新视野大学英语第三版第二册课文语法讲解_Unit5

新视野三版读写B2 U5 Text A

Spend or save — The student's dilemma

1 Do you feel as confused and manipulated as I do with this question, "Should

I spend or should I save?" I think that the messages we get from our environment seem to defy common sense and contradict each other. The

government tel s us to spend or we'l never get out of the recession. At the

same time, they tel us that unless we save more, our country is

in grave danger.Banks offer higher interest rates so we increase savings. Then the same banks send us credit card offers so we can spend

more.

2 Here's another familiar example: If we don't pay our credit card bil on time,

we get demanding, nasty emails from the credit card company saying

something like: "Your failure to pay is unacceptable. Pay immediately or you'l

be in trouble!" Then, as soon as we pay, we get a fol ow-up email in a

charming tone tel ing us how valuable a customer we are and encouraging us

to resume spending. Which depiction is correct: a failing consumer in trouble

or a valued customer? The gap between these two messages is enormous.

3 The paradox is that every day we get two sets of messages at odds with

each other. One is the "permissive" perspective, "Buy, spend, get it now. You

need this!" The other we could cal an "upright" message, which urges us,

"Work hard and save. Suspend your desires. Avoid luxuries. Control your appetite for more than you truly need." This message comes to us from

many sources: from school, from parents, even from political figures

referring

to "traditional values". Hard work, family loyalty, and the capacity to postpone

desires are core American values that have made our country great. *4 B ut the opposite message, advertising's permissive message, is inescapable. Though sometimes disguised, the messages are everywhere we

look: on TV, in movies on printed media and road signs, in stores, and on

buses, trains and subways.Advertisements invade our daily lives. We are

constantly surrounded by the message to spend, spend, spend. Someone

recently said, "The only time you can escape advertising is when you're in your

bed asleep!"

5 It's been calculated that by the age of 18, the average American wil have

seen 600,000 ads; by the age of 40, the total is almost one mil ion. Each

advertisement is doing its utmost to influence our diverse buying decisions,

from the breakfast cereal we eat to which cruise line we wil use for our

vacation. There is no shortage of ideas and things to buy! Now, of course, we

don't remember exactly what the products were, but the essential message

is cemented into our consciousness, "It's good to satisfy your desires. You

should have what you want. You deserve the best. So, you should buy it —

now!" A famous advertisement said it perfectly, "I love me. I'm a good friend to

myself. I do what makes me feel good. I derive pleasure from nice things and

feel nourished by them. I used to put things off. Not anymore. Today I'l buy

new ski equipment, look at new compact cars, and buy that camera I've

always wanted. I live my dreams today, not tomorrow."

6 What happens as we take in these contradictory

but explicit messages? What are the psychological and social consequences

of this campaign to control our spending habits? On one hand, we want more

things because we want to satisfy our material appetite. Most of us derive

pleasure from treating ourselves. On the other hand, a little voice inside

us echoes those upright messages: "Watch out, take stock of your life, don't let

your attention get scattered. Postpone your desires. Don't fal into debt.

Wait! Retain control over your own life. It wil make you stronger."

7 Anyway, many of the skil s you need as a successful student can be applied

to your finances. Consider your financial wel -beings a key ingredient of your

university education as money worries are extremely stressful and distracting. They can make you feel terrible and hinder your ability to focus on

your prime objective: successful y completing your education.

*8 How can you be a smart and educated consumer? Many schools,

community organizations, and even some banks offer financial literacy

classes. Consider consulting with your school's financial aid office or

seek input from your parents or other respected adults in setting up a budget. An additional option is finding a partner to help you stay on track and

find pleasure in the administration of your own financial affairs. Most

importantly, if you find yourself getting into financial trouble, don't let

your ego get in your way; urgently get help with tackling your problem before it

spins out of control and lands you in legal troubles.

9 Al this wil help you become an educated consumer and saver. As you learn

to balance spending and saving, you wil become the captain of your own ship,

steering your life in a successful and productive direction through the choppy waters.

Language Points:

1 Do you feel as confused and manipulated as I do with this question, ―Should I

spend or should I save?‖ (Para. 1)

Meaning: When asking yourself whether you should spend or save, do you feel puzzled

and control ed as I do?

Meaning beyond words:According to the conventional concept, we are the master or

the boss of the money we have earned

. It is up to us to decide how to use our money. However, the sentence gives us the hint

that we are actual y no longer in control of our money.

2 I think that the messages we get from our environment seem to defy common

sense and contradict each other. (Para. 1)

Meaning: In my opinion, the messages we get in our daily life about the question “Should

I spend or should I save?” are against common sense and they often don’t agree with

each other.

Usage note: defy, deny

defy 和deny 都是及物动词,词形相近,但实际上两者词义有别,用法也不同。

1 defy 主要表示“违抗;反抗;蔑视”,后接名词;而deny 主要表示“否认;拒绝承认”,后接

名词或that 引导的从句。

*Nearly 11 thousand people have been arrested for defying the ban on street trading. 近一

万一千人因违抗在街上交易的禁令而被捕。

The government has denied that the authorities have uncovered a plot to assassinate the

*president. 政府已否认当局发现了一个暗杀总统的阴谋。

2 defy 后接动词不定式表示“挑战;刺激某人做某事”时,不能用动名词形式;deny 表示“否

认;拒绝承认”时,后面不能接动词不定式,只能接动名词形式。

*I defy you to come up with one major accomplishment of the current prime minister. 我倒

要看看你能否讲出一项现任首相作出的重大成就。

He denied doing anything il egal. 他否认做过任何违法的事。

3 The government tells us to spend or we’ll never get out of the recession. (Para. 1)

Meaning beyond words:To help the country recover from the economic recession, the

government is encouraging people to spend, which will help stimulate production, job

markets and bank liquidity.

4 At the same time, they tell us that unless we save more, our country is in grave

danger. (Para.1)

Meaning:Meanwhile, they warn us that if we don’t save more money the economic

recession wil grow and severely harm our country.

Usage note: unless

1 unless 作连词,表示“除非… ;如果不…”,引导条件状语从句,意为“如果某个条件不出

现,某件事就不会进行”。使用unless 时必须留意从句中动词的时态。虽然unless 所说的

条件都是未出现或未发生的,但必须用一般现在时或过去时,不能用表示将来的时态。例如:

*I will not go to Beijing unless the company pays for the trip. 如果公司不支付旅费,我不会

去北京。(不能用wil pay)

She wouldn’t do that unless I allowed her. 如果我不允许,她不会去做那件事。(不能用

would allow)

*She wil keep on singing unless she is told to stop. 她会一直唱下去,除非有人叫她停止。

(不能用wil be told)

She would not come to work as before unless her mother’s health condition turned for the

*better. 她不会像以前那样来上班了,除非她母亲的病情好转。(不能用would turn)

2 unless 和if … not 都可以引导条件状语从句,但适用情况不同,很容易混淆,要注意区别。

指将来可能发生或可能真实的情况用unless;如果知道事情没有发生或不真实则用if … not。

可以说If you weren’t always in such a hurry, your work would be much better。不说Your

work would be much better unless you were always in such a hurry。见更多例句:

Unless they get protection, they will not testify. (= If they do not get protection, they will not

*testify.) 如果得不到保证,他们不会作证的。

*I would go out if it wasn’t raining. (= But it is raining, so I am not going out.) 要是不下雨,

我就出去了。

5 Banks offer higher interest rates so we increase savings. Then the same banks

send us credit card offers so we can spend more. (Para. 1) Meaning beyond words:Here is the “spend or save” paradox. On

one hand, the

government tells us to spend, and, on the other hand, they want us to save more. While

the banks offer high interest rates to attract us to deposit money, they send us credit cards

to encourage us to spend.

6 Here’s another familiar example: If we don’t pay our credit card bill on time, we

get demanding, nasty emails from the credit card company saying something like:

―Your failure to pay is unacceptable. Pay immediately or you’ll be in trouble!‖ (Para.

2)

Meaning: If we fail to pay our credit card bil on time, the credit card company will send us

harsh and unfriendly email messages to warn us that either we pay at once or we’l get

penalties.

Sentence structure note:祈使句+ or/and +陈述句

1 “祈使句+ or +陈述句”结构表示“…否则…”,其中,or 还可以换成and,表达的意思发生相

应的变化,表示“如果…,就…”。对连词or 或者and 的选择,主要根据相应连词前后句表

达的意义,如果前后句有转折关系,就用or,一般表达一种负面的结果;如果前后句表示

意义顺承,无转折关系,就用and。例如:

*Listen to the teacher careful y in class, or you can’t catch what he i s saying. 上课时要仔细

听老师讲课,否则你就无法了解他在说什么。

*Walk down our street, and you’l see kids playing.你要是走上街头,就会看到孩子们在玩

耍。

2 在“祈使句+ or/and +陈述句”结构中;陈述句通常用将来时态, 即“wil +动词原形”,也可用

情态动词can,may 等。但通常不能用一般现在时或现在进行时。例如:

*Work hard, and you can make rapid progress in your study. 努力吧,你会在学业上突飞猛

进的。

*Fol ow the advice of the doctor, or you won’t be well very soon.

遵从医生的叮嘱,否则你的身体就不会很快好起来。

3 “祈使句+ or/and +陈述句”结构可与if 引导的条件状语从句互换。例如:

*Get up quickly, or you will be late. (= If you don’t get up quickly, you will be late.) 快点起

床,不然你会迟到的。

Work hard, and you will pass the exam. (= If you work hard, you wil pass the exam.) 如果

你努力学习,你就会通过考试。

4“祈使句+ or/and +陈述句”结构中,祈使句有时可以省略动词。例如:

Make more effort, or you won’t be successful. (= More effort, or you won’t be successful.)

如果不多些努力,你就不会成功。

Giv e me one more hour, and I’l get the work finished. (= One more hour, and I’l get the

*work finished.) 再给我一个小时,我就能把工作做完。

7 Then, as soon as we pay, we get a follow-up email in a charming tone telling us

how valuable a customer we are and encouraging us to resume spending. (Para. 2)

Meaning: To lure us into more spending, once our credit card bil is paid, a fol ow-up

email in an entirely different tone wil be sent to us, claiming that we are valuable

customers.

Note:The word resume can be used either as a transitive or intransitive verb. As a

transitive verb, it may be fol owed by a noun or a v.-ing form.

8 Which depiction is correct: a failing consumer in trouble or a valued customer?

The gap between these two messages is enormous. (Para. 2) Meaning beyond words: As there is such a huge difference between the two email

messages, we feel confused about who we are: a failing consumer in trouble or a valued

customer?

9 The paradox is that every day we get two sets of messages at odds with each

other. (Para. 3)

Meaning:The contradiction is that every day we get two sets of messages disagreeing

with each other.

10 One is the ―permissive‖ perspective, ―Buy, spend, get it now. You need this!‖

(Para. 3)

Meaning:One reflects a viewpoint of tolerance, “Bu y, spend, get it now. You need this!”

Note: The word permissive is an adjective, a derivative from permit. Being “permissive”

implies a very easy and too relaxed position on something and usual y lacks good

judgment. For example:

They were permissive parents and their children grew up to be spoiled and il -behaving

*adults. 他们是太过放任的父母,他们的孩子长大后会变成被宠坏、行为举止欠妥的成年人。

Usage note: permissive, tolerant

The synonym of permissive is tolerant, but tolerant is positive in meaning. Permissive carries a negative connotation. Tolerant implies good judgment with

a right balance of perspective or actions. For example:

The employee’s tolerant position on the differences in working style meant that the team

*performed well. 员工对工作作风的差异持宽容的立场意味着这个团队表现出色。

11 The other we could call an ―upright‖ message, which urges us, ―Work hard and

save. Suspend your desires. Avoid luxuries. Control your appetite for more than

you truly need.‖ (Para. 3)

Meaning:We could cal the other one an “honest” message, which

advises us to work

hard and save money, stop having too many desires, avoid spending too much, and limit

our purchases to what we real y need.

Usage note: urge, persuade

1 从词义上说,urge 的基本意思是“力劝;敦促”,引申可表示“强烈要求”等,比较正式;

persuade 主要表示“说服;劝说”,指通过劝说、感情交流等使对方做劝说者所希望的事。

urge 语气强,但不一定“力劝;敦促”成功;persuade 语气不如urge 强,但强调不仅“劝”,

而且使之“服”。例如:

*We will urge them to adhere to the Paris Agreement. 我们将敦促他们遵守《巴黎协议》。

*My husband persuaded me to come. 我丈夫劝我来的。

*2 从用法上说,urge 和persuade 都可用作及物动词。urge 可用于urge sb. to do sth. 结构,

意为“催促某人做某事”;persuade 表示“说服”时,可用于persuade sb. to do sth.结构,也

*可用于persuade sb. into doing sth. 结构,都表示“说服某人做某事”。它们也都可以引出that

*从句。urge 引出的that 从句中用(should)+verb,而persuade 用于persuade sb. that 结

构,不用(should)+verb。例如:

*His father urged him to speak his mind. 他父亲敦促他说出心里话。

*We’re trying to persuade manufacturers to sel their products here.

我们正在努力说服制

造商在这里销售他们的产品。

*Sir Fred urged that Britain (should) join the European Monetary System. 弗雷德爵士敦促

英国加入欧洲货币体系。

*We had managed to persuade them that it was worth working with us. 我们已设法说服他们,与我们合作是值得的。

12 This message comes to us from many sources: from school, from parents, even

from political figures referring to ―traditional values‖. (Para. 3) Meaning: We get this kind of message from many sources such as school, parents, and

even politicians who like to talk about traditional values.

13 But the opposite message, advertising’s permissive message, is inescapable.

(Para. 4)

Meaning:But you cannot escape from the opposite message, advertisements that push

you to spend more.

14 Though sometimes disguised, the messages are everywhere we look … (Para. 4)

Meaning: Though these messages are sometimes subtle and change in form, they can

be found everywhere we live.

15 Advertisements invade our daily lives. We are constantly surrounded by the

message to spend, spend, spend. (Para. 4)

Meaning:Our daily lives are flooded with advertisements. Very often we find ourselves

enclosed by advertisements that lure us into spending.

16 It’s been calculated that by the age of 18, the average American will have seen

600,000 ads; by the age of 40, the total is almost one million. (Para. 5)

Meaning beyond words:Americans grow up seeing countless advertisements, and this

continues throughout their life time.

17 Each advertisement is doing its utmost to influence our diverse buying

decisions, from the breakfast cereal we eat to which cruise line we will use for our

vacation. (Para. 5)

Meaning beyond words: Advertisements are everywhere and have invaded people’s

everyday lives.

18 There is no shortage of ideas and things to buy! (Para. 5) Meaning: There are plenty of ideas of what to buy and how to spend money.

19 Now, of course, we don’t reme mber exactly what the products were, but the

essential message is cemented into our consciousness, ―It’s good to satisfy your

desires. You should have what you want. You deserve the best. So, you should buy

it –now!‖ (Para. 5)

Meaning beyond words:Advertisements are very effective in talking people into buying

things. Though it’s hard to remember all of the products in advertisements, these

messages have already been hammered into our heads. The messages tell us that we

deserve the best and we are entitled to what we want.

20 A famous advertisement said it perfectly, ―I love me. I’m a good friend to myself.

I do what makes me feel good. I derive pleasure from nice things and feel nourished

by them. I used to put things off. Not anymore. Today I’ll buy new ski equipment,

look at new compact cars, and buy that camera I’ve always wanted. I live my

dreams today, not tomorrow.‖ (Para. 5)

Meaning beyond words: The advertisement is trying to send out the message: It is not

wrong for people to be self-centered and buy everything they want right now. Enjoy life

today! The underlying purpose is to persuade people to spend.

21 What happens as we take in these contradictory but explicit messages? What

are the psychological and social consequences of this campaign to control our

spending habits? (Para. 6)

Meaning beyond words:Since people are surrounded by these contradictory but clear

messages, there must be some psychological and social consequences. For instance,

some people may spend more while others may save more, depending on how much they

get influenced.

22 On one hand, we want more things because we want to satisfy our material

appetite. Most of us derive pleasure from treating ourselves. (Para. 6)

Meaning: Most of us become happy when we treat ourselves, so we always want to have

more things to satisfy our material desires.

23 On the other hand, a little voice inside us echoes those upright messages:

―Watch out, take stock of your life, don’t let your attention get scattered. Postpone

your desires. Don’t fall into debt. Wait! Retain control over your own life. It will

make you stronger.‖ (Para. 6)

Meaning beyond words: From a more traditional point of view, we should be cautious

about spending money. We should be focused on our life in order not to fall into debt.

Being in control of our life wil make us stronger.

24 Anyway, many of the skills you need as successful student can be applied to

your finances. Consider your financial well-being as a key ingredient of your

university education as money worries are extremely stressful and distracting.

(Para. 7)

Meaning beyond words:It is not difficult to avoid a financial disaster if you apply the

skil s you already have for being a successful student. Be aware that financial stability is of

crucial importance to your col ege life since money worries could bring you down.

25 They can make you feel terrible and hinder your ability to focus on your prime

objective: successfully completing your education. (Para. 7) Meaning:Money worries can make you feel terrible and distract you from your main

objective: successful y completing your education at col ege. Usage note: hinder, prevent

*hinder 和prevent 都有“阻碍;阻止”之意,都可以用于hinder/prevent sb. from doing sth. 结

构,但两者有区别。

1) hinder 表示“使…受阻;使…做起来困难”(make sth. difficult)。例如:

His poor health hindered him from going to work daily. (=He

continued to work but with

*difficulty.) 身体欠佳让他每天上班很困难。

2) prevent 表示“使…不发生;使…不做”(make sth. impossible)。例如:

*His poor health prevented him from going to work. (=He stopped working.) 他的健康不佳,

令他无法外出工作。

26 How can you be a smart and educated consumer? Many schools, community

organizations, and even some banks offer financial literacy classes. (Para. 8)

Meaning:To become a consumer who is clever and acquires relevant knowledge, you

can take some financial literacy classes where you learn basic concepts of finance. These

courses are offered by many schools, community organizations and some banks.

27 Consider consulting with your school’s financial aid offi ce or seek input from

your parents or other respected adults in setting up a budget. (Para. 8)

Meaning:In planning how to use your money wisely, you may discuss your financial

situation with your school’s financial aid office or get advice from your parents as wel as

from respected others.

28 An additional option is finding a partner to help you stay on track and find

pleasure in the administration of your own financial affairs. (Para. 8)

Meaning: Another choice is to find a partner who can help you stay in the right direction of

your own financial management and get pleasure from doing it.

29 Most importantly, if you find yourself getting into financial trouble, don’t let your

ego get in your way; urgently get help with tackling your problem before it spins out

of control and lands you in legal troubles. (Para. 8)

Meaning: The most important thing is not to feel embarrassed to ask for help if you find

yourself getting into financial trouble, and you should do it quickly to retain control and

avoid breaking the law.

30 As you learn to balance spending and saving, you will become the captain of

your own ship, steering your life in a successful and productive direction through

the choppy waters. (Para. 9)

Meaning: When you learn to keep a balance between spending and saving, you are in

control of your own financial situation, and which wil lead you to a successful and

productive life despite the twists and turns on your way to the financial goal.

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