《管理沟通(双语)》问题&答案

《管理沟通(双语)》问题&答案

CHAPTER 1 Management Communication in Transition

1. What do managers do all day?

(1)Managers spend their time engaged in planning, organizing, staffing, directing, coordinating, reporting, and

controlling.

(2)Managers are in constant action.

(3)Managers show similar patterns, they spend most of their time interacting with others, both inside and outside the organization.

(4)Most management work is conversational.

2. What roles do managers play?

(1)Interpersonal Roles. These roles include Figurehead role, Leader role, and Liaison role.

(2)Informational Roles. These roles include monitor, disseminator and spokesperson.

(3)Decisional Roles. These roles include entrepreneur, disturbance or crisis handler, resource allocator and negotiator.

3. What are major characteristics of the Manager’s job?

(1)Time is fragmented. (2)Values compete and the various roles are in tension.

(3)The job is overloaded. (4)Efficiency is a core skill.

4. What varies in a manager’s job?

(1)The entrepreneur role is gaining importance.

(2)So is the leader role. Managers must be more sophisticated as strategists and mentors.

(3)Managers must create a local vision as they help people grow.

5. List management skills required for the Twenty—First Century

(1) Technical skills. These are most valuable at the entry level, but less valuable at more senior levels.

(2) Relating skills. These are valuable across the managerial career span and are more likely to help you progress

and be promoted to higher levels of responsibility.

(3) Conceptual skills. These are least valuable at the entry level, but more valuable at more senior levels in the

organization.

6. What does verbal interaction (talk) include?

(1) One—on—one conversations. (2) Telephone conversations.

(3) Video teleconferencing. (4) Presentations to small groups. (5) Public speaking to larger audiences.

7. Why the major channels of management communication are talking and listening

(1)A series of scientific studies have served to confirm what each of us knows that most managers spend the largest portion of their day talking and listening.

(2)E.K.Werner’s thesis at the University of Maryland, in fact, found that North American adults spend more than 78 percent of their communication time either talking or listening to others who are talking.

(3)According to Werner and others who have studied the communication habits of postmodern business organizations, managers are involved in more than just speeches and presentations from the dais or teleconference.

(4)Each of these activities may look to some managers like an obligation imposed by the job.

8. What role does writing play?

(1)Witting is a career sifter. (2)Managers do most of their own writing and editing.

(3)Documents take on lives of their own.

9. Communication is invention, how do you understand?

(1)Without question, communication is a process of invention.

(2)The fact is, managers create meaning through communication.

(3)Additionally, it is important to note that managers usually figure things out by talking about them as much as they talk about the things they have already figured out.

10. Why information is socially constructed?

(1)Information is created, shared, and interpreted by people. (2)Information never speaks for itself.

(3)Context always drives meaning. (4)A messenger always accompanies message.

11. What is the greatest challenge for every manager?

Your greatest challenge is to admit to flaws in your skill set and work tirelessly to improve them. But first, you must admit to the flaws.

12. What is your task as a professional?

(1)As a professional manager, your first task is to recognize and understand your strengths and weaknesses as a communicator.

(2)Foremost among your goals should be to improve existing skills.

(3)Two other suggestions come to mind for improving your professional standing as a manager. Acquire a

knowledge base that will work for twenty—first century.

(4)You should read at least one national newspaper each day.

(5)Your final challenge is to develop the confidence you will need to succeed as a manager.

CHAPTER 2 Communications and Strategy

1. Define communication

(1) Communication is the transfer of meaning. (2) It must be understood.

(3) It is a complex, ongoing process.

2. What are the elements of communication?

(1) Sender. (2) Receiver. (3) Message. (4) Medium.

(5) Code. (6) Feedback. (7) Noise. (8) Effect.

3. What are the principles of communication?

(1) Dynamic. Human communication is constantly undergoing change.

(2) Continuous. Communication never stops. (3) Circular. Communication is rarely ever entirely one—way. (4) Unrepeatable. (5) Irreversible. (6) Complex.

4. What are levels of communication?

(1) Intrapersonal. (2) Interpersonal. (3) Organizational. (4) Mass or public.

5. What are barriers of communication?

(1) Physiological barriers. In sending message to others, we must be sensitive to the fact that they may not see,

hear, touch, smell, or taste in the same way we do.

(2) Psychological barriers. Such as filtering, emotions, information overload, language, and national culture.

6. How to communicate strategically?

(1) It means that your plans for communication, your proposed messages, the medium you select, the code you

employ, the context and experience you bring to situation, and the ethics you adopt will all have a direct effect on the outcome.

(2) If you are communicating strategically, those goals will be aligned with and directly support the goals of the

organization you work for.

(3) You must ask yourself a few questions related to the elements of communication listed above.

7. List the steps of successful strategic communication

(1) Link your message to the strategy and goals of the organization.

(2) Attract the attention of your intended audience.

(3) Explain your position in terms they will understand and accept.

(4) Motivate your audience to accept and act on your message.

(5) Inoculate them against contrary message and positions.

(6) Manage audience expectations.

8. Why communicating as a manager is different?

(1) Levels of responsibility and accountability. The higher your level of responsibility in an organization, the more

you have to think about.

(2) Organizational dynamics. Organizations, like the humans who populate and animate them, are in constant flux.

(3) Personality preferences. It is important to acknowledge that each of us has his or her own preference for

gathering, organizing, and disseminating information.

9. What are the tactics of communication?

(1) fact—finding. (2) Analysis. (3) Methods. (4) Timing. (5) Media. (6) Cost.

(7)The dozens of assumptions you must make about your audience, your reasons for communicating and so on.

CHAPTER 3 Communication Ethics

1. How to understand the ethical conduct of employers?

(1) Arecent National Business Ethics Survey discovered that employees care about the ethical conduct their

employers.

(2) Through Hudson—Walker survey, only a third of employees feel comfortable reporting misconduct.30 percent

of employees know of suspect ethical violations in their organizations in the past two years.

(3) The majority of these employees have seen or know about a violation have not reported it.

(4) If you behave in unethical ways, people will quickly realize that you cannot be trusted.

2. Defining business ethics

(1) Ethics most often refers to a field of inquiry, or discipline, in which matters of right and wrong, good and evil,

virtue and vice, are systematically examined.

(2) Morality is most often used to refer not to discipline but to patterns of behavior that are actually common in

everyday life.

(3) Social responsibility refers to part of ethics, relating to external constituencies.

(4)These relationships define a large and very important part of business ethics. Business ethics is a much larger

notion than corporate social responsibity, even though it includes that concept.

3. What are three levels of inquiry?

(1) The individual. Business ethics concerns the values by which self—interest and other motives are balanced

with concern for fairness and the common good, both inside and outside of a company.

(2) The organization. Business ethics concerns the group conscience that every company has as it pursues its

economic objectives.

(3) The economy. Business ethics concerns the pattern of social, political, and economic forces.

4. List three views of decision making

(1) Moral point of view. It has two important features. The first is a willingness to seek out and act on reasons.

Second, a moral point of view requires the decision maker to be impartial.

(2) Economic point of view. (3) Legal point of view.

5. How to understand an integrated approach?

Many business ethicists advocate a decision—making process that integrates these three viewpoints, considering the demands of morality, economics, and the law together. Decisions, they say, can be made on the basis of morality, profit, and legality together to arrive at workable solutions which will take into account the best interests of all concerned, protect the investment of shareholders, and obey the law.

6. What are the two basic types of judgments?

(1) Two basic types of judgments are normative judgments and moral judgments.

(2) Normative judgments are claims that state or imply that something is good or bad, right or wrong ,better or

worse, ought to be or ought not be.

(3) Moral judgments, then, are a special subset or category of normative judgments.

(4) Businesspeople use two types of moral standards to make decisions. One is moral norms, the other is moral

principles.

7. How to distinguish characteristics of moral principles from other standards?

(1) They have serious consequences to Human Well—Being.

(2) Their validity rests on the adequacy of the reasons which are used to support and justify them.

(3) They override self—interest. (4) They are based on impartial considerations.

8. List the four resources for decision making

(1) Proposals. These are prescriptive statements, suggesting actions. Proposals are often answers to questions.

(2) Observation. These are descriptive statements, describing situations. Observations sometimes look like

assumptions, since they both appear to describe.

(3) Value judgments. These are normative statements, guiding the actions of others. Value judgments can also be

asserted as should statements.

(4) Assumptions. These are reflective statements, expressing world views and attitudes.

9. What separate capacities should decision makers own to make moral judgments?

(1) Ethical sensibility. This is reflected in your capacity to impose ethical order on a situation—to identify aspects

of the situation that have ethical importance.

(2) Ethical reasoning. This means that we determine what kind of ethical problem you face.

(3) Ethical conduct. It is one thing to know what you should do, and quite another to do it.

(4) Ethical leadership. The capacity for ethical leadership ,according to Professor Paine,“is associated with the

highest levels of integrity”.

10. Why many companies fail to apply ethical standards to management communication?

Increased levels of global competition, financial pressures, lack of communication throughout organizations, and the absence of moral leadership at the top levels are but a few of the most prevalent reasons.

11. Why a company should have statements of ethical principles?

Professor Patrick Murphy offers this response:

First, and most important, ethics statements denote the seriousness with which the organization takes its ethical commitments. Words are empty without some documentation. The written statement then serves as a foundation from which ethical behavior can be built. Corporate culture is often viewed as being more important than policies in setting the ethical climate for any organization. However, written ethical priciples send a strong signal that ethical matter to the firm.

(1) Types of ethical statements. They include values statements, corporate credos, and corporate codes of ethical.

(2) Tension and ethical values. Many values, along with the roles and objectives that managers must follow, are in

competition with one another.

(3) How ethical statements can help. The presence of an ethical statement will not automatically ensure ethical

behavior, and promote a companywide dialogue about the value of ethical behavior.

(4) How to make ethical statements work..We should write it, tailor it, communicate it, promote it, revise it, live it

and enforce it.

12. How to understand the “front page”test?

In judging whether its policies or its actions are fundamentally sound, managers might simply apply what is come to be known as the front page test.

CHAPTER 4 Speaking

1. Why speak?

(1) Often, we don’t have a choice .As a manager ,you will find yourself preparing to speak to an audience you’d

rather not meet on a topic you’d rather not talk about. Many streaking assignments are directive in nature.

(2) Many speaking opportunities are voluntary in nature. You give the talk because you choose to do so.

(3) It might be another occasion, explaining to your daughter’s elementary school class what you do for a living.

2. How to prepare a successful management speech?

(1) Develop a strategy.

(2) Get to know your audience. Such as age, education, personal beliefs, occupation, income, socio—economic

status, ethnic origin, sex/gender, knowledge of the subject, attitude toward the subject.

(3)Determine your reason for speaking. (4) Learn what you can about the occasion for your talk.

(5) Know what makes people listen. We can judge from two aspects, positive speaking styles and negative

speaking styles.

(6) Understand the questions listeners bring to any listening situation. Here are seven basic questions. Do you

know something I need to know? Can I trust you? Am I comfortable with you? How can you affect me?

What’s my experience with you? Are you reasonable?Who do you represent?

(7) Recognize common obstacles to successful communication. There are five categories of obstacles. Stereotypes,

prejudice, feelings, language; http://m.wendangku.net/doc/7d02d58c84868762caaed585.htmlmunication obstacles can provoke negative reactions.

(8) Support your ideas with credible evidence.

(9) Organize your thoughts. This include your introduction, how should you begin, how should you structure your

speech, any advice beyond structure and how should you conclude.

(10)Keep your audience interested. This include that provide order and structure, give them something they can

use, make it logical, make it reasonable, make it clear, use words they understand, keep it moving, answer their questions, allay their fears, respect their needs.

(11)Select a delivery approach. You have four options for delivering a speech. Memorized speeches, Manuscripted

speeches, Extemporaneous, Impromptu speeches.

(12) Develop your visual support.

(13) Rehearse your speech. There are two questions. Should you practice? Should you use notes?

(14) Develop confidence in your massage and in yourself.

(15)Deliver your message. This include beforehand, date, time, location, room layout, microphone and

acoustics ,visual—aids, stage, time limits, lectern, notes, lights, try it out ,as you speak.

CHAPTER 5 Writing

1. Pease give an introduction to good business writing

(1) Good business writing is simple, clear, and concise.

(2) Good writing, in business and elsewhere, is a pleasure to read.

(3) No one I know thinks writing is easy.

(4) No teacher of writing can lay much claim to original thinking on this subject.

2. List the fifteen ways to become a better business writer

(1) Keep in mind that your reader doesn’t have much time.

(2) Know where you are going before you start writing.

(3) Don’t make any spelling or grammatical errors. (4) Be responsive to the needs of the reader.

(5) Be clear and specific. (6) Try to use the present tense.

(7) Make your writing vigorous and direct. (8) Use sentences and paragraphs.

(9) Use personal pronouns. (10) Avoid cliches and jargon.

(11) Separate facts from opinions. (12) Use numbers with restraint.

(13) Write the way you talk. (14) Never be content with your first effort.

(15) Make it perfect.

3. What should an overview paragraph of memo tell?

(1) Purpose. Why is you writing the memo?

(2) Main idea. What do you want to tell the reader? Or, what do you want the reader to do?

(3) Opinion.What is your point of view on the subject?

(4) In addition, the overview should begin to establish the tone of the document for your reader.

4. List the six communication strategies

(1) Information strategies, which include that to confirm agreement, to provide facts, to provide a point of view.

(2) Action strategies, which include that to request assistance, to give direction, to seek agreement.

5. Which six basic qualities should we keep in mind as you draft an overview paragraph?

(1) Clear and simple.

(2) Brief.

(3)Deals with the what—not with the how.

(4) Includes and identifies the writer’s opinion.

(5) Reflects the needs of the reader.

(6) Thorough and complete.

6. List several sample of overviews

(1) This recommends [this year’s] Avis national television commercial pool policy of four:30 commercial replaced

every 26 weeks for Avis’candid testimonial advertising. Two commercial groups will be rotated between network and spot at 13—week intervals. The agency agrees.

(2) This provides a summary of Crest’s shipment/share performance through January [of next year].

7. How to write the persuasive memo?

(1) Consider your objective against the reade r’s attitudes, perceptions, and knowledge of the subject.

(2) Outline on paper. (3) Include a plan o action.

(4) Don’t lose your argument in the Situation Analysis. (5) Use the direct approach.

(6) Always lead from strength. (7) Use precedent to make your proposal appear less speculative. (8) Gear your argument to the reader’s decision criteria.

8. Draft the outline for a proposal

(1) Flow of the outline. This includes situation analysis, recommendation, and rationale.

(2) Seven —step outlining procedure. Review your strategy, assemble the information, identify and separate need

to know information, identify and separate the recommended course of action, develop your rationale, rank your arguments from most powerful to least important, test your argument against the reader’s decision criteria.

9. Why standard formats are important?

(1) Having a format in mind for the memo or report as report as you move forward with any project can eliminate

one of the common stumbling blocks to sound thinking and good communication.

(2) A standard format helps you organize information and concepts quickly.

(3) A standard format helps readers too.

(4) A document can be organized or put together in a variety of ways.

10. What aspects does the information memo format include?

The information memo format can be used for a wide variety of documents that seek to inform and provide points of view. These include the following aspects:

(1) Business reviews (2) Research summaries (3) Competitive appraisals

(4) Test market summaries (5) Field trip reports (6) Progress reports

11. List some thoughts on preparing memos that evaluate the competitive activity

(1) Thinking about the competition is much like dealing with an iceberg.

(2) Work backwards and construct a hypothetical statement of strategy based on what’s happening in the

marketplace.

(3) Competitive appraisals are often triggered by changes.

(4) What does this mean to us? (5) Be objective.

12. What should meeting and conference report briefly on and focus on?

(1) Report should briefly on two aspects,what was discussed or presented , what was decided and how.

(2) Report should focus on three aspects, what action is required, who is responsible, what the timing will be. 13. How to understand project lists?

(1) Separate each project by category, and then list projects in order of priority or importance.

(2) If your project list is long, consider adding a cover page to highlight key projects that require management

attention.

(3) Projects should never just disappear.

14. How to make your memos inviting and attractive?

(1) Grab attention up front. (2) Vary sentence and paragraph length—but keep them short.

(3) Use headings. (4) Use bullets and numbers to identify groupings.

(5) Use parallel structure for lists.

(6) Underline or use boldface type to focus on topic sentence, key words, and phrases.

(7) Leave adequate margins. (8) Don’t settle for sloppy or illegible duplication.

15. What questions should we ask ourselves when editing our memos?

(1) Is it clear? (2) Is it complete? (3) Is it persuasive?

(4) Is it concise? (5) Is it inviting to read? (6) Is it perfect?

16. How to write good business letters?

(1) Answer promptly. (2) Show that you are genuinely interested.

(3) Don’t be too short, brief, or curt.(4)If it’s bad news, say you are sorry.

(5) If it’s good news, say you are glad. (6)Give everyone the benefit of the doubt.

(7)Never send off an angry letter. (8)Watch out for cranks.

(9)Appreciate humor. (10) be careful with form letters.

17. What common sense should you know when you are required to explain something?

(1) Nothing is self—explanatory. (2) Translate technical terms.

(3) Go step—by—step. (4) Don’t say too little. (5) Don’t say too much.

(6) Illustrate. (7) Answer expected questions. (8) Warn against common mistakes. 18. What four basic guidelines should we consider when you are required to apologize?

1. Take the complaint seriously.

2. Explain what happened and why.

3. Don’t shift the blame.

4. Don’t just write—do something.

19. What are most common problems when you make your writing efficient?

(1) Big words. (2) ___—wise. (3) Doublings. (4) Noun modifiers.

(5) It is. (6) Legalese. (7) Missing hyphen (8) Smothered verbs.

(9) Specialized terms. (10) That and which. (11) The____ion of. (12) Wordy expressions.

20. Speak when you write, how to use appropriate ideas to guide?

(1) Write with personal pronouns. (2) Use contractions (occasionally).

(3) Reach out to your reader occasionally by asking questions.

(4) Prefer short, spoken transitions over long, bookish ones.

(5) A preposition is a word you can end a sentence with.

(6) Keep sentence short, about 20 words on average.

21. How to make passive verbs active?

(1) Use as few passives as possible. They’re not grammatically wrong, but they are really overworked in most

business writing. To write actively, remember this simple rule: Put the doer before the verb.

(2) Write actively whenever you can. If you decide to cast a sentence in the passive voice, do so only after

considering what the active version would look like.

22. How to better organize your letters?

(1) Use headings and subheadings. (2) Keep paragraphs short.

(3) Don’t clutter up the first paragraph.

23. How to encourage and develop good writers?

(1) Show your people you want clear, concise writing by example.

(2) Know what you want before giving assignments.

(3) When projects are difficult or complex, break up the assignment into manageable parts.

(4) Read and review before discussing a memo.

(5) Try to see the big picture first. (6) Be certain writers to parrot your style and expressions.

CHAPTER 6 Listening and feedback

1. Why listen?

(1) Poor listening can cause disasters.

(2)Listening is the central skill in the establishment and maintenance of interpersonal relationships. No matter

what type of relationship—professional, personal, neighborly, romantic—listening is the skill that forms the bond and keeps the relationship moving forward.

2. Why you should improve your listening?

(1) Listening demonstrates acceptance. (2) Listening promotes problem—solving abilities.

(3) Listening increases the speaker’s receptiveness to the thoughts and ideas of others.

(4) Listening helps you overcome self—consciousness and self—centeredness.

(5) Listening can help you to prevent head—on emotional collisions.

3. How to understand the role of ineffective listening habits?

(1) Ineffective listening habit is not that we can’t listen or don’t listen .It’s far more likely that we’ve learned to

listen haphazardly and in ways that are simply counterproductive.

(2) The first step in becoming a more effective listener, both in the workplace and in our personal lives, is to

identify the poor listening habits we’ve developed over a life—time and replace them with effective ,productive habits.

4. List some poor listening habits

(1) Being preoccupied with talking, not listening. (2) Calling the subject uninteresting.

(3) Letting bias or prejudice distort the message you hear. (4) Oversimplifying answers or explanations. (5) Yielding to external distractions. (6) Yielding to internal distractions.

(7) Avoiding difficult or demanding material. (8) Rationalizing poor listening.

(9) Criticizing the speaker’s delivery. (10) Jumping to conclusions.

(11) Getting over—stimulated. (12) Assigning the wrong meaning to words.

(13) Listening only for the facts. (14)Trying to make an outline of everything we hear.

(15) Faking attention to the speaker. (16) Letting emotion—laden words throw us off the track.

(17) Resisting the temptation to interrupt.

(18) Wasting the differential between the rate at which we speak and the rate at which we think.

5. How to develop good listening habits?

(1) Stop talking. (2) One conversation at a time. (3) Empathize with the person speaking. (4) Ask questions. (5) Don’t interrupt. (6) Show interest.

(7) Give your undivided attention. (8) Evaluate facts and evidence.

(9) React to ideas, not to the speakers. (10) Wishing doesn’t make it so.

(11) Listen for what is not said. (12) Listen to how something is said.

(13) Share the responsibility for communication.

6. Do you know the five essential skills of active listening? Please list them.

(1) Paraphrase others as they speak. (2) Reflect feelings. (3) Reflect meaning.

(4) Reflect conclusions. (5) Follow through.

7. How to make a system for improving your listening habits?

(1) Review your listening inventory. (2) Recognize your undesirable listening habits.

(3) Refuse to tolerate undesirable habits. (4) Replace undesirable habits with effective ones.

8. Feedback is very important, what you do to give a good feedback?

Good feedback doesn’t just happen. It’s the product of careful, deliberate communication strategies, coupled with good interpersonal communication skills. You can significantly increase the probability of communication success if you understand the role of feedback in both personal and professional communication.

9. Give some suggestions of guidelines for constructive feedback.

(1) Acknowledge the need for feedback (2) Give both positive and negative feedback

(3) Understand the context. (4) Provide definitions. (5) Use a common language.

(6) Don’t assume. (7) Focus on behavior rather than people.

(8) Know when to give feedback (9) Know how to give feedback

10. What should you know when to give feedback?

You shouldn’t attempt to give feedback to anther person when

(1)You don’t know much about the circumstance of the behavior.

(2)You don’care about the person or will not be around long enough to follow up on the aftermath of your

feedback. Hit—and—run feedback is not fair.

(3)The feedback, positive or negative, is about something the person has no power to change.

(4)The other person seems low in self—esteem.

(5)You are low in self—esteem.

(6)Your purpose is not really improvement, but to put someone on the spot or demonstrate hpw smart or how

much more responsible you are.

(7)The time, place, or circumstances are inappropriate.

11. Give some suggestions which should make it easier for you to provide feedback that works to anther person.

(1) Be descriptive. (2) Be objective. (3) Don’t use labels. (4) Don’t exaggerate.

(5) Don’t be judgmental. (6) Speak for yourself. (7) Talk first about yourself, not about the other person. (8) Phrase the issue as a statement, not as a question. (9) Encourage people to change.

(10) Restrict your feedback to things you know for certain.

(11) Build trust. (12) Help people hear and accept your compliments when giving positive feedback.

12. When to react to feedback received?

(1) Breathe. (2) Listen carefully. (3) Ask questions for clarity. (4) Acknowledge the feedback. (5) Acknowledge valid points. (6) Don’t be defensive. (7) Try to understand the other person’s objectives.

(8) Take time out to sort out what you heard.

CHAPTER 7 Communicating Nonverbally

1. When talk about nonverbal communication, what shall we have to considerate?

(1)How to read and understand the wordless messages?

(2)How to separate the effects of verbal and nonverbal behavior?

(3)How to behave and communicate in certain ways, and to interpret the meanings of those behaviors, as we grow

up in our culture?

2. What’re the basic categories of nonverbal language?

(1)Sign language (2)Action language (3)Object language

3. What’re the three steps of nonverbal process?

(1)Cue (2)Expectation (3)Inference

4. when can you read nonverbal cues correctly, and when will you mislead it?

(1)Correct

People can usually read someone else’s feeling from the facial expression.

(2) Mislead

While people are right about their reading of character some of the time, especially for more obvious traits like gregariousness, the problem is that they are overly confident and assume that they are equally adept at reading more subtle aspects of character when they are actually misjudging.

5. What’re the functions of nonverbal communication?

(1)Accenting (2)Complementing (3)Contradicting

(4)Regulating (5)Repeating (6)Substituting

6. What’re the principles of nonverba l communication?

(1)Nonverbal communication occurs in a context; (2)Nonverbal behaviors are usually packaged; (3)Nonverbal behavior always communicates; (4)Nonverbal behavior is governed by rules;

(5)Nonverbal behavior is highly believable; (6)Nonverbal behavior is met communicational.

7. What’re the dimensions of the nonverbal code?

(1)The communication environment (2)Body movement (3)Eye contact

(4)A communicator’s physical appearance(5)Artifacts (6)Touch

(7)Paralanguage (8)Space (9)Categories of personal space

(10)Time (11)Color (12)Smell (13)Taste

(14)Sound (15)Silence (16)The effects of nonverbal communication

CHAPTER 8 Communicating in intercultural and

International contexts

1. What’re intercultural challenges at home?

(1)Ethnicity (2)Population growth (3)Immigration

(4)Age (5)Families (6)Women in the workforce

2. What’re cultu ral challenges abroad?

(1)A new world order (2)Customs and culture abroad

3. What does success depends on when do business abroad?

The success or failure of your company abroad will depend on how effectively your employees can exercise their skills in a new location. That ability will depend on both their job-related expertise and each individual’s

sensitivity and responsiveness to a new culture environment.

4. What’s culture?

Culture is everything that people have, think, and do as members of their society.

5. What’re some principles of culture?

(1)Culture is learned; (2)Culture is universal to human society;

(3)Culture is constantly undergoing change; (4)Some cultures change more quickly than others;

(5)Culture is not value-neutral; (6)Not all cultures are equally complex;

(7)Virtually all cultures permit the development of subculture;

(8)Culture can influence biology and biology can influence culture.

6. What’re the functions of cult ure?

Cultures develop economics systems, marriage and family systems, educational systems, and supernatural belief systems. These systems are more complex and intricate in some cultures than in others, but for the most part, people collectively establish rules for economic value and trade, systems for assigning responsibility, for establishing and raising families, for educating children, and for a belief in god or an afterlife.

7. Set an example of ethnocentrism in culture.

We’re born in our country, live with its rules and assumptions day in and day out. We quickly come to believe that the way we live is simply “the way things should be”. As a result, we see our behavior as correct and others’ as wrong.

8. What’re the cross-culture communication skills?

One set of skills essential to success in a global economy, then, is the ability to communicate across cultures. According to a number of authors on this subject, the skill set you need involves several personal capacities.

(1)The capability to accept the relativity of your own knowledge and perceptions;

(2)The capacity to be nonjudgmental; (3) A tolerance for ambiguity;

(4)The capability to communicate for other people’s ways, their country, and their values without adopting or

internalizing them.

CHAPTER 9 Managing Conflict

1. What’s conflict?

We can define conflict as a process that begins when someone perceives that someone else has negatively affected, or is about to negatively affects, something that the first person cares about.

2. How do you think conflict in organization?

(1)The traditional view

This perspective assumed that all conflict was bad.

(2)The human relations view

This viewpoint assumed conflict was a natural occurrence in all groups and organizations.

(3)The interactionist view

The interactionist approach actually encourages conflict on the grounds that a harmonious, peaceful, tranquil and cooperative group may become static, apathetic, and unresponsive to a need for change and innovation.

3. What’re the sources of conflict in organizatio n?

(1)Limited resources; (2)Values, goals, and priorities;

(3)Poorly defined responsibilities; (4)Change; (5)Human drives for success

4. What’re the ways to sense day-to-day conflict in the workplace?

(1)Visualize (2)Give feedback (3)Get feedback (4)Define expectations (5)Review performance regularly 5. What’re the benefits of dealing with conflict?

(1)Stronger relationships (2)Increased self-respect (3)Personal growth and development (4)Improved efficiency and effectiveness (5)Creative thinking (6)Synergy and teamwork

6. How many styles of conflict management and what’re they?

There are five styles of conflict. They’re competing, collaborating, avoiding, accommodating, and compromising.

7. What should you do in conflict?

(1)Listen, listen, and then listen some more; (2)Separate the people from the problem;

(3)Focus on interests, not position; (4)Recognize and accept the feeling of the individuals involved;

(5)Keep your own emotions in neutral; (6)Track the conflict to its source;

(7)Communicate continually and frankly; (8)Get people together on the small stuff first;

(9)Devise option for mutual gain; (10)Define success in terms of gains rather than losses; (11)Follow up to ensure success; (12)Know when to cut your losses.

8. What should you do if you have the problem?

(1)Acknowledge your anger; (2)Don’t look for slights;(3)Know what’s provoking you;

(4)Don’t become infected by coworker’s gripes;(5)Check your own anger signals;

(6)Take a breather; (7)Write a letter; (8)Confide in a friend.

CHAPTER 10 Business Meetings That Work

1. What’s the motivation for meeting?

To achieve goals.

2. What are the six legitimate reasons for having a meeting?

(1)To promote; (2)To educate; (3)To recreate; (4)To initiate; (5)To network; (6)To reward.

3. What’s a business meeting?

A business meeting is a gathering in which a purposeful exchange or transaction occurs among two or more people with a common interest, purpose, or problem.

4. When shall I call a meeting?

(1)People gather together to move group actions forward; (2)People want to meet for social reasons; (3)Talk about goals; (4)Build morale; (5)Listen to reports; (6)Research a consensus;

(7)Train people; (8)Discover or solve problem; (9)Explain plans and programs; (10)Gather opinions;

(11) Tell people what they’re supposed to do and how they’re to do it;(12)Keep things moving.

5. When should I not call a meeting?

(1)A key person in not available; (2)Participants don’t have time to prepare;

(3)Personality conflicts or the plans of higher management might make the meeting a waste of time.

6. What should I consider as I plan for a meeting?

(1)The objective (2) The agenda (3)The participants.

7. What’re the two important considerations about agenda?

(1)Prioritize your agenda items; (2) Assign realistic amounts of time to each agenda item.

8. What kind of participants should you invite?

(1)The people who will have to carry out or implement what’s been decided;

(2)The people who have valuable information or good ideas;

(3)The people who can approve the results;

(4)The people who can act as an advocate on b ehalf of the group’s ideas at a higher level;

(5)The people who represent divergent views or traditionally excluded viewpoint;

(6)The people who are indispensable to the success of the decision.

9. How do I prepare for a successful meeting?

(1)Arrange for a meeting time, date, and place; (2)Coordinate details at the meeting sites;

(3)Announce the agenda; (4)Assign roles.

10. What form or meeting style will work best?

(1)The staff conference

This military-style meeting often works well if you clearly outrank everyone else in the room.

(2)The “congressional” system

This system is useful if you have particularly argumentative members or if the issues to be discussed are especially contentious.

(3)The “house of commons” system

If you’re clearly the ranking person present, but want to make the meeting as democratic as possible, appoint another member to chair the meeting.

11. In order to keep a meeting on track, what things you should do?

(1)Topic drift; (2)Breaking time agreements; (3)Subgroup focus;

12. What should I listen for ?

(1)Consider all of your knowledge, ideas, and opinions as functions of your unique perspective. Consider each other person’s knowledge, ideas, and opinions as functions of thei r perspective.

(2)Pay attention to your own point of view, especially as it relate to others;

(3)Remember that considering an issue from many different viewpoint is what makes a team smart. Value the opportunity to meet with people who see things differently than you do.

(4)Practice what collaboration consultant Christopher Avery calls “playback listening”. Pay careful attention to what others say so that you can playback their words to them exactly.

(5)Hear others with the intention of integrating your point of view with ai many others as you can.

(6)Try not to think in terms of right and wrong, but rather in terms of what works and doesn’t work.

13. What should I do to maximize participation and collaboration?

(1)Choose a round or square table, with the leader seated as a member of the group;

(2)For longer meetings, set up chair in a U-shape;

(3)For large groups, arrange banquet-style seating to accommodate five to eight people, using as many round tables as necessary.

14. What should I write down?

The names and titles of those present, the agenda items discussed, the participant comments, and the ideas generated should find their way onto paper. If the group leader is to follow up on decisions, new ideas, or

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