1. This will be particularly true since energy pinch will make it difficult to continue agriculture in the high-energy American fashion that makes it possible to combine few farmers with high yields.

2. Now since the assessment of intelligence is a comparative matter,we must be sure that the scale with which we are comparing our subjects provides a“valid”or“fair”comparison.

3. In general,the tests work most effectively when the qualities to be measured can be most precisely defined and least effectively when what is to be measured or predicted can be not well defined.

4. For example,they do not compensate for gross social inequality,and thus do not tell how able an underprivileged youngster might have been had he grown up under more favorable circumstances.

5.It leads the discussion to extremes at the outset:it invites you to think that animals should be treated either with the consideration humans extend to other humans,or with no consideration at all.

6. But even more important,it was the farthest that scientists had been able to look into the past,for what they were seeing were the patterns and structures that existed 15 billion years ago.

7. Thus it happened that when the new factories that were springing up required labor,tens of thousands of homeless and hungry agricultural workers,with their wives and children,were forced into the cities in search of work,and any work,under any condition,that would keep them alive.

8. As a result of two or three centuries of scientific investigation we have come to believe that nature is understandable in the sense that when we ask her questions by way of appropriate observations and experiments,she will answer truly and reward us with discoveries that endure.

9. These new observational capabilities would result in simply a mass of details were it not for the fact that theoretical understanding has reached the stage at which it is becoming possible to indicate the kind of measurements required for reliable weather forecasting.

10. The story of the discovery of what is now generally called the principle of Archimedes,namely that a solid body when immersed in a liquid loses a portion of its weight of the liquid it displaces,has many different versions,of which the following is one.

11. We assumed that there were forces of attraction between molecules which varied rapidly with the distance so that the attraction between molecules that were more than a few ten millionths of a millimeter apart was very small but became considerable when the molecules approached more closely.

12. This need is enshrined in the concept of sustainable development,which means that we must,for the benefit of coming generations,leave enough environmental space so that these generations will be able to address their needs and fulfill their aspirations.

13. Painting lacks only the means to represent movement in time and space,which is the special property of sculpture and architecture,since a painting is designed to be seen from one point at one time,whereas sculpture and architecture are created to be seen from various points of view,thus supplying movements in space and time.

14. Once intimidated by arguments that their children would feel more at home in bilingual classes,and that they might lose their heritage in regular classes,these women have since given voice,loudly and persuasively,to what they know from experience that unless they are fluent in the language of their adopted country,their children will never attend college or land any but the most menial of jobs.

15. The presumption on which human cloning rests is that all these cells,though now specialized,still contain exact copies of the original set of genetic instructions needed to make an entire individual and can do so if a way is found to switch them back on.

16. Thus,a regularity for which there are general theoretical grounds will be more readily called a natural law than an empirical regularity that cannot be subsumed under more general laws or theories.

17. It is because of the close association in most people’s minds of tools with man that special attention has always been focused upon any animal able to use an object as a tool,but it is important to realize that this ability,on its own,does not necessarily indicate any special intelligence in the creature concerned.

18. The point at which tool using and tool making acquire evolutionary significance is surely when an animal can adapt its ability to manipulate objects to a wide variety of purposes,and when it can use an object spontaneously to solve a brand-new problem that without the use of a tool would prove insoluble.

19. It was the desire to be scholarly that brought about a wave of Latin terms which appeared in the 16th century when the humanist movement brought new impetus to learning throughout Europe.

20. So don’t be surprised if you never encounter some of the expressions that still appear in school textbooks; and next time you hear somebody using a strange word you haven’t heard before,you can comfort yourself that there may well be a native speaker somewhere who doesn’t know it either.

21. Despite the saying that one never knows if lightning strikes him,a person can sometimes feel the bolt coming and if quick enough,take protective action in time.

22. The “shareholder”as such had no knowledge of the lives, thoughts or needs of the workmen employed by the company in which he held shares, and his influence on the relations of capital and labor was not good.

23. The paid manager acting for the company was in more direct relation with the men and their demands, but even he had seldom that familiar personal knowledge of the workmen

which the employer had often had under the more patriarchal system of the old family business now passing away.

24. When a journalist recently accused the company of lacking integrity in its testing of beauty products,the company overtly appealed to the public by citing its corporate brand,which was firmly associated in people’s minds with strong ethical standards concerning animal rights.

25. However,the criminals quickly came to realize that the real value in the computers is in the chip which is remarkably portable and unidentifiable,so even when caught the police have trouble proving the theft.

26. Although perhaps only 1 percent of the life that has started somewhere will develop into highly complex and intelligent patterns,so vast is the number of planets that intelligent life is bound to be a natural part of the universe.

27. Such large, impersonal manipulation of capital and industry greatly increased the numbers and importance of shareholders as a class, an element in national life representing irresponsible wealth detached from the land and the duties of the landowners; and almost equally detached from the responsible management of business.

28.Towns like Bournemouth and Eastboune sprang up to house large “Comfortable" classes who had retired on their incomes, and who had no relation to the rest of the community except that of drawing dividends and occasionally attending a shareholders' meeting to dictate their orders to the management.

29.Robert Fulton once wrote, “The mechanic should sit down among levers, screws, wedges, wheels, etc., like a poet among the letters of the alphabet, considering them as an exhibition of his thoughts, in which a new arrangement transmits a new idea.”

30.Some of these causes are completely reasonable results of social needs. Others are reasonable consequences of particular advances in science being to some extent self-accelerating.