1. What does "the icy defender" refer to?
It refers to the raw, bitter, bleak Russian winter.
2. What did Napoleon expect when he assembled his army to attack Russia?
He expected the conquest of Russia in five weeks.
3. What did the Russians do in the face of Napoleon's offensive? What strategy did the Russians adopt?
Instead of fighting, they retreated eastward, burning their crops and homes as they went. They let the Russian winter fight the war for them while they bided their time
4. What did Napoleon discover after he occupied Moscow?
Napoleon discovered that the occupation of the city was an empty victory because the Russians fled their capital leaving him almost nothing at all.
5. What happened to Napoleon's army when it was retreating from Moscow?
They suffered heavy losses as a result of the extreme cold and the Russians' hit-and-run attacks.
6. What did Napoleon do when Paris was captured?
Napoleon abdicated and went into exile.
7. When did Hitler begin his invasion of the Soviet Union? What tactics did he use? How long did he expect the campaign to last?
Hitler began his invasion of the Soviet Union on June 22, 1941 without a declaration of war. He expected the campaign to last no longer than three months by using the so-called "lightning war" tactics。
8. Was Stalin prepared for Hitler's attack? What did he do in the face of the German invasion?
No, he wasn't. He instructed the Russian people to "scorch the earth" in front of the German invaders.
9. How did the people of Leningrad respond to the German attack?
The people of Leningrad refused to surrender and put up a heroic, stiff resistance.