Lesson 1

1.And it is an activity only of humans.

And it is a human unique activity.

2.Conversation is not for making a point.

Conversation is not to convince others.

3.In fact, the best conversationalists are those who are prepared to be lose.

In fact, the best conversationalists are those who are willing to be lose.

4.Bar friends are not deeply involved in each other’s lives.

Bar friends are not deeply concerned with each other’s private lives.

5....it could still go ignorantly on...

The conversation could go on without anybody knowing who was right or wrong.

6. There are cattle in the field, but we sit down to beef.

These animals are called cattle in English, when they are alive and feeding in the fields;but when we sit down at the table to eat, we call their meat beef in French.

7. The new ruling class had built a cultural barrier against him by building their French against his own language.

The new ruling class had caused the cultural contradictions between the ruling class and native English by regarding French superior to English.

8.English had come royally into its own.

English had gained recognition by the King.

9.The phrase has always been used a little pejoratively and even facetiously by the lower classes.

The phrase, the king’s English has always been used disrespectfully and made fun by the lower classes.

10. The rebellion against a cultural dominance is still there.

There is still opposition to cultural monopoly.

11. There is always a great danger that “words will harden into things for us”

We tend to make the mistake that we regard the things as they represent.

12. Even with the most educated and the most literate, the King’s English slips and slides in conversation. Even the most educated and literated people will not always use the formal English in their conversation.Lesson 2

1. The burying--ground is merely a huge waste of hummocky earth, like a derelict building-lot.

The burying-ground is just a huge piece of wasteland full of mounds of earth, looking like a deserted construction land.

2.All colonial empires are in reality founded upon that fact.

All colonial empires are built by exploiting the local people.

3. They rise out of the earth, they sweat and starve for a few years, and then they sink back into the nameless mounds of the graveyard.

They are born. Then they work hard without enough food for a few years. Finally they die and are buried in the hills graves without any mark to identify them.

4. A carpenter sits crosslegged at a prehistoric lathe, turning chair-legs at lighting speed.

A carpenter sits crossing his legs at an old-fashioned lathe, making round chair-legs very fast.

5. Instantly, from the dark holes all round, there was a frenzied rush of Jews.

Immediately, Jews rushed out of their dark hole-like rooms nearby in a frenzy madness.

6.every one of them looks on a cigarette as a more or less impossible luxury.

Every one of these Jews considers the cigarette as a somewhat piece of luxury which they can not possibly afford.

7. Still, a white skin is always fairly conspicuous.

However, a white-skinned European is easy to notice in a fair way.

8. In a tropical landscape one’s eye takes in everything except the human being.

Against the background of a tropical landscape, people could notice everything but they cannot see local people.

9. No one would think of running cheap trips to the Distressed Areas

No one would propose the cheap trips to the slums.

10....for nine-tenths of the people the reality of life is an endless, back-breaking struggle to wring a little food out of an eroded soil.

The real life of nine-tenths of the people is that there is no end to their extremely hard work in order to get a little food from an eroded soil.

11. She accepted her status as an old woman, that is to say as a beast of burden.

She took it for granted that as an old woman she should work like an animal.

12.People with brown skins are next door to invisible.

People who have brown skins are almost invisible.

13. Their splendid bodies were hidden in reach-me-down khaki uniforms...

The soldiers wore second—hand khaki uniforms which covered their beautiful well—built bodies.

14. How long before they turn their guns in the other direction?

How long will it take for them to attack us?

15. Every white man there had this thought stowed somewhere or other in his mind.

It is certain that every white man realized this.


1.And yet the same revolutionary belief for which our forebears fought is still at issue around the globe... And yet the same revolutionary belief which is the aim of our ancestors is still in dispute around the world.

2. This much we pledge--and more.

This much we promise to do and we promise to do more.

3. United, there is little we cannot do in a host of cooperative ventures.

If we are united, there is almost nothing we can not do through a lot of cooperation.

4. But this peaceful revolution of hope cannot become the prey of hostile powers.

But this peaceful revolution which can bring hope in a peaceful way can not fall victims to enemy country.

5. .... Our last best hope in an age where the instruments of war have far outpaced the instruments of pace... The United Nations is our last and best hope in the era where means of launching war have far surpassed means of keeping peace.

6. ...to enlarge the area in which its writ may run...

to increase the area where the UN’s written documents may be effective.

7....before the dark powers of destruction unleashed by science engulf all humanity in planned or accidental self-destruction...

before the evil atom weapon made possible by science destroy all human beings in a planned way or by accident.

8...yet both racing to alter that uncertain balance of terror that stays the hand of mankind’s final war... However both trying to change that unstable balance of weapons and this balance of weapons could prevent human beings from launching their final war.

9. So let us begin anew, remembering on both sides that civility is not a sign of weakness...

So let us begin once again to realize that politeness does not mean weakness.

10. Let both sides seek to invoke the wonders of science instead of its terrors.

I suggest both sides try to use science to make wonders for human beings rather than terrors.

11. ...each generation of Americans has been summoned to give testimony to its national loyalty.

There are Americans from every generation who answer the call of the country to prove their loyalty to the country.

12. With a good conscience our only sure reward, with history the final judge of our deeds, let us go forth to lead the land we love...

Our certain reward is our good conscience and history will judge our deeds, therefore, let us try to be pioneers in building our beloved country.


1.A nice enough young fellow, you understand ,but nothing upstairs.

He is a nice enough young fellow,you know , but he is empty-headed.

2.Fads, I submit, are the very negation of reason.

A passing fashion or craze ,in my opinion, shows a complete lack of reason.

3.I should have known they?d come back when the Charleston came back.

I should have known that raccoon coats would come back to fashion when the Charleston dance, which was popular in the 1920s,came back.

4.“All the Big Men on Campus are wearing them. Where …ve you been?”

All the important and fashionable men on campus are wearing them. How come you don’t know?

5.My brain , that precision instrument, slipped into high gear.

My brain, which is precision instrument, began to work at high speed.

6.With one omission, Polly fitted these specifications perfectly.

Except for one thing(intelligence)Polly had all the other requirements.

7.She was not yet of pin-up proportions, but I felt sure that time would supply the lack.

She was not as beautiful as those girls in posters but I felt sure she would become beautiful enough after some time.

8.In fact, she veered in the opposite direction.

In fact, she went in the opposite direction,that is , she was not intelligent but rather stupid.

9.“ In other words ,if you were out of the picture,the field would be open. Is that right?”

If you were no longer involved with her, others would be free to compete to get her as a girlfriend.

10.Back and forth his head swiveled , desire waxing, resolution waning.

His head turned back and forth (looking at the coat and then looking away from the coat). Every time he looked his desire for the coat grew stronger and his resolution not to abandon Polly became weaker.

11.This loomed as a project of no small dimensions...

To teach her to think seemed to be a rather big task.

12.Admittedly it was not a prospect fraught with hope ,but I decided to give it one more try.

One must admit the outcome did not look very hopeful, but I decided to try one more time.

13.There is a limit to what flesh and blood can bear.

There is a limit to what any human being can bear .

14.I was not Pygmalion; I was Frankenstein , and my monster had me by the throat.

I planned to be Pygmalion, to fashion an ideal wife for myself, but I turned out to be Frankenstein because Polly ultimately rejected me and ruined my plan.

15.Frantically I fought back the tide of panic surging through me .

Desperately I tried to stop the feeling of panic which was overwhelming me.


1.The slighted mention of the decade brings nostalgic recollections to the middle-aged...

At the very mention of this postwar period ,middle-aged people begin to think about it longingly.

2.The rejection of Victorian gentility was , in any case ,inevitable .

In any case,an American could not avoid casting aside middle-class respectability and affected refinement.

3.The war acted merely as a catalytic agent in this breakdown of the Victorian social structure...

The war only helped to speed up the breakdown of the Victorian social structure.

4...it was tempted ,in America at least, to escape its responsibilities and retreat behind an air of naughty

alcoholic sophistication...

In America at least,the young people were strongly inclined to shirk their responsibilities. They pretended to be worldly-wise, drinking and behaving naughtily.

5.Prohibition afforded the young the additional opportunity of making their pleasures illicit...

The young found greater pleasure in drinking because Prohibition, by making drinking unlawful,added a sense of adventure.

6...our young men began to enlist under foreign flags.

Our young men joined the armies of foreign countries to fight in the war.

7....they “wanted to get into the fun before the whole thing turned belly up.”

The young wanted to take part in the glorious adventure before the whole ended.

8...they had outgrown towns and families...

These young people could no longer adapt themselves to lives in their hometowns or their families.

9..the returning veteran also had to face the sodden,Napoleonic cynicism of Versailles,the hypocritical

do-goodism of Prohibition...

The returning veteran also had to face the stupid cynicism of the victorious allies in Versailles who acted as cynically as Napoleon did,and to face Prohibition which the lawmakers hypocritically assumed would do good to the people.

10.Something in the tension-ridden youth of America had to “give”...

(Under all this force and pressure)something in the youth of America,who were already very tense ,had to break down.

11....it was only natural that hopeful young writers , their minds and pens inflamed against war, Babbittry, and “Puritanical”gentility, should flock to the traditional artistic center...

It was only natural that hopeful young writers ,whose minds and writings were full of violent anger against war, Babbittry,and “Puritanical”gentility,should come in largen numbers to live in Greenwich Village, the traditional artistic center.

12.Each town had its “fast”set which prided itself on itself on its unconventionality...

Each town was proud that it had a group of wild ,reckless people,who lived unconventional lives.


1. Nowadays New York is out of phase with American taste...

Nowadays New Yorkers can?t understand nor follow the taste of the American people and often disagree with American politics.

2. New York even prides itself on being a holdout from prevailing American trends...

New York is proud that it is a city that resists the prevailing fashion or styles of America and that it remains to be a place where people can escape uniformity.

3. ...sitcoms cloned and canned in Hollywood, and the Johnny Carson show live, preempt the airways from California...

Situation comedies made in Hollywood and the live talk show of Johnny Carson now dominate the radio and TV programs in California.

4. ... It is making something of a comeback as a tourist attraction...

New York is making attempts to regain its status as a city that attracts tourists .

5. To win in New York is to be uneasy...

Even when a person whins in New York ,he may well be anxious and fearful, for he is afraid of losing what he has gained in the coming fierce competition.

6. Nature? pleasures are much qualified in New York.

Since New York is a large and crowed city with a lot of tall buildings ,the chance to enjoy the pleasures of nature is very limited here.

7. ...the city?s bright glow arrogantly obscures the heavens.

At night, the lights of New York are so proudly bright that the sky seems to be darkened.

8. But the purity of a bohemian dedication can be exaggerated.

But the pure and wholehearted devotion to a bohemian lifestyle can be overstated.

9. In both these roles it ratifies more than it creates.

In both these roles of banking and communications headquarters, New York creates very few things but approves many things started by people in other parts of the country.

10. The television generation grew up in the insistent presence of hype...

The television generation was continually and strongly affected by extravagant promotional advertising.

11. ...those who are writing ambitious novels sustain themselves on the magazines.

Writers producing long serious novels also earn their living by writing articles for popular magazines.

12. Boardway, which seemed to be succumbing to the tawdriness of its environment, is astir again. Boardway,which seemed to be giving up to the cheap ,gaudy shows put on in the surrounding areas,now becomes flourishing and busy again.

13. The defeated are not hidden away somewhere else on the wrong side of town.

Those who failed in the struggle of life ,the down-and-outs ,do no hide themselves away in slums where other people cannot see them.

14. The place constantly exasperates,at times exhilarates.

New York constantly irritates and annoys very much but sometimes it also stimulates.


1.With a clamor of bells that set the swallows soaring, the Festival of Summer came to the city Omelas.

The loud ringing of the bells, which sent the frightened swallows flying high, marked the beginning of the Festival of Summer in Omelas.

2. ..Their high calls rising like the swallows’ crossing flights over the music and singsing.

The shouting of the children could be heard clearly above the music and singing like the calls of the swallows flyin

g by overhead.

3. ..Exercised their restive horses before the race.

The riders were putting the horses through some exercises because the horses were eager to start

and stubbornly resisting the control of the riders.

4. Given a description such as this one tends to make certain assumptions.

After reading the above description the reader is likely to assume certain things.

5. This is the treason of artist: a refusal to admit the banality of evil and the terrible boredom of pain.

An artist betrays his trust when he does not admit that evil is nothing fresh nor novel and pain is very dull and unin teresting.

6. They were nature, intelligent, passionate adults whose lives were not wretched.

They were fully developed and intelligent grown-up people full of intense feelings and they were not miserable pe ople.

7. Perhaps it would be best if you imagined it as your own fancy bids, assuming it will rise to the occasion. Perhaps it would be best if the reader pictures Omelas to himself as his imagination tells him, assuming his imagin ation will be equal to the task.

8. The faint insistent sweetness of drooz may perfume the way of the city.

The faint but compelling sweet scent of the drug drooz may fill the streets of the city.

9. Perhaps it was born defective, or perhaps it has become imbecile through fear, malnutrition and neglect. Perhaps the child was mentally retarded because it was born so or perhaps it has become very foolish and stupid b ecause of fear, poor nourishment and neglect.

10. Its habits are too uncouth for it to respond to humane treatment.

The habits of the child are so crude and uncultured that it will show no sign of improvement even if it is treated kin dly and tenderly.

11. Their tears at the bitter injustice dry when they begin to perceive the terrible justice of reality, and to acce pt it.

They shed tears when they see how terribly unjust they have been to the child, but these tearsdry up when they re alize how just and fair though terrible reality was.


1. It is a complex fate to be an American.

The fate of an American is complicated and hard to understand.

2...they were no more at home in Europe than I was.

They were uneasy and uncomfortable in Europe as I was.

3...we were both searching for our separate identities.

They were all trying to find their own special individualities.

4. I do not think that could have made this reconciliation here.

I don't think I could have accepted in America my Negro status without feeling ashamed.

5...it is easier to cut across social and occupational lines there than it is here.

It is easier in Europe for people of different social groups and occupations to intermingle and have social intercour se.

6. A man can be as proud of being a good waiter as of being a good actor, and in neither case feel threatened . In Europe a good waiter and a good actor are equally proud of their social status and position. They are not jealo us of each other and do not live in fear of losing their position.

7. I was born in New York, but have lived only in pockets of it.

I was born in New York but have lived only in some small areas of the city.

8. This reassessment, which can be very painful, is also very valuable.

The reconsideration of the significance and importance of many things that one had taken for granted in the past c an be very painful, though very valuable.

9. On this acceptance, literally, the life of a writer depends.

The life of a writer really depends on his accepting the fact that no matter where he goes or what he does he will al ways carry the marks of his origins.

10. American writers do not have a fixed society to describe.

American writers live in a mobile society where nothing is fixed, so they do not have a fixed society to describe. 11..Every society is really governed by hidden laws, by unspoken but profound assumptions on the part of the people.

Every society is influenced and directed by hidden laws, and by many things deeply felt and

taken for granted by the people, though not openly spoken about.