英美国家概况考试复习

Ⅰ.Read the following statements carefully and decide whether they are True or False.

1.The British history before 55BC is

basically undocumented.

2.The Celts became the dominant group in

Britain between the 8th and 5th centuries BC.

3.The name of Britain came from a Celtic

tribe—the Britons.

4.The Anglo-Saxons came to Britain in the

mid-5th century.

5.The chief or king of the Anglo-Saxon

tribes exercised power at their own will. 6.The Vikings began to attack the English

coast in the 8th century.

7.Henr yⅡbuilt up a large empire which

included England and most of France.

8.The Magna Carta was designed to protect

the rights of both the privileged class and the townspeople.

9.The Hundred Years’War was a series of

wars fought between England and

Normans for trade and territory.

10.In an effort to make a compromise

between different religious factions, Queen Elizabet hⅠactually defended the fruit the Religious Reformation.

Ⅱ. Choose the one that best completes each of the following statements.

1. The_attack on Rome ended the Roman occupation in Britain in 410.

A. Norman

B. Danish

C. Celtic

D. Germanic

2. By the late 7th century,_became the dominant religion in England.

A. Celtic Christianity

B. Anglo-Saxon Christianity

C. Germanic Christianity

D. Roman Christianity

3. Westminster Abbey was built at the time of .

A. St. Augustine

B. Edward the Confessor

C. William the Conqueror

D. Alfred the Great

4. The_marked the establishment of

feudalism in England.

A. Viking invasion

B. signing of the Magna Carta

C. Norman Conquest

D. Adoption of common law

5. The end of the Wars of the Roses led to the rule of_ .

A. the House of Valois

B. the House of York

C. the House of Tudor

D. the House of Lancaster

6. The direct cause for the Religious Reformation was King HenryⅧ’s eff ort to .

A. divorce his wife

B. break with Rome

C. support the Protestants

D. declare his supreme power over the church

7. The English Civil War broke out in 1642 between_.

A. Protestants and Puritans

B. Royalists and Parliamentarians

C. nobles and peasants

D. aristocrats and Christians

8._was passed after the Glorious Revolution.

A. Bill of Rights

B. Act of Supremacy

C. Provisions of Oxford

D. Magna Carta

9. The Industrial Revolution was accomplished in Britain by the middle of the_century.

A. 17th

B. 18th

C. 19th

D. 20th

10. Britain faced strong challenges in its global imperial dominance by the beginning of the_century.

A. 17th

B. 18th

C. 19th

D. 20th

Ⅲ. Give brief answers to the following questions.

1.What are the two components of the British parliament?

2.What were some of Queen Victoria’s major achievements?

3.What were the two camps in Europe in World WarⅠ?

4.Why did Britain cooperate closely with the United States after World Wa rⅡ?

Answers:

1.T hey are the House of Commons and the House of Lords.

2.Q ueen Victoria made tremendous achievements in almost every aspect. She promoted further industrial revolution, the building of railways and the growing of trade and commerce. By the end of her reign, Britain had developed to an empire including a quarter of the global population and nearly a quarter of the world’s landmass.

3.T he Central Powers which included Germany, Austria-Hungary, the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria and the Allied Powers which were mainly comprised of France, the Russian Empire, the British Empire, Italy and the United States.

4.B ecause they were allied during the war and shared the same worries about the former Soviet Union.

Ⅳ. State your understanding of the following questions.

1.What were the results of the Industrial

Revolution in Britain?

2.The Rise and Fall of the British Empire?

Answers:

1.The Industrial Revolution changed Britain

in many ways. First, industrial productivity increased dramatically. Britain became the most advanced industrial country and also the financial center in the world. Second, urbanization took place. Many new cities sprang up. Third, it caused great changes in the class structure. The old social classes declined, and new ones emerged and developed. The conflict between the capitalists and the proletarians became the most important political issue.

2.Colonization of Newfoundland, the first

British colony overseas, in 1583 marked the beginning of the British Empire. By 1837,

Britain had long been an empire which included the colonies in Canada, Australia, New Zealand, India and many small states in the West Indies. By the end of the 19th century, the British Empire included a quarter of the global population and nearly a quarter of the world’s landmass. During the mid-19th century, the British government consolidated the existing colonies by bringing them under the direct control of the government. Before World Wa rⅠ, Britain had the largest colonial empire in the world. However, Britain suffered great loss to its manpower in the two World Wars and exhausted its reserves of gold, dollars and overseas investment. Most of Britain’s colonies gained independence since the 1940s, which inevitably led to the fall of the Empire.

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