速记符号

综合写作(一)——如何速记

一、缩写词:Abbreviations in Note taking

l Use only the abbreviations that fit your needs and that you willremember easily. A good idea is to introduce only a few abbreviations into yournote taking at a time.

1.Symbols helpful in math -- these are commonly used in texts andreferences.

S = sum

f = frequency

l Leave out periods in standard abbreviations.

cf = compare

e.g. = example

dept = department

l Use only the first syllable of a word.

pol = politics

dem = democracy

lib = liberal

cap = capitalism

l Use entire first syllable and only 1st letter of 2nd syllable.

pres = presentation

subj = subject

ind = individual

cons = conservative

l Eliminate final letters. Use just enough of the word to form a recognizableabbreviation.

assoc = associate

biol = biology

info = information

ach = achievement

chem = chemistry

max = maximum

intro = introduction

conc = concentration

min = minimum

rep = repetition

l Omit vowels, retain only enough consonants to give a recognizableskeleton of the word. ppd = prepared

prblm = problem

estmt = estimate

bkgd = background

gvt = government

l Use an apostrophe in place of letters.

am't = amount

cont'd = continued

gov't = government

educat'l = educational

l Form the plural of a symbol or abbreviated word by adding s.

chpts = chapters

egs = examples

fs = frequencies

intros = introductions

l Use g to represent ing endings.

ckg = checking

estg = establishing

decrg = decreasing

exptg = experimenting

Spell out short words such as in, at, to, but, for,and key.

l Abbreviations or symbols for short words will make the notes toodense with shorthand.

Leave out unimportant words.

Leave out the words a and the.

二、使用符号

A. 逻辑符号:

+ 或 & = and

w/ = with

w/o =without

= = is, are, means,refers to, like, is called 表等同关系

≠ = not, different

≈ = about, appoximately……表大概

abt = about

# = number

× = times

à = result in, cause, produces, therefore……表推断关系

? = come from, derive from 来自……

ex 或 eg。=example

@ = at

/ = of

< = less,smaller

> = more, larger

btw = between

=rise, increase, ascent……

= fall, decrease, descent……

∵∴= because so 表因果

△表强调或注意的地方

++ (+2)表示"多"的比较级:more

+3 表示"多"的最高级:most

-表示"少": little, few, lack ,in short of/ be inshortage of etc.

×表示"错误"、"失误"和"坏"的概念:wrong/incorrect,something bad,notorious,negative, etc.

> 表示"多于"概念:bigger/larger/greater/morethan/better than, etc.

表示"高" 概念:superiorto,surpass, etc.

< 表示"少于"概念:less/smaller,etc.

表示"低"概念:inferiorto,etc.、

表示"对手"概念:amatch, rival, competitor, counterpart, etc.

()表示"在……之间":among,within, etc.

≠表示"不同"概念:bedifferent from, etc.

表示"无敌"概念:matchless,peerless, etc.

~表示"大约"概念:about/around,or so,approximately, etc.

/ 表示"否定","消除"等概念:crossout, eliminate, etc.

: 表示各种各样"说"的动词:say, speak, talk, marks, announce, declare,etc.

? 表示"问题":question,issue,例如:台湾问题:tw?

. (dot)这个"."点的位置不同表示的概念也不一样".d"表示yesterday, ".y"表示last year, ".2m" 表示two month ago."y"表示this year, "y2." two yearlater"next week", 可以表示为"wk."

∧表示转折

√表示"好的"状态,right/good,famous/well-known,etc.

表示"同意"状态,standup for,support, agree with sb, certain/ affirmative, etc. ☆表示"重要的"状态:important,exemplary(模范的)best,outstanding,brilliant,etc.

n 表示"交流"状态:exchange,mutual, etc.

& 表示"和","与":and,together with,alongwith, accompany,along with,furthermore,etc.

∥表示"结束":end,stop,halt,bring sth to a standstill/stop, etc.

三、较长单词的处理办法

-ism 简写为 m 例如:socialism Sm

-tion 简简写为 n 例如:standardization (标准化) stdn

-cian 简简写为 o 例如:technician techo

-ing 简写为 g 例如:marketing(市场营销) MKTg

-ed 简写为 d 例如:accepted acptd

-able/ible/ble 简写为 bl 例如:available avbl

-ment 简写为 mt 例如:amendment amdmt

-ize 简写为 z 例如:recognizeregz

-ful 简写为 fl 例如:meaningfulmnfl

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