Keys: 1.C 2.D 3. A 4.B 5.C
III. Listening I
While the man is wondering why the woman is suddenly getting excellent marks, she says she read an article on studying and remembering. It talks about principles like “Mental Visualization”, that is, creating a picture in one’s mind of what is to be remembered. This reminds the man of the principle of “Association”, which means connecting what one wants to remember with something one is familiar with. Then the woman adds the principle of “Consolidation”, or reviewing one’s notes after class and absorbing the new material into what one has already learned. When the man promise to study sixteen hours a day, the woman recommends the principle of “Distributed Practice”, which favors shorter study sessions distributed over several days. Finally, the woman tells the man that memory is like a muscle, and that it needs exercise.
Task 2: You forget my toast!
Task3: Memory-Improving Techniques
.1. What’s seems to be an especially important way to stimulate one’s memory?
2. What seems to be the best way to focus your memory?
3. How can you concentrate on a pen?
4. How can you relax yourself according to the passage?
5. What is the main idea of the passage?
Kes: 1A 2.C3. D 4.B 5.D
VI. Further Listening and Speaking
Task1: The Role Memory Plays in Our Life
1. What is the passage mainly about?
2. Why are foods important in promoting memory according to the passage?
3. To whom is water especially important in maintaining the memory system?
4. What problem can a lack of water cause?
5. Why is sleep important to memory?
Keys: 1.A 2.B 3.D 4.D 5.C
Task 2: Where did the professor go?
This is a true story, while happened to friends of ours in a small town in South Africa. They were a hospitable couple who often entertained their neighbors for drinks, tea or dinner. On this particular spring night, they have invited a retired professor to super. During the evening, it began to pour with rain, and the heavens really opened. Because he had walked there, they offered to put him up for the night. They pointed out that by staying overnight, he did not need to go to out in the bad weather. He agreed on the soundness of that idea, thanked his hosts profusely, and the matter seemed to be settled. But while they were washing the dishes after supper, the forgetful professor disappeared. No one could find him anywhere. Eventually, after40 minutes, the front door bell rang. There was the professor, soaked to the skin. When he was asked what on earth he has been dong in the rain, he replied that because he was going to stay there overnight, he had gone home to get his pajamas and toothbrush.
Task3: How to Remember Names
You just called the TV repair shop, and the voice on the other end of the line tells you, “This is Don Smith”.
About 5 minutes later you tell your wife that “this guy”will be out to fix the TV in the morning. You can’t think of his mane although you know he mentioned it on the phone.
This happens all the time to just about any of us unless we have learned to concentrate and implant a name in our memory, right at the time we hear it. To do this, you must make a habit of repeating the name back to the person. This action will remind you to store the name in your “memory bank” each time you hear someone’s name, and within a short time the “repeating” process can be discontinued
When you meet someone in person, use the same procedure, and in addition, visualize something different, unusual or ridiculous about hid or her appearance, position, or actions that “ties in “with his or her name. Later, you may write the descriptive information on one side of a card and the name in the other side. Look at it repeatedly, see the “picture”in your mind’s eye as you look at the name; or when you see he name, visualize the “picture” you have assigned to the name.
Getting this system to work will require changes in your thinking, and it may take several days or several weeks to become proficient.
A Dolphin Exhibition
A recent art exhibition in Florida honored the animal often seen as man’s most intelligent friend, the dolphin.
The “Dolphins on Parade” exhibition in the Florida Keys featured
life-sized decorates dolphin paintings made of wood and the cost of materials. The dolphins were shown at area business and along the beach.
Sponsors paid U.S. $750 to cover the artists’ fee and the cost of materials.
There were more than 100 dolphin themes, including a beer-belly dolphin. They showed the work of local artists, as well as the beach atmosphere the Keys are famous for.
Probably the most unique was special because of its artist, Pandora. Pandora the dolphin painter is area dolphin, art the Dolphin Research center, in Marathon, Florida. The playful artist streaks colors across a dolphin painting holding a brush in its mouth.
The exhibition was held by the Monroe [Florida] Council of the Arts as part of a plan to make the Keys an international arts center. The paintings were to be auctioned off in March, with the money earned going to community art programs.
II. Basic Listening Practice
Keys: 1.C 2.D 3.B 4.D 5.A
III. Listening In
Task1: On the First Day
Seeing that Jenny has bought the books for the biology class, Harrison says nobody does much on the first day because it’s still add-drop, which means students are changing from class to class. Jenny knows the professor is really good. But Harrison warns her that the professor is good, only if students are hand-workers, for he expects a lot.
After class, Jenny admits that half of what the professor said went over her head, and Harrison assures her that a lot of what the professor said is explained in the reading.
When Jenny asks to borrow Harrison notes, he says “on problem”, for they don’t have class until Wednesday. Finally, Harrison says participation in the discussion at the seminar is an important part of the education there.
Task 2: Money for College
Task3: How to Get Straight A’s
Kes: 1B 2.C3. D 4.A 5.D
IV. Speaking Out
MODEL 1 You’re just going to have study hard
Nora: Only our first day back at school, and already I feel like I’ve learned a lot.
Chris: Only our first day back at school, and I already feel like I’m up to my ears in homework.
Nora: You’re going to have to hit the books if you want to keep your grades up.
Chris: Tell me about it! I already have two reports, two books reports, a composition, an oral report, and a research project—all due before midterms.
Nora: We could work together. Maybe some of my organized study habit would rub off on you.
Chris: Better yet, maybe you could do my homework for me.
Nora: Forget it! That would be cheating.
Chris: All right, all right. I have yet to write a term paper. Can you recommend any articles and books? You’d better find me the exact pages where I can find what I want.
Nora: You could borrow ideas from references, but if you quote without giving the sources, you’re plagiarizing.
Chris: The quiz next week will be a headache. If you don’t help me, I’ll have to prepare some study sheets and hide them in my hand when I take the test.
Nora: Oh, no! If you’re caught, the professor will definitely give you an F. Probably, you will have to repeat the year.
Chris: All right, I’ll take your advice. The library is going to be my new home, and in the dorm I’ll be burning the midnight oil.
Now Your Turn
A: We’re going to have a test, and I also have a term paper to finish. But I haven’t done a thing. I’m really worried now.
B: You’re going to have to have to hit the books if you want to get good grades.
A: But this course is so difficult that I already don’t understand it at all.
B: We could work together. Maybe some of my organized study habit can help you.
A: Better yet, maybe you could write a term paper for me.
B: Forget it! That would be cheating.
A: All right, all right. I have yet to write it myself. Maybe I can download some articles from the Internet and piece them together.
B: You could borrow ideas from those articles, but if you quote without giving the sources, you’re plagiarizing.
A: Also, the test next week will be a headache. If you don’t help me, I’ll have to prepare a cheat-sheet and hide it in my hand during the test.
B: Oh, no! If you’re caught, the professor will definitely give you an F.
A: I’ll try to be careful.
B: But if the professor catches you, you’ll have to repeat the year. You’re just going to have to study hard.
A: Ok, I’ll take your advice. The library’s going to be my new home, and in the dorm I’ll be burning the midnight oil.
MODEL2 Which class do you prefer?
Chris: First period is math with Mr. Woods. I don’t know how am I going to stay awake?
Nora: I like Mr. Wood. He’s interesting.
Chris: He’s boring! He could put the entire basketball team to sleep —during the championship game! Who do you have for economics?
Nora: Mrs. Jenkins. She’s smart. Students really learn a lot from her.
Chris: She’s tough! You have to work hard in her class, or you’ll probably fail.
Nora: No pain, no gain.
Chris: Nonsense, You could have learned even more with Mr. Sharp. But not many students opt for his class.
Nora: What’s wrong with him?
Chris: Often, the highest grade he gives on a term paper is C+, and he usually fails half of the students.
Nora: No wonder he’s got the nickname Mr. Shark. Well, how about PE? What are you doing this semester?
Chris: That’s the worst part. In PE, we’re learning t’ai chi. I’m bored to death.
Nora: Ha-ha! Not to rub salt into the wound, but our class is playing your favorite sport: basketball.
Chris: Oh…that figures! This is going to be a terrible semester.
Nora: This is going to be a great semester!
Now Your Turn
A: The history class is really boring. How am I going to stay awake?
B: I like the history teacher. She’s knowledgeable. She told us a lot of interesting historical events in class.
A: Bur I find her boring! She could put the entire basketball team to sleep —during the championship game! Which class do you find dull?
B: I hate the economics course. The teacher always talks above my head. So I’ve lost interest in the course.
A: Bur economic is my favorite. The professor is smart. Most students really learn a lot from him.
B: But he’s tough! He expects a lot. You have to work hard in his class, or you’ll probably fail.
A: No pain, no gain.
B: Actually not many students opt for his class.
A: What’s wrong with him?
B: Often the highest grade he gives on a term paper is B-. Last seme4stwe he failed more than a third of the students and I was one of them. A: Oh, that’s too bad.
B: Well, how do you find your English teacher? I don’t think much of her, either.
A: I find her kind, always willing to answer my questions; she always gives me high marks.
B: You’re rubbing salt into my wound. She failed me last semester.
MODEL3 Publish or perish
Chris: Tell us, Professor Grant, What are your primary duties as a professor?
Professor Grant: Well, I do a lot of research and writing. It’s rough being an associate professor. It’s publish or perish.
Chris: So you spent a lot of time in your office?
Professor Grant: Yes, but I also have to prepare class motes, give lectures, hold office hours. Teaching is an important part of being a professor.
Chris: With all those responsibilities, you must make a lot of money.
Professor Grant: I wish. Actually, I spend a lot of tome applying foe grants to fund my research. Then I can offer assistantships and scholarships to the worthy graduate.
Chris: I see why they call you “the boss”. But being a professor sounds pretty competitive.
Professor Grant: Actually, I think you were in one of my classes…Chris: Um….I think you’re mistaken, Professor Grant! Professor Grant: No, I remember very clearly now! You owe me an essay!
Chris: Sorry, I have too much work to do for the Student Union Newsletter, and I have to work two jobs to pay for school.
Professor Grant: So you get an F in this course.
Now Your Turn
A: Professor Smith, I’m from the Student Union newspaper. Many students want to know a western professor’s main duties and compare them with a Chinese professor’s duties.
B: Well, I do a lot of research and writing. It’s tough to be a professor.
A: Chinese professor are also facing increasing pressure, as they are required to do more research than before. Professor Smith, do you spend al lot of time on teaching?
B: Yes, I have to prepare class notes, give lectures, host seminar, and hold office hours. In fact, teaching is an important part of being a professor, though some professors believe that research is more important than teaching.
A: With all those responsibilities, you must make a lot of money, I suppose.
B: I wish. Salary is a sensitive topic in the west. Let me say something about research funds. Actually I spend a lot of time applying for grants to fund my research.
A: How are you going to use the grants?
B: With that money, I can offer assistantships and scholarship to graduate students who can help with my research project.
A: Now I see why they call you “boss”. But being a professor sounds pretty competitive.
B: That’s true. A lot of young teachers want to be promoted to a professorship.
A: What you said has given us a fairly clear picture of a western professor’s primary responsibilities. Thank you very much for your time.
B: You’re welcome
V. Let’s Talk
Hi, everybody. My topic today is “Problems with Our Educational System”.
There are a lot of things in our educational system that I don’t agree with. It seems that educators just want to give standardized tests, which focus only on academic performance but neglect students’ abilities and interests in other areas. I think there’re a lot of people who are very intelligent, but haven’t had the opportunities they could’ve had, had they been educated in a broader-minded educational systems. I feel that a lot of courses that students are focused to take in high school are too academic, and, as a result, many kids lost their interest in learning.
Educators have failed to recognize various kinds of intelligence. They often exert a lot of pressure on students to be as well-rounded as possible.
I think being well-rounded isn’t really possible. And as a consequence some students who are believed to be intelligent can’t get into good colleges if they, for example, haven’t scored well on the math section, even if they ate brilliant writers.
Another thing that disturbs me is that the so-called “weak students”are separated from the rest of the school. Some kids are kept in a separate class id their grades are lower then others. And they’ve very aware of their social position, you know. I think it causes them to act in a way that is not really positive. They’re just acting in a way that they are expected to act. Often their grades go from bad to worse. And that’s pretty sad to me. I think that many of the kids in those classed are intelligent, but never actually realize their potential because of the way they are treated very early on in their education.
Educators just want to give standardized tests. They only focus on academic performance but neglect students’ abilities and interests in other areas.
Kids lose interest in learning.
Educators often exert a lot of pressure on students to be as well-rounded as possible.
Some intelligent kids can’t enter good colleges.
“Weak” students are separated from the rest of the school.
Their grades go from bad to worse.
A: Many ads about English classes for children say, “Don’t let your kids lose the competition just because they start later.” I quite agree. I hear young children often learn a foreign language faster then adults.
B: It’s hard to say. Kids may learn the pronunciation better than adults, but adults usually learn vocabulary and grammar faster.
A: You can learn vocabulary and grammar later on; but when you grow up, you can hardly change your pronunciation.
B: But if they learn the wrong pronunciation from the beginning? If they don’t learn English when they are young in the right way, it’ll affect their English studies
A: Anyway, some good or “key” schools give English tests to kids before admitting them.
B: English is important, bur other subjects like Chinese and math ate equally important. If kids spend too much time on English, they have little time left for other subjects.
A: Some people say that learning a foreign language can help develop children’s mental abilities such as memory, attention span and concentration, which will e of help in learning other subjects.
B: But too much time for studying and too little left for playing, children’s moral and physical development will be affected.
A: Well, it’s difficult for me to convince you, and vice versa. Let’s agree to disagree.
VI. Further Listening and Speaking
Task1: Harvard University
Harvard University is the oldest institute of highest learning in her United States. Founded 16years after the arrival of the Pilgrim at Plymouth, the university has grown from 9 students with a single master to the present enrollment of more than 18,000students, including undergraduates and students in 10 graduate and professor schools. Over14, 000 people work at Harvard, including more than 2,000 faculties. Harvard has produces six presidents of the United States and 34 Noel winners.
During its early years, Harvard offered a classic academic course based on the model of English universities, but consistent with the prevailing Puritan philosophy. Although many of its graduates became ministers in Puritan church throughout New England, the university never formally affiliated with a specific religious group.
Under President Pusey (1953-1971), Harvard started what was then the largest fund-raising campaign in the history of American higher education. It was an 82.5 million dollar program for the university. The program increased faculty salaries, broadened student aid, created new professorships, and expanded Harvard’s physical facilities.
Neil L. Rudenstine took office as Harvard’s 26th president in 1001. As part of an overall effort to achieve greater coordination among the university’s school and faculties, Rudenstine encouraged academic planning and identified some of Harvard’s main intellectual priorities. He also stressed the important of the university’s excellence in
undergraduate education, the significance of keeping Harvard’s doors open to students from families of different economic backgrounds, the task of as aping the research university to an era of both rapid information growth and serious fund shortage.
6. What is main idea of the passage?
7. How many teachers did Harvard have at the very beginning?
8. What was the role of religion at Harvard University was during is early years?
9. Which of the following is NOT mentioned as an achievement of President Pusey’s fund-raising program?
10. What did President Rudenstine do?
Keys: 1.B 2.A 3.C 4.D 5.D
Task 2: The Final Exam
At a university, there were four sophomores taking a chemistry course. They were doing so well on all the quizzes, midterms, labs, that each had “A” so far for the semester.
These four friends were so confident that on the weekend before finals, they decided to go up to the University of Virginia and party with some friends there. They had a great time, but after all the hearty partying, they slept all day Sunday and didn’t make it back to school until early Monday morning.
Rather than taking the final then, they decided to find their professor after the final exam and explain to him why they missed it. They explained that they had planned to come back in time for the final exam, but, unfortunately, they had a flat tire on the way back, didn’t have a spare, and couldn’t get help for a long time. As a result, they missed the final.
The professor thought it over and then agreed they could make up the final the following day. The guys were relieved and elated. The next day, the professor placed them in separate room, hand each of them a test booklet, and told them to begin.
They took at the first problem, worth five points. It was a simple question on a chemical reaction. “Cool,” they thought at the same time, each one in his separate room, “This is going to be easy.” Each finished the problem and then turned the page.
On the second page was a question worth 95 points: “Which of the tires was flat?”
Task3: Applying for a place in an American University
International students often underestimate the amount of time required to apply for admission to a college or university in the United States. You should avoid this mistake by setting yourself a schedule that starts well in advance of the time you hope to begin your studies. When setting this timetable, always remember that doing things early is the best way forward. To find the institution or program that will best serve your academic or professional goals, allow yourself sufficient time to research thoroughly your options. Then meet the application deadlines of the university to which you apply. These may be as much as 10 months before the school term.
The need for an early start holds true even if you can apply on the Internet. University websites and other academic Internet sites may provide quick and convenient access to the required application forms, but you still need time to research your options, contact teachers and institutions to obtain recommendation and transcripts of academic records, and sign up for required entrance exams, that is, standardized tests, in time to meet application deadlines. In fact, although some students did score high on
TOEFL and GRE, they were not admitted because they failed to meet the deadline.
1. They often underestimate the amount of time required.
2. They must allow themselves sufficient time to research thoroughly their options
3. They may provide quick and convenient access to the required application forms.
4. They still need time to research your options, contact teachers and institutions to obtain recommendation and transcripts of academic records, and sign up for required entrance exams, that is, standardized tests.
5. Because they failed to meet the deadline.
Prince William in Chile
What goes into a prince’s education today? For Britain’s Prince William, nature played an important role in his education this last winter, as the future king went on a 10-week expedition in Chile with Raleigh International.
The experience was a very different one for the prince. He kayaked in ocean fjords, tracked a rare deer, and was stranded on a beach during a storm.
He also got used to sleeping on the ground—at times in a room filled with 16 people –and living in simple conditions.
Those who took part, called “volunteers”, both contributed and learned. The prince helped locals build wooded walkways and buildings, and taught English to schoolchildren.
He was described by other volunteers as hardworking, humble, and laid-back. As one said, “He struck a really good balance between working hard and having fun…getting on with everyone, and taking on the team spirit.”
The prince said he liked being treated as an “equal” by other volunteer, who came from all walks of life. Around 20 percent were from problem backgrounds, some having had troubles with drugs or crime.
It seems that there’s a lot more to education than university and books, and the Chilean forests and a little contact with regular people may do a lot of a British prince.
II. Basic Listening Practice
Keys: 1.C 2.A3.B 4.C 5.D
III. Listening In
Task1: Reasons for a Divorce
After thirteen years marriage, the woman wants to divorce her husband, claiming he is irresponsible. When asked for the specific grounds for divorce, she gives these reasons: First, he keeps changing jobs, and the family has had to move four times in thirteen years, but she wants stability for her children and herself. Second, although he is paying the bills, they just live around the poverty line. Her children are being teased by other children for not dressing good clothes. Also, they had to live in a small apartment and drive an old car, though it still runs. Worse still, the husband yells at her, though she admits she also yell at him and calls him names. As for the divorce arrangements, the woman will give the husband only visitation rights instead of joint custody.
Moreover, the woman will demand half of all they have and large support payments.
Task 2: What four-letter words?
Task3: A Woman Who Chose Not to Remarry
Kes: 1C 2.A3. B 4.B 5.B
IV. Speaking Out
MODEL 1 Is youth wasted on the young?
Amy: I’d like to talk to you, so stop what you’re doing for a minute.
Bill: What is it, Amy? I’m having a hectic time working on this report for tomorrow’s meeting.
Amy: Well, you’re always pretty busy, and it’s been more five years, almost six, since we were married.
Bill: Yes, time has gone so fast, but they’ve been good years. Amy: I know, but I want to have a baby—I want us to have a baby.
Bill: I know you do. But remember, we said we’d wait until we could afford it.
Amy: But five years is a long time to wait. Anyway, it’s long enough. Bill: I’m this close to getting a promotion.
Amy: What has that got to do with it? We could wait forever if we wait for the “perfect” moment. Soon we’ll be too old to enjoying having a baby.
Bill: You know, you have a good point. This report can wait. I’ll do it tomorrow morning. Let’s open a bottle of wine and enjoy ourselves.
Now Your Turn
A: I’ve got something important to tell you: I’m pregnant.
B: What? You’re pregnant? Wow, I’d love to have a baby.
A: Well, I understand you want to be a father. It’s been more than three years, almost four, since we were married.
B: Yes, time has passed so quickly, but we still didn’t have a baby.
A: I know, but we can’t afford to have one now. If I leave my job for more than two weeks, I’ll lose it forever.
B: I know you will. But remember, if we don’t have one now, it’ll be too late. We’ll be busier in future.
A: There is something in what you said. Four years is a long time to wait. But I really like my job. What’s more, I’m very close to getting promotion.
B: But a baby borne by a woman in her 30s may be physically and intellectually less healthy. If we wanted to hold onto your job, we would wait forever. Soon we’ll be too old to enjoy a baby.
A: You really have a point. I’ll choose the baby over the job.
B: Good, I’ll try harder to make both ends meet
MODEL2 So many people in the United States get divorced!
Kim: Hi Amy.
Amy: Hi! Look at this headline, Kim.
Kim: Wow! So many people in the United States get divorced!