新世纪大学英语(第二版)综合教程第4册4

Electronic Teaching Portfolio

Book Four

Unit Four: Work and Career

Part I Get Started

Section A Discussion

▇Work in pairs or groups and discuss the following questions.

1. What do you think work can provide?

2. What factors do you think one should take into account when choosing a career?

3. What kind of job do you think will be suitable for you?

▇ Answers for reference:

1. Work can provide us with the necessities of life, such as food, clothing and shelter. Work can also provide us with spiritual satisfaction, such as happiness and a sense of achievement.

2. There are several factors we should take into account when choosing a career such as interest, ability, personality, pay, and so on. Interest is where our passion for work comes from. Ability guarantees that we are qualified for the job. Personality determines whether we are suitable for the job or not. And a good pay helps us to live a decent life.

3. Most students would probably say that they would choose an occupation which is related to what they are learning at college now and which would provide them with ample opportunities to develop their potential and prove their worth.

Section B Quotes

▇Study the following quotes about work and career and discuss in pairs what you can learn from them.

新世纪大学英语(第二版)综合教程第4册4

Margaret Bourke-White

⊙Work is something you can count on, a trusted, lifelong friend who never deserts you.

— Margaret Bourke-White

Interpretation:

By this quote Bourke-White expresses her passion for her career. She compares her work to her lifelong trustworthy friend, which shows that she enjoys working and is fully dedicated to it. About Margaret Bourke-White (1904-1971): the first American female war correspondent and the first to be allowed to work in combat zones during World War II. She made history with the publication of her photos of the Depression in the book You Have Seen Their Faces (1937).

Warren Beatty

⊙You’ve achieved success in your field when you don’t know whether what you’re doing is work or play.

— Warren Beatty

Interpretation:

If you want to be successful in your career, you must love what you are doing passionately, devote yourself to it whole-heartedly, and treat it as if it were the only source of enjoyment and amusement in life. Then—and only then can you feel a sense of fulfillment.

About Warren Beatty (1937- ): a well-known American film actor, producer, screenwriter and director. One of the most fascinating characters in Hollywood history, Warren Beatty has received some 30 wins and nominations, including the Oscar Academy Award for Best Director (Reds, 1881).

新世纪大学英语(第二版)综合教程第4册4

Thomas Edison

⊙Genius is one percent inspiration and ninety-nine percent perspiration.

— Thomas Edison

Interpretation:

Most of the world’s geniuses worked very hard and failed thousands of times before they finally became successful in their inventions. By this quote, Edison advocates the virtue of hard work. About Thomas Edison(1847-1931): an American inventor. Edison profoundly influenced modern life through his inventions such as the light bulb, the phonograph, and the motion picture camera. During his lifetime, he acquired 1,093 patents, and marketed many of his inventions to the public.

新世纪大学英语(第二版)综合教程第4册4

Theodore Roosevelt

⊙Far and away the best prize that life has to offer is the chance to work hard at work worth doing.

—Theodore Roosevelt

Interpretation:

By this quote, Roosevelt means that the best reward one can get in life is the chance to work at something worthwhile. One should feel blessed to have the chance to work and should treasure it as one’s best possession.

About Theodore Roosevelt (1858–1919): the 26th president of the United States. He was one of the strongest and most vigorous presidents in United States history. His domestic social and economic reforms were the first federal attempts to deal with the problems created by a modern industrial society. He won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1906.

Section C Watching and Discussion

▇ Watch the following video clip “How to Choose the Right Career” and do the tasks that follow:

1.Please decide whether each of the following statements is true (T) or false (F) based on the

information in the video clip.

( T ) To choose the right career, you should firstly figure out your passions and interests.

( T ) You can increase your knowledge and develop new skills in order to have more career choices.

( T ) Making a list of your personal preferences and needs is helpful in choosing the right career.

( F ) You should take some qualification tests to get ready for your chosen career.

( F ) Before choosing a career, you should research the job market to see if you have the required skills.

( F ) The video is to persuade people to believe in themselves and aim high.

2.Do you think the speaker’s suggestions helpful? Do you have more suggestions?

Answers for reference:

Open.

Script:

How to Choose the Right Career

With some effort, perseverance, and guidance, you’ll be able to choose the right career for you. Y ou will need: reflection, research and a belief in yourself.

STEP 1 (Figure out your interests): List your passions and interests. Do you like working with your hands or sitting at a desk? Working with numbers or managing money? Teaching or helping people? Selling or creating things?

STEP 2 (Identify strengths, skills, and talents): Identify your strengths, skills, and talents – things that come easily that you enjoy doing. Don’t let lack of skills limit your choices. You can always increase your knowledge and develop new skills.

STEP 3 (Make a list):List your personal preferences and needs. What is the lowest income that you will accept? Are you willing to commute or relocate? Can you go back to school for additional training?

STEP 4 (Take career and self-assessment tests):Get professional advice by taking career assessment tests and tests that evaluate your personality and temperament. Some career assessment tests are free; others are available from a career counselor.

STEP 5 (Research the job market):Research the job market to learn about careers that match your interests and personality. Check the U.S. Department of Labor’s Occupational Outlook Handbook and Career Guide to Industries, found online or at the library.

STEP 6 (Get ready):Prepare to begin a new chapter in your life as you pursue a career that will make you happy and bring you satisfaction. Aim high!

Did you know Vincent Van Gogh was a schoolmaster, a student priest missionary, and an art dealer before he became a painter?

Part II Listen and Respond

新世纪大学英语(第二版)综合教程第4册4

Section B Task One: Focusing on the Main Ideas

▇Choose the best answer to each of the following questions according to the information contained in the listening passage.

1. What is the main idea of the passage?

A) One should control his or her feelings.

B) It is important to express one’s thoughts and feelings.

C) Attitude is the key to job success.

D) Different attitudes bring about different results

2. How does the speaker define attitude?

A) Attitude is the way people think about their work.

B) Attitude is the way people think about things and act toward others.

C) Attitude is the way by which people gain their job satisfaction.

D) Attitude is the way by which people enjoy their business performance.

3. What do employers think is the most important factor in job success?

A) A friendly cooperation.

B) A good opportunity.

C) A positive attitude.

D) A good decision.

4. Which of the following is not mentioned as a positive attitude in one’s job?

A) Being polite, cooperative and considerate with one’s co-workers

B) Showing interest and enthusiasm in doing one’s job.

C) Viewing a new job as an opportunity to learn new things.

D) Being open to suggestions and constructive criticism.

5. What do people do if they hold a negative attitude in their job?

A) They tend to lay their own problems on others.

B) They tend to criticize their superiors.

C) They tend to be indifferent to their superiors.

D) They tend to address the needs of others.

▇ Key:

1. D

2. B

3. C

4. B

5. A

Section C Task Two: Zooming In on the Details

▇Listen to the recording again and fill in each of the blanks according to what you have heard.

If you view a new job as an opportunity, a chance to learn new things, and act with interest and enthusiasm, you are expressing a positive attitude. You also demonstrate a positive attitude when you are polite, cooperative and considerate with your co-workers and superiors. People with a positive attitude view the world as a friendly place. They take responsibility for their decisions and have the ability to control their feelings. People with a positive attitude are easy to get along with. They are honest in expressing their thoughts and feelings. And they are open to suggestions and constructive criticism.

As you begin your new job, guard against a negative attitude. People with a negative attitude frequently complain and have careless work habits. They always blame others for their own problems. Besides, they are critical and indifferent to the needs of others.

Script:

Attitude Makes a Difference

Attitudes affect the way people get along at home, at school, and at work. Your attitude will influence your feelings of job satisfaction and your career success. Attitude is the way you think about things and act toward others.

In fact, many employers believe that the most important factor in job success is a positive attitude. They know that an employee’s work performance is closely related to his or her attitude. Employees with a positive attitude enjoy better business performance.

If you view a new job as an opportunity, a chance to learn new things, and act with interest and enthusiasm, you are expressing a positive attitude. You also demonstrate a positive attitude when you are polite, cooperative and considerate with your co-workers and superiors. People with a positive attitude view the world as a friendly place. They take responsibility for their decisions and have the ability to control their feelings. People with a positive attitude are easy to get along with. They are honest in expressing their thoughts and feelings. And they are open to suggestions and constructive criticism.

As you begin your new job, guard against a negative attitude. People with a negative attitude frequently complain and have careless work habits. They always blame others for their own problems. Besides, they are critical and indifferent to the needs of others.

Part III Read and Explore

Text A

Section A Discovering the Main Ideas

Exercise 1: Answer the following questions with the information contained in Text A.

1. How does the author define a laborer and a worker?

2. What is the difference between the attitudes of workers and laborers towards leisure according to the author?

3. What are the results technology and the division of labor have brought about according to the author?

4. Why do workers seldom commit acts of violence according to the author?

5. What is the author’s attitude towards workers and laborers?

▇ Answers for reference:

1. According to the author, a man is a laborer if he is not interested in what he does but is

compelled to take it by the necessity of earning a living and supporting his family. A man is a worker if he is truly interested in the job he does; what from the point of view of society is necessary labor is from his own point of view voluntary play.

2. According to the author, to a worker, leisure means simply the hours he needs to relax and rest

in order to work efficiently. He is therefore more likely to take too little leisure than too much.

To a laborer, on the other hand, leisure means freedom from compulsion, so that it is natural for him to imagine that the fewer hours he has to spend laboring, and the more hours he is free to play, the better.

3. According to the author, technology and the division of labor have done two things. Firstly,

they have made a very large number of paid occupations which formerly were enjoyable work into boring labor. Secondly, they have reduced the number of necessary laboring hours.

4. According to the author, workers seldom commit acts of violence because they can put their

aggression into their work, be it physical like the work of a smith, or mental like the work of a scientist or an artist. In other words, being so engaged in their job, workers probably do not bother to commit acts of violence after work.

5) The author tends to take a positive attitude towards workers and a negative attitude towards

laborers. According to the author, whether one is a worker or a laborer depends not on the job itself but on whether he enjoys what he is doing or not. The author believes that workers are happier because they are not compelled to do what they do not enjoy. Workers need leisure time only to relax in order to work more efficiently, while laborers want as much leisure time as possible so that they could play.

Exercise 2: Text A can be divided into three parts with the paragraph number(s) of each part provided as follows. Write down the main idea of each part.

新世纪大学英语(第二版)综合教程第4册4

Section B In-depth Study

We go to work every day and we think we are workers. However, after reading Auden’s discussion about work, labor, and play, the majority of us may find that we are no longer “workers”. What are we then?

Work, Labor, and Play

Wystan H. Auden

1 So far as I know, Miss Hannah Arendt was the first person to define the essential difference between work and labor. To be happy, a man must feel, firstly, free and, secondly, important. He cannot be really happy if he is compelled by society to do what he does not enjoy doing, or if what he enjoys doing is ignored by society as of no value or importance. In a society where slavery in the strict sense has been abolished, whether what a man does has social value depends on whether he is paid money to do it, but a laborer today can rightly be called a wage slave. A man is a laborer if the job society offers him is of no interest to himself but he is compelled to take it by the necessity of earning a living and supporting his family.

2 The opposite to labor is play. When we play a game, we enjoy what we are doing, otherwise we should not play it, but it is a purely private activity; society could not care less whether we play it or not.

3 Between labor and play stands work. A man is a worker if he is personally interested in the job which society pays him to do; what from the point of view of society is necessary labor is from his own point of view voluntary play. Whether a job is to be classified as labor or work depends, not on the job itself, but on the tastes of the individual who undertakes it. The difference does not, for example, coincide with the difference between a manual and a mental job;

a gardener or a cobbler may be a worker, a bank clerk a laborer. Which a man is can be seen from his attitude toward leisure. To a worker, leisure means simply the hours he needs to relax and rest in order to work efficiently. He is therefore more likely to take too little leisure than too much; workers die of heart attacks and forget their wives’ birthdays. To the laborer, on the other hand, leisure means freedom from compulsion, so that it is natural for him to imagine that the fewer hours he has to spend laboring, and the more hours he is free to play, the better.

4 What percentage of the population in a modern technological society are, like myself, in the fortunate position of being workers? At a guess I would say sixteen per cent, and I do not think that figure is likely to get bigger in the future.

5 Technology and the division of labor have done two things: by eliminating in many fields the need for special strength or skill, they have made a very large number of paid occupations which formerly were enjoyable work into boring labor, and by increasing productivity they have reduced the number of necessary laboring hours. It is already possible to imagine a society in which the majority of the population, that is to say, its laborers, will have almost as much leisure as in earlier times was enjoyed by the aristocracy. When one recalls how aristocracies in the past actually behaved, the prospect is not cheerful. Indeed, the problem of dealing with boredom may be even more difficult for such a future mass society than it was for aristocracies. The latter, for example, ritualized their time; there was a season to shoot grouse, a season to spend in town, etc. The masses are more likely to replace an unchanging ritual by fashion which changes as often as possible in the economic interest of certain people. Again, the masses cannot go in for hunting, for very soon there would be no animals left to hunt. For other aristocratic amusements like gambling, dueling, and warfare, it may be only too easy to find equivalents in dangerous driving, drug-taking, and senseless acts of violence. Workers seldom commit acts of violence, because they can put their aggression into their work, be it physical like the work of a smith, or mental like the work of a scientist or an artist. The role of aggression in mental work is aptly expressed by the phrase ―getting one’s teeth into a problem‖.

▇课文参考译文

工作、劳动和玩耍

威斯坦·H·奥登

1 就我所知,汉娜?阿伦特小姐是界定工作和劳动之间本质区别的第一人。一个人要想快乐,第一要有自由感,第二要确信自己有价值。如果社会迫使一个人去做他自己不喜欢的事,或者说,他所喜欢做的事被社会忽视,看作没有价值或不重要,那他就不会真正快乐。在一个严格意义上已废除奴隶制的社会里,一个人做的事情是否具有社会价值取决于他是否为完成此项工作得到了报酬。然而,今天的劳动者可以被称为名副其实的工资奴隶。如果社会给一个人提供一份他本人不感兴趣的工作,他出于养家糊口的需要不得已才从事这项工作,那这个人就是一个劳动者。

2 与劳动相对的是玩耍。玩游戏时,我们能从中得到乐趣,否则就不会玩这个游戏。但这完全是一种私人的活动,我们玩不玩这个游戏社会是不会关注的。

3 处在劳动和玩耍之间的是工作。如果一个人对社会为他支付报酬的工作感兴趣,他就是一个工作者。从社会角度看是必需的劳动在他自己看来却是自愿的玩耍。一个职位是劳动还是工作,并不取决于这个职位本身,而是取决于占据这个职位的个人自己的情趣。这种差异与体力劳动和脑力劳动之间的差异并不吻合。譬如,一个园丁或者皮匠也许就是一个工作者,而一个银行职员则可能是一个劳动者。一个人是工作者还是劳动者可以从他对闲暇的态度上看出来。对于一个工作者来说,闲暇不过是他需要放松、休息从而进行有效工作的几个小时,所以,他可能只有少量的闲暇,而不会有大量的空闲。工作者可能会死于心脏病,并会忘记自己妻子的生日。而对于劳动者来说,闲暇就意味着摆脱强制,所以,他自然会想象:他不得不花费在劳动上的时间越少,而自由自在地玩耍的时间越多,那才越好。

4 在一个现代化的技术社会里,总人口中有多大比例的人能够像我一样有幸成为工作者呢?我估计大概有16%,而且,我认为这个数字将来也不会增加。

5 技术和劳动的分工成就了两件事:通过在许多领域取消了特别才能和技术的需要,把过去本来令人愉快的大量受雇职业的工作变成了令人厌倦的劳动;通过提高生产力,缩短了劳动所需的时间。已经可以想象出这样一个社会:其人口的大多数,也就是其中的劳动者们,将会享受到早期贵族们才能享受到的几乎同样多的休闲。当人们回想起过去贵族们的举止行为时,前景并非乐观。的确,在未来这样一个大众社会里,人们要解决―无聊‖这个问题,也许比过去的贵族们要困难得多。后者(贵族们)把他们的时间都仪式化了,譬如,有打松鸡的季节,有在城镇消磨的季节等等。广大民众更有可能以时尚来取代一成不变的仪式,而时尚将会为了某些人的经济利益频繁地变化。再者,广大民众也不会再去狩猎,因为,要不了多久可供猎取的动物就没有了。至于贵族们其他的消遣项目,比如赌博、决斗和战争,人们可以轻而易举地从危险驾驶、吸食毒品和毫无理性的暴力行为中找到同样的乐趣。工作者很少从事暴力活动,他们可以把自己的―敌对心理‖用在工作上,不管是工匠的体力活,还是科学家、艺术家的脑力活。―敌对心理‖在脑力劳动中的作用可以在―紧紧咬住问题‖这个短语里得到恰如其分的表达。

Good Usage (Paras. 1-2)

so far as I know

in the strict sense

slavery … has been abolished

depends on

a wage slave

is compelled to

earning a living

The opposite to labor is play.

could not care less

Good Usage (Para.3)

be classified as

coincide with

the difference between a manual and a mental job

attitude toward leisure

take too little leisure than too much

work efficiently

is more likely to

Leisure means freedom from compulsion.

it is natural for him to

Good Usage (Para.4)

at a guess

Good Usage (Para. 5)

enjoyable work

boring labor

increasing productivity

the majority of the population

that is to say

the prospect is not cheerful

in the economic interest of certain

people

go in for

only too

commit acts of violence

put their aggression into their work

getting one’s teeth into a problem

Key Words and Expressions for Text A

in the strict sense in the most limited meaning 从严格意义上说

e.g. 1. In the strict sense, it is not a piece of classical music.

2. They are not immigrants, at least not in the strict sense.

从严格意义上来说他们不是移民。

abolish vt. bring to an end by law; stop 废除;取消

e.g. 1. The government is determined to abolish abuses of power.

2. These reforms will abolish racially discriminatory laws.

这些改革措施将彻底废除带有种族歧视的法律。

3. The end of law is not abolish or restrain, but to preserve and enlarge freedom.

法律的目的不是废除或约束而是维护并扩大自由。

CF: abolish, cancel

这些动词均含―取消,废除‖之意

abolish:正式用词,指彻底废除某种制度、规章或习俗。

cancel:用法广泛,多指取消债务、合同、证书、比赛、旅行、计划或约会等。Collocation:

utterly abolish

gradually abolish

wage n. wages, a payment made for work done, calculated by the hour, day, or week or by the amount produced, and usu. received daily or weekly (按钟点、按日、按周或按件计酬,通常每日或每周发薪的)工资,薪金,工钱

e.g. 1. The workers have asked for a wage rise of 10%.

2. Their wage increases would be offset by higher prices.

他们增加的工资会被物价上涨所抵消。

CF: earnings, allowance, income, salary, wage, pay, fee

这些名词都可表示―工资,收入‖之意。

earnings:多指通过劳动或投资等手段所得到的收入。

allowance:指收入中的补贴部分。

salary:指按年定下,按月或星期平均给予的报酬,指脑力劳动者的薪水。

wage:多用复数形式,指按小时、日或星期的报酬,通常指体力劳动者的工资。

pay:是个通用词,可取代salary与wage.

fee:指提供某种服务收取的固定费用。

necessity n. [U (of,for)] the condition of being necessary or unavoidable; need [常与of或for连用](迫切)需要;必要(性)

e.g. 1. The teacher urged on us the necessity of practice.

2. Most women, like men, work from economic necessity.

与男人一样,大部分女人也是出于经济原因而工作。

3. We recognize the necessity for a written agreement.

我们认为有必要签订一份书面协议。

Collocation:

of necessity 无法避免地;必然地

earn a living be paid enough money to live on 谋生

e.g. 1. Earning a living left him little time for photography, which was his chief hobby.

2. He was virtually driven to this, because he could not earn a living in any other way.

他是被迫干这一行的,因为他找不到别的活路。

3. Your education will equip you to earn a good living.

你所受的教育会使你过上富裕的生活。

voluntary a. (of a person or action) acting or done willingly, without being forced (人或行动)自愿的,志愿的;自动的,自发的

e.g. 1. Many social services are still provided by voluntary societies.

2. The scheme, due to begin next month, will be voluntary.

定于下个月开始实施的方案是自愿性质的。

3. Some local authorities and voluntary organizations also run workshops for disabled

people.

一些当地机构和志愿组织也为残疾人开设了一些工场。

CF: voluntary, willing

这两个形容词均有―自愿的‖之意。

voluntary:使用广泛,侧重不受约束,行动不为其他影响所左右。

willing:着重自愿、令人愉快或急切地去行动。

classify vt. arrange (animals, plants, books, etc) into classes; divide according to class or type 把……分级(分类),把……分为

e.g. 1. Iron is, of course, classified among the metals.

2. Men in the post office classify mail according to places it is to go.

邮局里的人员将信件按寄送地点分类。

3. He carefully began to classify the results of his examinations.

他开始细心地为他的检验结果分类。

CF: organize, arrange, classify, sort

这些动词均含―使有条理,安排‖之意。

organize:指按计划或需要把人或物安排组织成一个整体。

arrange:指按计划、秩序、需要和可能等进行安排。

classify:指按照事物类型、质量或是否相似进行分类。

sort:通常指根据类型或种类分类或整理选择。

at a guess without being certain or exact 据推测

e.g. 1. I’d say, at a guess, he’s about 60 years old.

2. At a guess, she owned the house.

我猜,这房子是她的。

3. At a guess I should say we are speeding at fifty miles an hour.

我猜测我们正以每小时五十公里的速度在前进。

division n. [U (between, among, into)] separation or sharing [常与between,among或into连用]分;分开;分配

e.g. 1. His will detailed his assets and gave instructions for their division among his children.

2. A hedge forms the division between her land and mine.

有一道篱笆在她和我的土地之间形成了分界线。

3. Unequal distribution of wealth may cause division in society.

财富分配不均会引起社会分裂。

CF: part, piece, section, division, portion, fraction, fragment, segment, share 这些名词均可表示―整体的一部分‖之意。

part:含义广,最普通用词。常指整体中可大可小的一部分,也可指整体中可分开的独立部分。

piece:指整体中的一些个体,尤指从某个整体上分出来的一部分。

section:指整体中的分区,部分与部分之间有显著界限。

division:通常指按类划分或分割成而的部分。常含抽象意义。

portion:侧重从整体中所分配到的那一部分,含一定的独立意义。

fraction:指包含在全体中的一部分,暗示微不足道的一部分。

fragment:指因破裂、分割等产生的支离破碎、不规则的一部分。

segment:指某物的特定部分或自然形成的部分,也指线形物品的一段。

share:指共有的东西中应占有的一部分。

Collocation:

division of labour 劳动分工

formerly ad. in earlier times 以前,从前

e.g. 1. Formerly this large town was a small village.

2. He had formerly been in the Navy.

他从前在海军服役。

3. We now enjoy these comforts of which formerly we had only heard.

我们现在享受到了过去只是听说过的那些舒适条件。

mass a. [no comp.] of or for a large number, esp. of people [无比较级]许多(人)的,大量的

e.g. 1. A rapid rise in prices soon resulted in mass unemployment.

2. All the lights went off, and mass hysteria broke out.

所有的灯都熄灭了,大家都变得歇斯底里起来。

3. These precise instruments have already gone into mass production.

这些精密仪器已经大规模投入生产。

Collocation:

be a mass of 遍布

in mass 总体,作为整体

in the mass 整个,整体

e.g. her genuine affection for humanity in the mass

她对整个人类的真情

fashion n. [C; U] the way of dressing or behaving that is usual or popular at a certain time (衣服的)流行式样,时髦;(行为等的)时髦;时尚

e.g. 1. Fashions have changed a lot since I was a girl.

2. There are 20 full-colour pages of fashion for men.

书中有 20 张有关男性时尚的彩色插页。

3. The fashion world does not mind what the real world thinks.

时尚界并不在意现实世界的想法。

CF: manner, method, way, mode, fashion, means, approach

这些名词均含―方法,方式‖之意。

manner:多指行动的特殊方式或独特的方法。

method:指有系统、有条理地办事或解决问题的方法。

way:普通用词,可指一般的方法,有时也指个人的方法或方式,也可指特殊的方式或方法。

mode:书面用词,常指因个人爱好或传统习俗等因素而遵循的方法。

fashion:着重独特的程序或方式,尤指个人的偏爱或习惯。

means:指为达到某种目的或目标而采用的方法、手段或途径。

approach:指从事某事的特别方法、途径。

Collocation:

after a fashion 勉强,马马虎虎

e.g. He could read after a fashion.

他勉强识点儿字。

after (或 in) the fashion of 模仿;像……一样;按照……的方式

e.g. She took servants for granted after the fashion of wealthy and pampered girls.

她像那些富有而娇气十足的女孩子一样,认为有佣人是理所当然的。

in (或 out of) fashion 在(或不再)流行(或风行)

go in for take part in (a test of skill or knowledge); enter 参加(比赛等);make a habit of (doing), esp. for enjoyment 爱好;沉迷于……

e.g. 1. When she was young, she went in for many dancing competitions.

2. They go in for tennis and bowls.

他们爱打网球和保龄球。

3. What kind of recreation do you go in for?

你在文娱方面有什么爱好?

hunting n. [U] chasing and killing wild animals and birds as a sport or for food. (作为一种运动或为获取食物)打猎,狩猎

e.g. 1. Development of agriculture has conflicted with hunting by limiting forest land in this

area.

2. Deer hunting was banned in Scotland in 1959.

猎鹿于1959年在苏格兰被禁止。

3. This variety of dog is very useful for hunting.

这种狗对狩猎很有用。

gamble vi. [(on)] risk (money, property, etc.) on the result of sth. uncertain, such as a card game, a horse race, a business arrangement, etc. [常与on连用]赌博;投机

e.g. 1. He gambled away the fortune his grandmother left him.

2. Few firms will be willing to gamble on new products.

很少有公司愿意冒险开发新产品。

3. Who wants to gamble with the life of a friend?

谁会拿朋友的性命作赌注?

CF: bet, gamble

这两个动词均含有―打赌,赌博‖之意。

bet:指竞赛中的打赌,也指双方对有疑惑之事争执不下的打赌。在口语中,bet作―确信,敢说‖解。

gamble:多指投机,为获得某物或牟利而冒大险,含孤注一掷意味。

only too very; completely 很,完全,非常

e.g. 1. Most people were only too willing to be friendly when being asked a favor.

2. It is only too true that she cannot be relied upon.

她不可靠竟是真的。

3. I had no doubt that the craven fellow would be only too pleased to back out.

我毫不怀疑那个胆小的家伙巴不得撒手退出呢。

senseless a. showing a lack of meaning, thought, or purpose 毫无意义的;无目的的

e.g. 1. It’s senseless to continue the project any further.

2. If your child is thirsty for learning, then it is senseless to hold her back.

如果你的孩子渴望学习,那就不要毫无益处地进行阻拦。

3. It’s about time we called a halt to all this senseless arguing.

现在正是我们停止一切无谓争论的时候了。

commit vt. do (sth. wrong or illegal) 犯(错误、罪行);干(坏事等)

e.g. 1. A number of burglaries have been committed in this area recently.

2. She drove him on to commit murder.

她唆使他去杀人。

3. I fear lest we commit an inexcusable blunder.

我为我们会犯不可原谅的错误而担忧。

get one’s teeth into infml do (a job) very actively, purposefully, and with interest 〖非正式〗埋头做;认真做

e.g. 1. I can’t wait to get my teeth into the new course I chose for my MA degree.

2. Come on, Bill. You have to get your teeth into your biology.

我说比尔,你得认认真真地好好学习生物课。

3. Wait till you get your teeth into the work; you’ll find it very interesting.

等你全身心地投入这项工作后,你会发现它很有趣的。

Difficult Sentences for Text A

1. In a society where slavery in the strict sense has been abolished, whether a man does has social value depends on whether he is paid money to do it,but a laborer today can rightly be called a wage slave. (Para. 1)

Q:What is the implied meaning of the italicized part of the sentence?

A:Just like slaves in the past, laborers are compelled to do jobs that they don’t really enjoy.

As a result, the only difference between a laborer and a slave is that one is paid while the other is not.

Q: Please translate the sentence into Chinese.

A: 在一个严格意义上已废除奴隶制的社会里,一个人做的事情是否具有社会价值取决于他是否为完成此项工作得到了报酬。然而,今天的劳动者可以被称为名副其实的工资奴隶。

2. The difference does not, for example, coincide with the difference between a manual and a mental job;a gardener or a cobbler may be a worker, a bank clerk a laborer. (Para. 3)

Q:What is the implied meaning of the italicized part of the sentence?

A:According to the author, whether one is a worker or a laborer does not depend on the kind of job he or she does but on whether he or she really enjoys doing the job. Therefore, a gardener or a cobbler may be a worker if he is interested in his job, while a bank clerk is a laborer if he is bored with his job.

Q: Please translate the sentence into Chinese.

A: 这种差异与体力劳动和脑力劳动之间的差异并不吻合。譬如,一个园丁或者皮匠也许就是一个工作者,而一个银行职员则可能是一个劳动者。

3. When one recalls how aristocracies in the past actually behaved, the prospect is not cheerful.

(Para. 5)

Q:What is the implied meaning of the italicized part of the sentence?

A:In the past, aristocracies spent their leisure time indulging in hunting, gambling, dueling, and warfare, and they ritualized their leisure activities. If today’s laborers who have almost as much leisure time as those aristocracies, should kill their time by indulging in dangerous and meaningless activities, it would have a great negative impact on society.

With such a prospect in mind, one cannot but feel worried.

Q: Please translate the sentence into Chinese.

A: 当人们回想起过去贵族们的举止行为时,前景并非乐观。

4. For other aristocratic amusements like gambling, dueling, and warfare, it may be only too

easy to find equivalents in dangerous driving, drug-taking, and senseless acts of violence.

(Para. 5)

Q:What is the implied meaning of the italicized part of the sentence?

A:Unlike aristocracies, laborers cannot afford activities like gambling, dueling, and warfare, yet they may easily find similar amusements available in the modern society by spending their excessive leisure time in driving dangerously, taking drugs, or committing senseless acts of violence.

Q: Please translate the sentence into Chinese.

A: 至于贵族们其他的消遣项目,比如赌博、决斗和战争,人们可以轻而易举地从危险驾驶、吸食毒品和毫无理性的暴力行为中找到同样的乐趣。

Extended Questions

▇ Extended questions (Paras. 1-2)

Q: Would you accept a job you are not interested in?

A: Yes. I would if the job were challenging and if I could gain some experience from it. Also, if I needed the money to cover my daily necessities, I would take it even if I didn’t like it.

No. If I took a job I was not interested in, I would not be motivated to do it well and could not fully develop my potential. Consequently, I would gain no job satisfaction; nor would I gain a sense of achievement from it.

Q: What do you think one may gain from a job?

A: I think from a job, one may gain experience, confidence, access to the outside world, and a sense of achievement.

Q: What is your favorite pastime?

A: I like to play computer games/do sports/read books/listen to music in my spare time.

▇ Extended question (Para. 4)

Q: Do you want to be a worker or a laborer?

A: I want to be a worker, of course. By doing what I really enjoy, I can gain job satisfaction, develop my potential and build a career that is of value to society. I can also live a decent life and achieve personal happiness, contentment, and a sense of achievement.

▇ Extended questions (Para. 5)

Q: Do you think it a good thing to have too much leisure time to yourself?

A: It all depends on whether you are a worker or a laborer. If you are a worker, you don’t need too much leisure, for leisure means simply the hours you need to relax and rest in order to work efficiently. However, if you are a laborer and have too much leisure time, then you need to consider the question: ―what should I do in my leisure time?‖ To o much leisure time may not necessarily be a bad thing if laborers can do something that is useful and beneficial to both themselves and society, such as doing voluntary jobs or social work, playing games, taking part in sports, developing healthy pastimes, or pursuing further education. However, if they idle away their leisure time or spend their leisure time in dangerous driving, drug-taking, and senseless acts of violence, then too much leisure time is definitely a bad thing.

Q: Why do you think workers can put their aggression into their work?

A: Workers usually enjoy what they are doing, so they are willing to spend most of their time and energy on their jobs. As they are bent on their work, the aggressiveness inside themselves, if any, would naturally turn into the motivation and determination to do their jobs well. Section C Voicing Your Views

▇Work in pairs or groups and discuss the question: “What would you like to be in your future career—a worker or a laborer?” The following questions may help de velop your ideas.

1) Do you accept the author’s definitions of ―worker‖ and ―laborer‖?

2) Do you believe that it is bad for laborers to have more leisure time?`

3) Do you think that workers will be definitely happier than laborers?

Answers for reference:

Open.

Text B

Section A KEY WORDS AND EXPRESSIONS

新世纪大学英语(第二版)综合教程第4册4

encouragement n. [C; U] the act of encouraging sb. to do sth.; sth. that encourages sb. 鼓励,激励

e.g. 1. Perhaps I can offer a few words of encouragement to those who did not win any prize.

2. Her encouragement and support strengthened our resolve.

她的鼓励和支持加强了我们的决心。

previously ad. before now or before a particular time 以前地,先前地

e.g. 1. The world record for the 100-metre dash was previously held by Tim Montgomery.

2. The contract was awarded to a previously unknown company.

合同签给了一个之前并不知名的公司。

typically ad. in a way that shows an average or usual example of sb. or sth. 一般地;通常

e.g. 1. Typically, he would come in late and then say he had to go early.

2. The factory typically produces 500 chairs a week.

这家工厂通常每周生产500把椅子。

ethnic a. of a racial, national, or tribal group 种族的,民族的;部落的

e.g. 1. The police are trying to recruit more officers from ethnic minorities.

2. This music would sound more ethnic if you played it in steel drums.

如果你用钢鼓演奏,这首乐曲将更具民族特色。

declaration n. [C; U] the act of making known publicly or officially, according to rules, custom, etc. 宣言,公告,声明

e.g. 1. The two sides issued a declaration of renouncing(放弃) the use of violence.

2. We read the declaration posted on the bulletin board.

我们读了贴在布告板上的声明。

abstract a. existing as a quality or concept rather than as sth. real or solid 抽象的

e.g. 1. The word ―poem‖ is concrete, but ―poetry‖ is abstract.

2. In the exhibition, abstract paintings are juxtaposed with shocking photographs.

展览会上抽象画与令人震惊的照片并列展出。

coordination n. [U (of)] the act of organizing people or things so that they work together well [常与of连用]协调,调和

e.g. 1. There needs to be greater coordination between federal, state and local governments.

2. You need good hand-eye coordination to play racket sports.

网球之类的运动需要良好的手眼协调能力。

moderately ad. to a moderate degree; not very 温和地,适中地;有限地

e.g. 1. He only drinks alcohol moderately.

2. She was no more than a moderately good workwoman.

她只不过是一个手艺平凡的工人。

slight a. small in degree; not considerable, noticeable, or serious 微小的,轻微的,微不足道的

e.g. 1. I haven’t the slightest idea what you’re talking about.

2. She spoke with a slight lisp.

她说话有点口齿不清。

extremely ad. to an extreme extent; very; highly 极端地;非常地;高度地

e.g. 1. Despite its bulk and weight, the car is extremely fast.

2. Farmers are extremely busy during the harvest.

农民在收获季节里十分忙碌。

新世纪大学英语(第二版)综合教程第4册4

go through suffer or experience; endure 遭受;经历;忍受

e.g. 1. It is devastating for a parent to watch a child go through misery.

2. South Africa was going through a period of irreversible change.

南非正在经历一场不可逆转的变革。

rule out say that sth. or sb. is not under consideration as a possibility 排除,取消,拒绝考虑

e.g. 1. His age effectively ruled him out as a possible candidate.

2. Infringement of this regulation would automatically rule you out of the championship.

违背这一规则会被自动取消参加锦标赛的资格。

stand a chance have a chance 有机会,有希望

e.g. 1. The reporter believes that his report stands a good chance of making the front page.

2. Because John has no previous work experience, he doesn’t stand a chance of getting

that job.

由于约翰之前完全没有工作经验, 因此没什么希望得到那份工作。

Section B Difficult Sentences

1. Many people I’ve counseled regarding career decisions haven’t looked at what they value the most and whether these values can be attained in their chosen vocation. (Para. 1)

1) What is the meaning of the sentence?

Key:

When people come to me for advice on choosing a job, most of them have no idea about what they want most from the job and whether they can obtain it from it.

2) Please translate the sentence into Chinese.

Key:

我指导过的许多人在决定职业时,没有审视过自己认为最有价值的东西是什么,也没有考虑过在选定的职业中,是否能够实现这些价值。

2. In this regard, choosing a vocation can be thought of as a public declaration of the kind of person we see ourselves as being. (Para. 3)

1) What is the meaning of the sentence?

Key:

Different professions require different personal qualities. The profession we select reflects the

kind of qualities we want to show in public.

2) Please translate the sentence into Chinese.

Key:

在这一点上,选择职业可以被认为是我们把自己定位为某类人的公开宣言。

3. It is difficult for people to feel positively about themselves or their occupation if they have to accept an occupation they perceive as low in status. (Para. 5)

1) What is the meaning of the sentence?

Key:

People will have a negative image of themselves or of their work if they think the job they are doing has a low status in society.

2) Please translate the sentence into Chinese.

Key:

要是人们不得不接受他们认为是地位低下的某种职业,那就很难让他们对自己或自己的职业有信心。

4. Interestingly, most studies show little direct relationship between measured aptitudes and occupational performance and satisfaction. (Para. 7)

1) What is the meaning of the sentence?

Key:

It is interesting to find that having the ability required by the job does not guarantee good work performance and career satisfaction.

2) Please translate the sentence into Chinese.

Key:

有趣的是,大部分研究表明,在评估出的才能与职业工作表现及满意度之间几乎不存在直接关系。

5. Interests, unlike abilities, have been found to be moderately effective as predictors of vocational success, satisfaction, and persistence. (Para. 8)

1) What is the meaning of the sentence?

Key:

Unlike abilities, interests are to some extent related to work performance. In other words, if you are interested in your work, you are more likely to obtain career success and job satisfaction, and less likely to give it up.

2) Please translate the sentence into Chinese.

Key:

已经发现,兴趣在预测职业的成功、满意度及其持续性方面是比较有效的。

Section C COMPREHENSION QUESTIONS

▇ Comprehension questions (Para. 1)

Q: What is the author’s opinion about the attitude that most students take towards choosing an occupation or career?

A: According to the author, most students don’t think seriously about it. For example, some are too much influenced by their parents’opinions on the choice of a job, while others have unrealistically high hopes of what it means to be a lawyer, engineer or doctor.

Q: What do some students fail to consider when making career decisions?

相关推荐
相关主题
热门推荐