The secret of being born lucky is a summer birthday, with May babies most likely to enjoy a lifetime?s good fortune, according to a study of more than 40,000 people. The time of year at which you are born has an enduring influence on levels of optimism and self-reported luck, according to research by British and Swedish scientists. May was the luckiest month in which to be born, with 50 per cent of those born then considering themselves lucky, while October was the least lucky month, with just 43 percent claiming good fortune.
The findings add to growing evidence that the phenomenon of luck is not all down to chance, but is affected by a person? s general disposition. Other research has shown that whether people think themselves fortunate depends less on objective success than on having a “glass half-full” or “half-empty” approach to life. “What we are seeing suggests that something is influencing how people perceive their luckiness. My hypothesis is that people create their own luck by traits such as optimism, that luck is a psychological phenomenon rather than a matter of blind chance,” said Professor Richard Wise man, who led the research.
The pattern of the results, with those born in spring and summer reporting themselves luckier than those born in autumn or winter, could have two potential explanations, Professor Wiseman said.
1. According to the passage, whether people think themselves lucky not depends on the following factors EXCEPT ______
A) one?s objective success B) one?s general disp osition
C) one?s attitude to life D) one?s place of birth
2. According to the passage, those who were born in _______ regard themselves as the most fortunate.
A) March B) April C) May D) October
3. Which of the following statements is TRUE according to the passage?
A) Optimistic people tend to be luckier.
B) Devoted people tend to be luckier.
C) Objective success is more important than one?s general disposition in feeling lucky.
D) People drinking more water tend to be luckier.
4. Which of the following words can best replace the word “trait”(Line 8, Para. 2)?
A) quality. B) expectation. C) belief. D) idea.
5.What is the best title for the passage?
A) Luck is Something Born.
B) Luck is Not All Down to Chance.
C) Luck is A Matter of Blind Chance.
D) Luck and Age.
Researchers say most of us make instant judgement about a person on the basis of how they look. They say facial features can determine whether we like or trust someone. It may even influence how we vote.
“Over the years, we have found that facial features affect the way many of us perceive others,” says Elisabeth Cornwell, a psychology researcher at the university?s Perception Laboratory. Studies suggest that people are less likely to trust those with particularly masculine features, such as a square jaw, small eyes or big nose. “They are perceived as dominant and less trustworthy,” says Ms Cornwell. “It doesn?t mean that men who look more masculine are less trustworthy—It?s just our first impressions. “ Those with less masculine features—larger eyes, a smaller nose and thinner lips—are deemed to be more trustworthy. “We are very good at processing these features quickly,” says Ms Cornwell.
The researchers are putting their science to the test at the Royal society?s annual summer exhibition in London. They have subtly manipulated the faces of Prime Minister Tony Blair, Conservative leader Michael Howard and Liberal Democrat leader Charles Kennedy accentuating their dominant and trustworthy features respectively. “We have used a computer programme to change the shape of their face and features. We hope it will help people to understand our work.” So should we expect to see Tony Blair, Michael Howard and Charles Kennedy at the exhibition getting tips? “I don?t think it?s something they will want to try,” says Ms Cornwell. “It?s not really possible with television. We all know what they look like. I think they would be naive to try it.”
1. Why are people less likely to trust those with particularly masculine features?
A) Because they are bad-tempered.
B) Because they are perceived as dominant and less trustworthy.
C) Because they are perceived as tricky.
D) Because they are more stubborn.
2. According to the passage, which of the following is perceived as a g masculine feature?
A) Larger eyes. B) A square jaw.
C) A smaller nose. D) Thinner lips.
3. What can be inferred from the passage?
A) Most of us tend to judge people by how they look.
B) Some studies show that people with particular masculine features are more dominant.
C) A candidate with less masculine features is more likely to win a vote.
D) Most of us are with masculine features.
4. Why will Tony Blair not want to change his facial features according to the passage?
A) Because he is so popular that everyone knows what he looks like.
B) Because he does not want to get tips.
C) Because he has great confidence in his looks.
D) Because he is very naive.
5.. What is the best title for the passage?
A) Facial Features.
B) How People Perceive Others.
C) Facial Features Are Everything.
D) How Facial Features Affect One?s First Impression.
British university entrants expect to be provided with washing machines and dryers in their rooms, and even car parking spaces, a survey has found. Students are also less prepared to tolerate poor quality living conditions than their predecessors, says the survey by British polling organization Mori.
More than 1,000 full-time undergraduates and postgraduates from 21 universities across the UK were surveyed for the research. It shows that location is the key factor in choosing accommodation for students—nearly half of those interviewed said that being close to their place of study was the most important factor in their choice. Cost came second, with evidence that many parents foot the bills for their children?s rent. The survey also shows that students are no longer prepared to carry bags of washing to the nearest launderette. These newcomers expect washers and dryers to be provided with their accommodation. The study also highlights those things today?s students expect as standard—communal areas to be cleaned regularly, utility bills to be included, even private car parking space to be included.
Separate findings from the UK?s National Union of Students p ublished earlier this year show more than half of students in private rented accommodation are living in unsatisfactory conditions.
1. Who are the subjects of the survey?
A) Some oversea students in U. K.
B) Some undergraduates and postgraduates in U. K. universities.
C) Some graduates in U. K. universities.
D) Some British students in other countries.
2. What kind of accommodation is the most attractive to students according to the survey by British polling organization Mori?
A) An apartment near their universities.
B) A cheap house far way from their universities.
C) An apartment with car parking space.
D) An apartment with washing machines.
3. Which of the following statements is TRUE according to the passage?
A) The survey described in the passage is co nducted by UK … s National Union of Students.
B) Most of the subjects are from universities in London.
C) Most college students pay the rent by themselves.
D) Students think that communal areas should be cleaned regularly by cleaners rather than themselves.
4. According to the passage, the choice of accommodation is influenced by the following factors EXCEPT ______.
A) convenience B) comfort
C) low rents D) weather
5. What does the survey indicate?
A) U. K. university students are increasingly satisfied with their living conditions.
B) U. K. university students are less and less energetic.
C) U. K. university students demand higher qualities of their living conditions.
D) U. K. university students pay less and less attention to their studies.
The former first lady and now New York Senator, Hillary Rodham Clinton, has written a book about her eight years in the White House. It is being released with a great deal of public fanfare. The book reveals details about the notorious Monica Lewinsky scandal involving her husband, President Clinton.
In Living History, the wife of former President Clinton recounts the moment when Mr. Clinton informed her that he had, fact, had what he called “a relationship that was not appropriate” with Miss Lewinsky, then a White House intern. She writes, “I? could hardly breathe. Gulping for air, I started crying and yelling at him. What do you mean? What are you saying? Why did you lie to me? I was furious and getting more so by the second. He just stood there saying over and over again, I?m sorry. I?m so sorry. I was trying to protect you and Chelsea, referring to their daughter.”Mrs. Clinton says she hopes that people will read the book for more than intimate details of her troubled marria ge. “It? s a pretty long book, and it?s about my life, and it?s about all of the issues that I?ve worked on, particularly on behalf of women and children, and things that I? ye cared about literally since I was a little girl,” she said. “I think it will gi ve people more insight and, perhaps, answer questions. It?s also my story.”
Publisher Simon & Schuster paid Senator Clinton $ 8 million for the 560-page book, and has ordered an unusually large first printing of one-million copies. Publishing rights to the book already have been sold in 16 countries.
1. What appeals to the readers most in the book Living History according to the passage?
A) Hilary?s eight years in the White House.
B) Hilary?s troubled marriage.
C) The issues that Hilary have worked on.
D) H ilary?s life as a senator.
2. The word “notorious” (Line 4, Para. 1) is closest in meaning to______.
A) well-known B) unheard-of
C) surprising D) amusing
3. Which of the following can best describe Hilary’s reaction when Mr. Clinton t old her his inappropriate relationship with Miss Lewinsky?
A) Indifferent. B) Calm.
C) Angry. D) Astonished.
4. What is Hilary’s comment on her own book?
A) It is more than interesting.
B) It can meet the need of people to know abou t other? s intimacy.
C) It is an academic book
D) The language of the book is beautiful.
5. What CANNOT be inferred from the passage?
A) Living History is expected to sell well.
B) Living History will be published beyond America.
C) Mrs. Clinton is well paid for the book Living History.
D) Mr. Clinton is a responsible husband.
The human form of mad cow disease, an incurable, brain-wasting illness that?s killed more than 100 people in Britain, has claimed its first Canadian victim. Canadian health officials confirmed Thursday that the unidentified man died sometime this summer. The man, who lived in the western province of Saskatchewan, contracted the disease from eating contaminated meat while traveling in Britain.
Dr. Antonio Giulivi, an official with the government agency Health Canada, quickly moved to calm fears by assuring the public the disease had not entered the Canadian food supply.
The variant of the cow-killing illness, known as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, is believed to be caused when ground parts of diseased cattle are mixed into cattle feed and those cows are turned into processed meats for human consumption. Though the disease cannot be confirmed until an autopsy is performed on the dead brain, symptoms of human infection include uncontrolled shaking, dementia and finally paralysis.
But while government officials insisted safeguards are in place to keep the disease out of Canadian meat, warnings were issued to 71 patients at the hospital where the infected man was treated before his illness was identified. Those patients had been treated with the same medical instruments used on the diseased man. Though the instruments were cleaned and disinfected, officials said a theoretical possibility remains that those people could have been infected.
News of the death initially sent Canadian restaurant stocks into a tailspin, but most of them recovered by the end of the trading session.
1. Where is the Canadian supposed to contact mad cow disease?
A) In Saskatchewan. B) In Britain.
C) In Canada. D) Not mentioned.
2. Which part of the body does the mad cow disease mainly affect?
A) Hands. B) Legs.
C) Brain. D) Liver.
3. Why did the Canadian government issue warnings to 71 patients?
A) They ever used the same medical instruments with the first Canadian victim.
B) They were intimate relatives of the first Canadian victim.
C) They had ever traveled to Britain.
D) They were supposed to have contacted mad cow disease.
4. What did Health Canada do after the mad cow disease infected a Canadian?
A) Health Canada concealed the truth by all means.
B) Health Canada tried to remove public fear.
C) Health Canada succeeded in curing the victim.
D) Health Canada tried to find ways to cure the disease.
5. What can be inferred from the passage?
A) The news of the mad cow disease death has no effect on Canadian economy.
B) We can decide whether a person contract mad cow disease by the symptoms of uncontrolled shaking, dementia and paralysis.
C) Some cows in Canada contracted mad cow disease.
D) The mad cow disease is not completely known to the scientists yet.
A United Nations report is sounding an alarm on the state of the earth?s natural resources, in advance of this month? s U. N. -sponsored sustainable development summit in Johannesburg.
The report says sea levels rose and forests were destroyed at unprecedented rates during the last decade. It notes that more than 40 percent of the world?s population—two billion people now face water shortages. And it predicts that with the global population expected to increase from six billion to eight billion people over the next 25 years, further environmental stress is expected. U.N. Undersecretary General Nitin Desai says the most important message in the report is that the world?s environmental crises are interrelated. As an example, he cites the “Asian Brown Cloud,” a “poisonous cocktail” of particulate matter, chemicals, and various aerosols currently hanging over a vast area of southeast Asia.
“Here you have a situation which arises because of the unsustainable way energy is used in this region, which is leading to these problems which impact on agriculture, on water, on health,” said Mr. Desai. “If you really want to address water, agriculture and health, you have to address energy. You can?t reduce poverty unless you also address land and water. You can?t improve children?s health without addressing water and sanitation and air quality.”
Mr. Desai, who will lead the Earth Summit, says that governments must form specific partnerships to reduce threats in five areas: water, energy, agriculture, biodiversity and health.
1. When is the U.N. report mentioned in the passage released?
A) At the sustainable development summit.
B) Before the Earth Summit.
C) After the sustainable development summit.
D) Last year.
2. “Asian Brown Cloud” is used as an example to show that ______
A) environmental protection needs cooperation.
B) Asia is the most polluted area in the world.
C) air pollution in Asia is very serious.
D) travelers are warned not to visit Asia.
3. What results in the problems concerning agriculture, water and health according to the passage?
A) The rising sea level.
B) The conflicts around the world.
C) The improved living standard.
D) The unsustainable way energy is used.
4. What does the word “address” (Line 4, Para. 3) mean?
A) Speak to. B) Make a formal speech to.
C) Deal with. D) Make use of.
5. What can be inferred from the passage?
A) Natural resource shortage will be a great problem in the future.
B) Poverty can be reduced by increasing production.
C) Sustainable development is impossible.
D) Southeast Asia is the most polluted area in the world.
The University of Chicago is a private, nondenominational, coeducational institution of higher learning and research. It is located in the community of Hyde Park—South Ken-wood, a culturally rich and ethnically diverse neighborhood, seven miles south of downtown Chicago.
The University was founded by John D. Rockefeller. William Rainey Harper was its first president. Classes began on October 1, 1892, with an enrollment of 594 students and a faculty of 103, including eight former college presidents. In 1930 the undergraduate College and the graduate divisions were created. Such cross-fertilization continues to characterize the University.
Candidates for admission to graduate programs in the divisions at the University of Chicago should address their inquiries, including requests for application forms, to the dean of students of the graduate division to which application is being made.
An applicant who holds a degree from an accredited institution is considered for admission on the basis of (1) an undergraduate record, (2) a well-organized plan for graduate study, (3) Graduate Record Examination (GRE) and TOEFL scores, where required, and (4) recommendations from three college faculty members acquainted with the character, ability, potential, qualifications, and motivation of he applicant. Persons who have been away from school for several years may submit recommendations from employers, professional associates, or supervisors. Transcripts of all academic work should be submitted with the application if at all possible; the applicant should request each institution attended to provide an official transcript in a settled envelope.
I. What can be concluded from the first paragraph?
A) Only boys were admitted when the University of Chicago was founded.
B) The University of Chicago is mainly financed by the government.
C) The University of Chicago is located in the suburb of a city.
D) The people of South Kenwood have similar cultural tradition.
2. The University of Chicago has long been characterized by _____
A) its cross-fertilization B) its long history
C) its excellent teaching staff D) its beautiful campus
3. Which of the following statements is TRUE according to the passage?
A) The founder of the University of Chicago is also its first president.
B) The University of Chicago began to enroll graduates since its foundation.
C) Some of its first graduates or teachers became the presidents of its several colleges.
D) The University of Chicago has always been reluctant to enroll students from other universities in its graduate programs.
4. To whom should the application form for the admission to the graduate programs of the University of Chicago be addressed?
A) The dean of students of its graduate division.
B) The president of the university.
C) The concerning professor.
D) Any teachers in the university
5. What is NOT a requirement for a graduate who wants to be admitted in the graduate programs in the University of Chicago?
A) An undergraduate record. B) GRE scores.
C) A detailed plan for graduate study. D) A national examination.
Internet use appears to cause a decline in psychological well-being, according to research at Carnegie Mellon University. Even people who spent just a few hours a week on the Internet experienced more depression and loneliness than those who logged on less frequently, the two- year study showed. And it wasn?t that people who were already feeling bad spent more time on the Internet, but that using the Net actually appeared to cause the bad feelings.
Researchers are puzzling over the results, which were complete contrary to their expectations. They expected that the Net would prove socially healthier than television, since the Net allows users to choose their information and to communicate with others. The fact that Internet use reduces time available for family and friends may account for the drop in well-being, researchers hypothesized. Faceless, bodiless “virtual” communication may be less psychologically satisfying than actual conversation, and the relationships formed through it may be shallower. Another possibility is that exposure the wider world via the Net makes users less satisfied with their lives. “But it?s important to remember this is not about the technology per se ; it?s about how it is used,” says psychologist Christine Riley of Intel, one of the study?s sponsors. “It really points he need for considering social factors in terms of how you design applications and services for technology.”
1. The word “well-being” (Line 1, Para. 1) is closest in meaning to
A) trouble B) health C) depression D) excitement
2. What is the intended conclusion of the research conducted by Carnegie?
A) Internet use may lead to mental dissatisfaction.
B) Internet use is sure to cause a decline in mental well-being.
C) People who spend just a few hours on the Internet will be happier.
D) People who use TV are less socially healthier than those who use the Internet.
3. Which of the following CANNOT explain the result of the research according to the passage?
A) Internet users may spend less time with their family and friends.
B) The “virtual” communication may be less psychologically satisfying.
C) Internet users may be less satisfied with their lives.
D) Internet users make too many friends through the Internet.
4. What lessons may be drawn from the result of the research?
A) We should not have developed the Internet technology.
B) We should change the way we use the Internet.
C) We need Internet technology very much.
D) TV is more useful than the Internet.
5. What is the best title for the passage?
A) The Popularity of Internet Use.
B) The History of Internet Use.
C) The Harm of Internet Use.
D) The Fast Development of Internet Use.
The computer virus is an outcome of the computer overgrowth in the 1980s. The cause of the term “computer virus” is the like ness between the biological virus and the evil program infected with computers. The origin of this term came from an American science fiction The Adolescence of P-1 written by Thomas J. Ryan, published in 1977. Human viruses invade a living cell and turn it into a factory for manufacturing viruses. However, computer viruses are small programs. They replicate by attaching a copy of themselves to another program.
Once attached to me host Program, the viruses then look for other programs to “infect”. In this way, the virus can spread quickly throughout a hard disk or an entire organization when it infects a LAN or a multi-user system. At some point, determined by how the virus was programmed the virus attacks. The timing of the attack can be linked to a number of situations, including a certain time or date, the presence of a particular file, the security privilege level of the user, and the number of times a file is used. Likewise, the mode of attack varies. So-called “benign” viruses might simply display a mes sage, like the one that infected IBM?s main computer system last Christmas with a season?s greeting.Malignant viruses are designed to damage the system. The attack is to wipe out data, to delete files, or to format the hard disk.
1. What results in the wide spread of computer viruses according to the passage?
A) The overgrowth of computer.
B) The likeness between the biological virus and evil program.
C) The American science fiction The Adolescence of P-I
D) The weak management of the government.
2. What is computer virus in fact?
A) A kind of biological virus.
B) A kind of evil program.
C) A kind of biological worm.
D) Something that only exists in the fictions.
3. What usually determines the variety of the virus attacks?
A) The time the attack is made.
B) The presence of a particular file.
C) The security privilege level of the user.
D) The different ways the virus was programmed.
4. What is the harm of “benign” viruses according to the passage?
A) “Benign” virus might wipe out data from the computer.
B) “Benign” virus might delete files.
C) “Benign” virus might display a message.
D) “Benign” virus might format the hard disk.
5. Where does the term “computer virus” come from?
A) It comes from a play.
B ) It comes from a computer game.
C) It comes from a science fiction.
D) It comes from a news report.
Fast food, a mainstay of American eating for decades, may have reached a high in the United States as the maturing baby-boom generation looks for a more varied menu. Fast food still represents a $ 102 billion a year industry, but growth has turned sluggish recently amid tough competition from retail food stores and a more affluent population willing to try new things and spend more, analysts say.
Signs of trouble in fast food include price-cutting by industry leaders, including efforts by McDonald?s to attract customers with a 55cent hamburger, and major players pulling out or selling. 0? Pepsico, for example, is selling its fast-food restaurant division that includes Taco Bell, Pizza Hut and KFC. “It?s becoming harder and harder for these firms to grow,” said Jim Brown, a professor of marketing at Virginia Tech University. “I think in the United States fast food has reached a saturation point because of the number of competitors and the number of outlets.”
Fast-food restaurant revenues grew 2. 5 per cent in 1996, according to industry figures, the slowest since the recession of 1991. That is a far cry from the levels of the 1970s and1980s. According to the Food Marketing Institute, consumers are using supermarkets for 21 per cent of take-home food, nearly double the level of a year ago. While fast-food restaurants still lead, their share slipped significantly, from 48 per cent in 1996 to 41 percent in 1997.
1. According to the passage, the following factors EXCEPT _____ lead to the slower growth of fast food industry.
A) the tough competition
B) a richer population
C) the saturation of market
D) the lower quality of fast food
2. Which of the following signs does NOT show that fast food industry is experiencing a hard time?
A) Price-cutting by industry leaders.
B) The leading role of fast food in the market of take-home food
C) The selling of KFC.
D) The pulling out of some fast food restaurant.
3. Who is a strong competitor to fast-food restaurants in the market take-home food according to the passage?
A) Supermarkets. B) Chinese restaurants. C) Hotels. D) Groceries.
4. What can be inferred from the passage?
A) Fast-food restaurant revenues are declining.
B) Fast food is very popular in the 1970s and the 1980s.
C) The baby boom generation has never liked fast food.
D) Rich people like fast food more.
5. What is the passage mainly concerned about?
A) The popularity of fast food.
B) The disadvantage of fast food.
C) The troubles of fast food.
D) The advantages of fast food.