When It's Not Quite a Wonderful Life
A 2011 study by researchers might make you think twice about difficult holiday emotions. They followed dozens of bus drivers for two weeks, looking to see when they flashed fake versus sincere smiles at their passengers. The results showed that on days when the drivers tried to put on an act and pretend to be in a good mood, their actual moods got worse. This was especially true for women. And another research suggests that people who really want to be happy actually obtain less happiness from positive experiences, apparently because their expectations are too high. Again and again, trying to gain happiness despite no preference seems to have the opposite result.
The results of the bus driver study can be explained by researchers Oliver John and James Gross, who found that negative feelings like sadness or anger only intensify when we try to suppress (压制) them. That's because we feel bad about ourselves when our outward appearance contradicts how we truly feel inside. What's more, when we suppress emotions like sadness, we deny them the important function they serve. If we don't recognize sadness we might not take the necessary steps to improve the situation. Expressing our sadness can also get comfort and compassion from those who care about us, strengthening our bonds.
Recently, scientists have also been paying special attention to the benefits of mindfulness. When you respond mindfully to an emotional trigger (诱因), you pause rather than react, and then you can escape getting troubled by thoughtfulness. Rather than scold yourself, you simply notice what you're feeling without judging that response as right or wrong. Studies suggest that a mindful response to a negative event reduces the amount of sadness we experience, is associated with less depression and anxiety, and may even carry physiological benefits, such as lowering our heart rates.
Unavoidably, the holidays will bring a mix of highs and lows. Perhaps the most important lesson to keep in mind is that this variety of emotions might be the best thing possible for yo ur overall well-being.
That was the key insight from a study published in 2014 by a team of researchers
from Yale University. Their survey of more than 37,000 people found that, after experiencing a greater variety and abundance of emotions consistently linked to lower depression, people took less medication, visited doctors less frequently, spent fewer days in hospitals, practiced better dietary and exercise habits, and smoked less.
In other words, sadness, anger, and other difficult emotions are like so many other parts of the holidays, they're nothing to fear. Just make sure you're balancing them with lighter experiences.
2．higher信息转换题。根据第一段倒数第二句“And another research ... apparently because their expectations are too high.”可知答案。
3．contradiction 信息转换题。根据第二段前两句话，尤其是第二句的“... when our outward appearance contradicts how we truly feel inside”可知答案。
4．deny/refuse/reject 直接信息题。根据第二段中的“What's more, when we suppress emotions like sadness, we deny them the important function they serve.”可知答案。
7．scolding/blaming 信息转换题。从第三段第三句中的“Rather than scold yourself, you simply ...”可知答案。
8．saves/frees 信息概括题。根据第三段的内容可知，“mindfulness”可以使人们避免很多麻烦。save/free sb. from sth.的意思是“使某人免于某事”。
9．visits 信息转换题。从倒数第二段中的“... visited doctors less frequently”可知答案。
10．balance 信息转换题。从文章最后一句“Just make sure you're balancing them with lighter experiences.”可知答案。
The Science Behind Smiling
Not only does smiling reward our brain's feel-good system, it also makes us look more attractive and lowers stress levels.In stressful situations, smiling is a great way to relieve extreme levels of stress and to keep your cortisol (皮质醇) levels under control.
Naturally, happiness can result in smiling. Also, smiling can actually create happiness. Smiling tricks our brains into believing we are happy, and one way it does this is by making us think of happier memories, which improve our moods.
When the smiling muscles in our face contract, it sends a signal to the brain to encourage the reward system that further increases our levels of endorphins, or happiness hormones (荷尔蒙). It can have the same effect on our happiness as eating chocolate or receiving a monetary prize.
Even though the exact relationship behind facial expression and mental state is largely unknown, it has been suggested that smiling reduces levels of the stress-inducing hormone cortisol. Increased levels of cortisol could potentially lead to cardiovascular disease, mental illness, and obesity, so it's worth every effort to try to decrease our cortisol levels.
Research shows that when you smile, people treat you differently. Smiling instantly makes you appear more reliable, relaxed, sincere, and attractive. A study found that people who smiled more were rated as more attractive than those who avoided eye contact and didn't smile at all.
Perhaps this is why celebrities (名人) invest in perfect smiles, often looking for porcelain veneers to give them flawlessly straight, white teeth. According to a cosmetic (化妆用的) dentistry practice in Boston, broken and stained teeth can make a person look older, while a brighter smile gives a look of health and youthfulness. Anyone you spot on television will more likely than not have a perfect to smile. This gives them a youthful shine while at the same time making them look more attractive.
Smiling is an act that many of us may have to practice in order to make a regular habit. However, it's a habit worth investing in, as smiling, happiness, and health have a scientifically proven link to one other. If you find it hard to smile, try being around people who tend to smile a lot.According to a Swedish study, it is difficult to keep a straight face when constantly faced with people who are smiling at you.
Title：The Science Behind Smiling
1．benefits/rewards/pays 信息概括题。根据第一段第一句话“Not only does smiling reward our brain's feel-good system, it also makes us look more attractive and lowers stress levels.”可知答案。
2．appearance 信息转换题。根据第一段第一句话中的“it also makes us look more attractive”可知，appearance“外貌”，符合语境。
4．reduces/decreases/relieves 直接信息题。根据第四段第一句话“... smiling reduces levels of the stress-inducing hormone ...”中的reduces可直接得到答案。
5．health 信息概括题。第四段提到的“cardiovascular disease”，“mental illness”，“obesity”等疾病都是身体或心理上的问题，因此此处应是mental and physical health。
7．invest/spend 直接信息题。根据第六段第一句“P erhaps this is why celebrities
(名人) invest in perfect smiles ...”中的invest可直接得到答案。此外，spend“花