still bears the nickname today.

A. the Labour Party

B. the Liberal Party

C. the Social Democratic Party

D. the Conservative Party

5. Martin Luther King, Jr., a young black clergyman, became a national leader of the

_______ Movement.

A. Boycott

B. Civil Rights

C. Segregation

D. Integration

6. The Declaration of Independence was drafted by _____.

A. James Madison

B. Thomas Jefferson

C. Alexander Hamilton

D. George Washington

7. The Renaissance began in ______ in the early _______ century.

A. England, 14

B. England, 15

C. Italy, 14

D. Italy, 15

8. In the 18th century, there appeared ____ in England, which owed a great deal to the invention of machines.

A. the Industrial Revolution

B. the Bourgeois Revolution

C. the Wars of the Roses

D. the Religious Reformation

7. British Recorded history began with _____.

A.Roman invasion

B. the Norman Conquest

C. the Viking and Danish invasion

D. the Anglo-Saxons invasion

8. In Britain, children from the age of 5 to 16 can _____ by law.

A. receive completely free education

B. receive partly free education

C. receive no free education if their families are rich

D. receive no free education at all

9. With regard to its size, the USA is the _____ country in the world.

A. largest

B. second largest

C. third largest

D. fourth largest

10. On July 4, 1776, _____ adopted the Declaration of Independence.

A. the First Continental Congress

B. the Second Continental Congress

C. the Third Continental Congress

D. the Constitutional Convention

11. Where is the best agricultural land in Britain?

A. In the southeast of England.

B. In the northeast of England.

C. In the southeast of Scotland.

D. In the northeast of Scotland.

12. In the aerospace industry, which of the following countries is ahead of Britain ?

A. Germany.

B. The U.S.

C. Russia.

D. France.

13. Which company became an important aero-engine manufacturer after WWI?

A. Boeing.

B. Rolls Royce.

14. Uncle Tom’s Cabin and Roots are two novels which give a vivid description of

the miserable life of the _____.

A. early settlers

B. Puritans

C. native Indians

D. black slaves

15. Which company became an important aero-engine manufacturer after WWI?

A. Boeing.

B. Rolls Royce.

C. McDonnel-Douglas.

D. Hawker-Siddeley Aviation.

16. Three of the following universities have large endowments from wealthy

benefactors. Which is the exception ?

A. Harvard University

B. the State University of New York

C. Yale University

D. Princeton University

17. Both public and private universities depend on the following sources of income

except ___________.

A. investment

B. student tuition

C. endowments

D. government funding

18. Which of the following countries is the last to come out of recession?

A. Germany.

B. Japan.

C. Britain.

D. France.

19. Which of the following book is written by Geoffrey Chaucer?

A. The Canterbury Tales

B. Beowulf

C. King Lear

D.Morte D’ Arthur

20. Which of the following did NOT belong to Romanticism ?

A. Keats.

B. Shelley.

C. Wordsworth.

D. Defoe.

21. Which of the following is a tragedy written by Shakespeare ?

A. Doctor Faustus.

B. Macbeth.

C. Frankenstein.

D. The Tempest.

22. The following were the main Reformation leader except ___________.

A. Martin Luther

B. Martin Luther King

C. John Calvin

D. The English King Henry VIII

23. In Britain, the great majority of parents send their children to


A. private school.

B. independent schools.

C, state school. D. public school.

24. Which of the following is privately funded university in Britain ?

A. The University of Cambridge.

B. The University of Oxford.

C. The University of Edinburgh.

D. The University of Buckingham.

25. In the examination called “ the 11 plus”, students with academic potential go to


A. grammar school

B. comprehensive schools

C. public schools

D. technical schools

26. In Britain most advertising is carried ___________

A. in newspaper.

B. in magazines.

C. on television

D. on radio.

27. Which of the following is the British oldest daily newspaper ?

A. The Telegraph

B. The news of the World.

C. The Guardian.

D. The Times.

28. Which of the following was NOT a denomination of Protestantism ?

A. Catholics.

B. Puritains.

C. Quakers.

D. Church of England.

29. Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of Open University ?

A. It’s open to everyone.

B. It requires no formal educational qualifications.

C. No university degree is awarded.

D. University courses are followed through TV, radio,correspondence,etc.

30.Which of the following statements was correct around the time of the American

Revolution ?

A. The American had the mixed blood of Europeans or their descendants.

B. The American had the mixed blood of Europeans with American Indiana.

C. The American had the mixed blood of Europeans with blacks.

D. The American had the mixed blood of English and their descendants only.

31. There are some ____ universities, including the Open University.

A. 900

B. 290

C. 90

D. 50

32. The expenditure in American public school is guided or decided by_______.

A. teachers.

B. the students.

C. headmasters.

D. boards of education.

33. In the United States school system, which of the following division is true ?

A. Elementary school, grammar school

B. Elementary school, junior high school .

C. Elementary school, secondary school

D. Junior high school, senior high school.

34. What did Frank Whittle do in 1937?

A. He invented the first jet plane.

B. He developed the first jet engine.

C. He made the first powered flight.

D. He made the trans-Atlantic flight.

35. All the following universities and colleges are located in New England, except


A. Yale

B. Harvard

C. Oxford

D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

36. The Prime Minister is appointed by _____ and he or she always sits in _____.

A. the Archbishop of Canterbury, the House of Commons

B. the Archbishop of Canterbury, the House of Lords

C. the Queen, the House of Commons

D. the Queen, the House of Lords

37. In _____, a small group of Puritans sailed from _____ in the Mayflower to be the

first settlers in the North America.

A. 1620, London

B. 1620, Plymouth

C. 1720, London

D. 1720, Plymouth

38. President Jefferson bought _____ from France and doubled the country’s territory.

A. New Mexico

B. the Louisiana Territory

C. Kansas

D. Ohio

39. The Declaration of Independence came from the theory of British philosopher


A. Paul Revere

B. John Locke

C. Cornwallis

D. Frederick Douglass

40. The English Civil War is also called _____.

A. the Glorious Revolution

B. the Bloody Revolution

C. the Catholic Revolution

D. the Puritan Revolution

41. According to American historians and specialists in demography, there are _____

great population movement in the history of the United States.

A. two

B. three

C. four

D. five

Part III. Translate the following into Chinese: 10% Norman Conquest 诺曼底征服

King Alfred 阿尔弗雷德国王

Julius Caesar 尤利乌斯·凯撒

Constitutional monarchy 君主立宪制度

The Monarchy 君主制

The House of Lords 上议院

The House of Common 下议院

The battle of Hastings 黑斯廷斯战役

Parliament 议会,国会

The Great Charter 大宪章

The Glorious Revolution 光荣革命

The Wars of Rose 玫瑰战争

Bloody Mary 血腥玛丽

The Great lakes 五大湖

Puritanism 清教主义

Pilgrim’s Progress 天路历程

Joan of Arc 圣女贞德

Robinson Crusoe 鲁宾逊漂流记

The Origin of Species 物种起源

The English Renaissance 英国文艺复兴

Francis Bacon 弗兰西斯·培根

the Enclosure Movement 圈地运动

The Black Death 黑死病

The Industrial Revolution 工业革命

The Declaration of Independence 独立宣言George Washington 乔治·华盛顿

Thatcherism 撒切尔主义

Winston Churchill 温斯顿·丘吉尔

The Marshall Plan 马歇尔计划

The New Deal (罗斯福)新政

public schools 公立学校

comprehensive schools 综合学校

VI. Translate the following into Chinese:

1. The first English settlement in North America

The first English permanent settlement was organized in 1607 by the London Company with a charter from the English King. The Colonists settled in Virginia and survived by imposing strict discipline on themselves and by transplanting tobacco into colony of Virginia. In 1619, the settlers elected their delegates and set up the House of Burgesses, and the same time they bought and enslaved black servants. These two events greatly influenced the political and social development of the United States later.

2. The Open University

The Open University was founded in Britain in the 1960s for people who might not get the opportunity for higher education for economic and social reasons. It’ open to everyone and does not demand the same formal educational qualifications as the other universities. University courses are followed through TV, radio, correspondence, video and a net work of study centres. At the end of their studies at the Open University, successful students are awarded a university degree.

3."The City"

“The City”refers to the historic area at the centre of London. It is one of the biggest financial centres in the world with the greatest concentration of banks, insurance companies and business dealing in commodities. At the heart of the city is the London stock Exchange

4. What were the consequences of the Norman Conquest?

The Norman Conquest of 1066 is one of the best known events in English history. It brought about many consequences.

William confiscated almost all the land and gave it to his Norman followers. He replaced the weak Saxon rule with a strong Norman government. So the feudal system was completely established in England. Relations with the Continent were opened, and civilization and commerce were extended. Norman-French culture, language, manners, and architecture were been introduced. The church was brought into closer connection with Rome, and the church courts were separated from the civil courts.