新标准大学英语_综合教程3_课后答案unit 7

Unit 7

Active reading (1)

Can bad luck be explained?

Language points

1 Part of the explanation for bad luck is mathematical, but part is psychological. (Para 2)

The sentence means bad luck is not only a matter of the odds for or against something happening, but of

our memories and attitudes.

2 This popular notion would be unlikely to stand the scrutiny of any scientific study … otherwise the

phrase would never have arisen in the first place. (Para 3)

To stand the scrutiny of any scientific study means to survive any scientific examination.

The expression in the first place is used to mean what someone did or should have done at the start of a

situation, eg I wish I’d never got involved i n the first place.

3 So badness is much better represented as being on a spectrum rather than something which is there

or not there. (Para 5)

The sentence means that badness is not an either / or quality, but a matter of degree, and it exists on a

continuum.

4 When it comes to bad things happening in threes, what may be most important of all is the duration

and memorability of the first event. (Para 7)

The sentence means that the impact of the first unpleasant event and the length of time we remember it is

the critical factor in the origin of the common idea that three bad events often occur together.

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5 The timescale has been extended as long as is necessary to confirm the original prophecy. (Para 8)

The idea behind the sentence is that after one bad event, people predict two more and will wait a long time

if necessary for them to happen and so to prove the prediction.

6 But it is more likely that a friend will tell you “three bad things have

happened to me, isn’t that

ty pical” than “only two bad things have happened to me, which just proves that the theory doesn’t

work”. (Para 9)

Some times after the second bad event, nothing happens for a long time. We could tell people that our

experience shows that the idea that bad luck comes in threes is wrong. But we do not. That seems to be

asking for a third piece of bad luck to come along. Instead we wait for the third event and then say the old

theory has been proved yet again.

7 It is related to probability and independence. (Para 10)

Probability means how events are connected to one another, how probable it is something will happen.

Independence refers to how much interdependence there is between events.

8 One of the best examples of selective memory … (Para 16)

A selective memory means remembering only some facts or only what we want to. We select some

memories and reject others.

Reading and understanding

2 Choose the best way to complete the sentences.

1 Murphy’s Law is (a) .

(a) a popular belief

(b) a scientific law

(c) a classical theory

(d) a statistical calculation

2 Bad luck (b) .

(a) can be explained by science

(b) can be partly blamed on strange coincidences

(c) only really exists in people’s minds

(d) is impossible to explain

3 “Bad luck” is a problematic concept because (a) .

(a) it is relative; some things are more “bad” than others

(b) it suggests a connection between science and morality

(c) luck is never good or bad by definition

(d) it encourages people not to take responsibility for their own actions

4 Unlucky events seem to come in threes because (b) .

(a) three is an unlucky number in most cultures

(b) the mind wants to make connections between events

(c) we don’t notice single unlucky events

(d) we can’t remember more than three connected events

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5 For some people, unlucky events are connected because (d) .

(a) they are psychologically weaker than other people

(b) they have better memories than other people

(c) they define bad luck differently from other people

(d) the first unlucky event has an effect on them which makes the second event more likely

6 The writer says map reading is a frustrating experience because (a) .

(a) the destination will often be marked very near the edge of the map

(b) it is difficult to consult a street atlas while you’re in a car

(c) the destination is unlikely to be marked in the middle of the map

(d) modern road maps have not been well designed

7 The writer says we believe that traffic lights are always re d when we’re in

a hurry because (b) .

(a) traffic lights spend more time on red than green

(b) we hardly notice when the lights are green

(c) red lights are a source of stress

(d) red lights appear more often when a driver is in a hurry

8 The examples of map reading and traffic lights both show that (a) .

(a) we are often too ready to interpret a neutral event as “bad”

(b) if we are in a hurry, something bad will usually happen

(c) journeys need to be carefully planned to avoid things going wrong

(d) bad luck is a direct result of stress and anxiety

Dealing with unfamiliar words

3 Match the words in the box with their definitions.

1 something harmful or unpleasant that happens to someone (misfortune)

2 neither positive nor negative (neutral)

3 relating to or involving mathematics (mathematical)

4 weak or easy to hurt physically or mentally (vulnerable)

5 happening or coming after something else (subsequent)

6 the number of times that something happens during a period of time (frequency) 4 Complete the sentences with the correct form of the words in Activity 3.

1 Some people seem to blame all their misfortunes on bad luck.

2 Many people would argue that there is no such thing as bad luck; all events are neutral.

3 The frequency with which things seem to go wrong may depend on things like health factors.

4 Is it a mathematical certainty that toast will always fall butter side down?

5 We need to help the most vulnerable people in our society.

6 If you’re depressed, and one thing goes wron g, all subsequent events are likely to seem negative too.

5 Replace the underlined words with the correct form of the words in the box. You may need to make

other changes.

1 Which is the quickest way to the town centre? (route)

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2 Our math teacher’s lesson included part of yesterday’s lecture. (overlapped) Our math teacher’s lessen overlapped with yesterday’s lecture.

3 You’ll find the statistics department in the building next to this one. (adjacent)

4 Unfortunately, two hundred people lost their jobs last month. (sacked) Unfortunately, two hundred people were sacked last month.

5 Why do certain groups of letters stay close together in this language? (cluster)

6 The office will be closed for the whole period of the Christmas holidays. (duration)

6 Answer the questions about the words and expressions.

1 If you subject something to scrutiny, do you look at it (a) carefully, or (b) superficially?

2 If something is marginally interesting, is it of (a) great interest, or (b) limited interest?

3 If a problem is alive and kicking, (a) can you ignore it, or (b) must you do something about it?

4 Is a reminder intended to (a) keep you awake, or (b) stop you forgetting?

5 If you are made redundant, have you (a) been given a job, or (b) lost your job?

6 If something crops up, were you (a) expecting it, or (b) not really expecting it to happen?

7 If you duplicate a document, do you (a) send it to someone, or (b) make a copy of it?

8 Do two consecutive events happen (a) at the same time, or (b) one after the other?

9 After physical exertion, do most people feel (a) tired, or (b) full of energy?

Active reading (2)

Language points

1 My research had persuaded me that musicality is deeply embedded in the human

genome … (Para 1)

Genome is a complete set of genes of an organism.

Musicality refers to a natural interest in and ability for music.

2 … if only I took a few lessons I would find my voice. (Para 1)

The sentence means if I would have some music lessons, I would soon learn to sing nicely.

3 As well as testing whether I could improve my tone, pitch and rhythm … (Para 2)

The pitch refers to the quality of sound we speak of in terms of high and low. The tone is the fixed

vibration of the vocal cords producing a pleasing sound. The dynamics (Para 5, Line 5) are volume and

style of a sound.

4 With the help of functional MRI he had begun to identify … (Para 2)

A functional MRI, functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging, is a scanner which detects amounts and

whereabouts of brain activity.

5 We agreed that … covering various musical tasks such as sustaining a pitch, singing scales and in

rhythm. (Para 3)

To sustain a pitch means to keep to a musical key; to sing scales means to move up and down a musical

scale; to sing in rhythm means to maintain a beat.

6 Later, he would process the images … to give snapshots of the mental activity involved. (Para 4)

To give snapshots of something means to give a series of images of something.

7 On a few occasions when singing with my wife we both experienced fleeting feelings of emotional

intimacy as our voices blended into one … (Para 5)

The sentence means all of a sudden we both had moments when we felt closer to one another as we sang

the same notes at the same time.

8 Encore! (Subtitle)

Encore is the French word for again, shouted at the end of good performances asking for a little more.

Here, the writer is happy with the outcome though not with his singing.

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Reading and understanding

2 Number the events in the order they occurred.

2 He drew up a plan with a researcher and a teacher.

3 He had a couple of lessons and learnt how to read music.

9 He discovered changes in the way his brain worked.

5 He learnt how to breathe properly.

1 The writer decided he wanted to learn to sing.

8 He had a second brain scan.

4 He had a brain scan.

7 He became depressed with his slow progress.

6 He did exercises to develop a sense of rhythm.

3 Choose the best answer to the questions.

1 Why did the writer take part in the experiment?

(a) To sing with his wife.

(b) To find out more about his brain.

(c) To do research for a book about Neanderthal humans.

(d) To investigate the relationship between singing and brain activity.

2 How did the experiment affect his family life?

(a) He spent a lot of time singing with his wife and children.

(b) He made his children practise late at night.

(c) He disturbed his children by singing late at night.

(d) His marriage nearly came to an end.

3 What results did the experiment show?

(a) There is no connection between singing ability and brain activity.

(b) It is not possible to sing lying down.

(c) Regular brain scans can improve singing ability.

(d) There is a connection between singing ability and brain activity.

4 What conclusion did the writer reach?

(a) He will never be able to sing well.

(b) Some people will never be able to sing.

(c) Learning to sing is a complex and mysterious process.

(d) Everyone can learn to sing, but it takes time.

Dealing with unfamiliar words

4 Match the words in the box with their definitions.

1 to continue trying to achieve something difficult (persevere)

2 used for showing that something you say is really true (literally)

3 a new business or activity (venture)

4 the belief that you are able to do things well (confidence)

5 to provide the conditions in which something can happen or exist (sustain)

6 feeling annoyed and impatient (frustrated)

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5 Complete the paragraph with the correct form of the words in Activity 4.

I never thought I would become a musician. I’ve always liked music, but didn’t

study it at school and I

found it a bit (1) frustrating not to be able to read music or to sing in tune. That is, until the day I decided

to learn to play the piano. It was quite a difficult (2) venture at first. The hardest thing was to (3) persevere

with practice. But little by little I began to make progress, and, with it, to grow in (4) confidence. In fact,

I managed to (5) sustain the enthusiasm to such an extent that, at the age of 35, I gave up my job as a data

analyst to become a professional musician. In my case, music (6) literally changed my life.

6 Replace the underlined words with the correct form of the words in the box.

1 When I play the piano I usually mix different styles such as jazz and classical. (blend)

2 One of my favourite pieces of music is called The Planets. (entitled)

3 I thought I would learn quickly, but I was clearly mistaken. (evidently)

4 How much is left if we take off 80 euros from your fee? (subtract)

5 The photocopier is broken, but you can use the machine which copies images and stored them on a

computer. (scanner)

6 To have such wonderful children has been a great source of happiness for us both. (blessing)

7 The new hospital is open now, but it isn’t working as it should. (functional)

7 Answer the questions about the words and expressions.

1 If you are haunted by something, do you think about it (a) often, or (b) hardly ever?

2 If you are turned off from something, do you (a) show interest in it, or (b) lose interest in it?

3 When someone collaborates with you, do they (a) help you, or (b) prevent you from doing what you

want to do?

4 Are the rudiments of musical knowledge (a) the basic facts, or (b) the most recent discoveries?

5 Does a precocious child show skills and intelligence (a) above, or (b) below the average?

6 Are excerpts from a film or a piece of music (a) short extracts, or (b) critical reviews?

7 If you do something in the intimacy of your own home, do you expect (a) strangers, or (b) only your

own family to see you do it?

8 If you stumble, do you (a) fall and then keep going, or (b) fall and stop completely?

9 If you feel elated about something, do you feel (a) very happy, or (b) very sad?

Reading and interpreting

8 Choose the best way to complete the sentences.

1 The title “The diva within” suggests that (b) .

(a) artists have very private lives

(b) anyone can be a good singer

(c) great musicians are born, not made

(d) to become a good singer, you have to think a lot

2 The word encore is used because (d) .

(a) it refers to a second performance of something

(b) it is usually used in a musical context

(c) it suggests that people are happy with a performance

(d) all three of the above reasons

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9 Decide if the writer’s experiences are motivating (M) or frustrating (F).

1 writing a book called The Singing Neanderthals (M)

It inspires him to do all sorts of interesting research.

2 his childhood experience with a music teacher (F)

He felt humiliated.

3 meeting Larry Parsons at the University of Sheffield (M)

He offered new ways he could pursue his research.

4 listening to Pam sing (M)

He found it beautiful and wanted to learn more about the human relationship with music.

5 monitoring his own progress as a student of singing (F)

He says he got frustrated in Paragraph 5.

6 the effect on family life as he practised (F)

His singing wasn’t good for his family life.

7 lying still during the second brain scan (F)

In Paragraph 6, it says “Lying still was even more frustrating than the last time because I had learned

that moving my body was as important to singing as was flexing my vocal cords.”

8 leaving the scanner after the second brain scan (M)

The writer was elated that his work for the experiment was done.

9 seeing the results of the second scan (M)

The results of the research confirmed his ideas.

Now decide whether the writer was pleased with the results of the experiment and give reasons.

I think he was pleased. A negative result would have been rather depressing, but now he had some new

information he could work on. Also he had learned something about singing. Note that the frustrating

experiences tend to come earlier than some of the motivating ones. Finally he was elated it was all over!

Language in use

word formation: -ity and -ility

1 Look at the sentences from the passage Can bad luck be explained?

When it comes to bad things happening in threes, what may be most important of all is the duration and

memorability of the first event.

There is … rational reason why bad events might cluster together. It is related to probability and

independence.

Now find three more nouns ending in -ity or -ility in the passage The diva within . Ability, musicality, activity.

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2 Rewrite the sentences changing the underlined adjectives into nouns.

1 It is possible that the insurance won’t pay you for this accident.

There is a possibility that the insurance won’t pay you for this accident.

2 I am not responsible for anything that happens to you.

It’s not my responsibility what happens to you.

3 I’m not sure how suitable this programme is for you.

I’m not sure of this programme’s suitability for you.

4 The fact that the calculation was complex slowed me down.

The calculation’s complexity slowed me down.

5 Being naturally curious is a characteristic of many great thinkers. Natural curiosity is a characteristic of many great thinkers.

6 I was surprised that her behaviour was stupid.

I was surprised at the stupidity of her behaviour.

when it comes to …

3 Rewrite the sentences using when it comes to …

1 If we consider evaluating students’ work, there are always some very difficult choices to be made.

When it comes to evaluating students’ work, there are always some very difficult choices to be made.

2 If we consider the examples of bad luck you spoke about, many of these seem to be rather unimportant.

When it comes to the examples of bad luck you spoke about, many of these seem to be rather

unimportant.

3 If we turn our attention to human psychology, we see that this is very closely related to physical health

and well-being.

When it comes to human psychology, we see that this is very closely related to physical health and wellbeing.

4 In the case of learning an instrument like the piano or violin, a lot of patience and the ability to

persevere are essential.

When it comes to learning an instrument like the piano or violin, a lot of patience and the ability to

persevere are essential.

5 If we turn our attention to non-scientific studies of good and bad luck, there are all sorts of fantastic

theories.

When it comes to non-scientific studies of good and bad luck, there are all sorts of fantastic theories.

if only

4 Rewrite the sentences using if only .

1 I won’t be able to work out this mathematical problem unless you are quiet for a few minutes.

If only you were quiet for a few minutes, I would be able to work out this mathematical problem.

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2 You won’t be able to find your way in life unless you start to understand the difference between good

and bad advice.

If only you understood the difference between good and bad advice, you would be able to find your way

in life.

3 I won’t be able to sleep well tonight unless I stop worrying about what happened this morning.

If only I stopped worrying about what happened this morning, I would be able to sleep well tonight.

4 The number of accidents at work won’t decrease unless people are more careful

and follow the safety

instructions.

If only people were more careful and followed the safety instructions, the number of accidents at work

would decrease.

5 You won’t become a great singer unless you are prepared to practise at least six hours every day.

If only you practised six hours every day, you would become a great singer. collocations

5 Read the explanations of the words. Answer the questions.

1 route A route is usually a way that buses, trains, ships or planes travel regularly.

(a) Do you know the most direct route to the centre of town?

Yes, you go along North Road and turn left at the park corner.

(b) When is it a good idea to seek an alternative route?

When there are road works or traffic jams.

(c) What do you know about the ancient trade routes between Europe and China? The road was called the Silk Road linking China with the Roman Empire.

2 confidence This word usually means the belief in yourself or the trust you have in someone else.

(a) Are you the kind of person who gains or loses confidence when keeping failing?

I tend to see the negative aspects of things, so I’m the kind of person who loses confidence when

keeping failing.

(b) What did a company do if they have to win back the confidence of the customers? Probably they sold some stuffs of a low quality which then ruined their reputation.

(c) How will you prepare yourself in order to go into the business world with confidence?

Maybe I have to get a business degree or gain relating work experiences.

3 blend This word usually means to combine different tastes, styles or qualities in a way that is attractive

or effective.

(a) If you blend the ingredients for a soup, what have you done with them?

I have mixed them together.

(b) If you blend butter with sugar, then add eggs and flour, what kind of food are you making?

A cake.

(c) What would you expect to do on a course which uses blended learning approach?

A mixture of learning methods, usually classroom sessions and computer-based learning.

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4 sustain This word usually means to provide the conditions in which something can happen or exist.

(a) By which means can a country sustain economic growth?

For example, to expand domestic demand, or manage to maintain its competitive edge in new

technology development and international trade etc.

(b) Which other planet in our solar system do scientists believe can sustain life?

Mars.

(c) What did you do to sustain your interest in English?

I reminded myself how useful English could be.

6 Translate the paragraphs into Chinese.

1 Red lights come up just as often when the driver is not in a hurry; it’s just that the disadvantage of the

red light is considerably less if time is not critical. The false part of the perception is that red lights

happen more than green lights. The reason for this is simply that a driver has more time to think about a

red light than a green light, because while the latter is gone in seconds –and indeed is an experience no

different from just driving along the open road –the red light forces a change of behaviour, a moment

of exertion and stress, and then a deprivation of freedom for a minute or so. Red lights stick in the mind,

while green lights are instantly forgotten. (The false part of the perception

直译为“认知中错误的

部分”不妥,应译成“错觉”。第三句是一个复杂的长句,应按原文的顺序拆分成若干短句。整个

段落的译文要注意对比与因果的关系。)

司机不赶时间的时候碰到的红灯其实和赶时间的时候一样多;只是如果时间不紧急,红灯带来的不

便要小得多。认为红灯出现的次数比绿灯多其实是一种错觉。产生这种错觉的原因很简单,因为司

机有更多的时间去想红灯,而绿灯的时候,车子几秒钟之内就疾驰而过了——这其实和在畅通的公

路上开车没有任何区别——而红灯却迫使司机改变行为,一小会儿的时间里要强迫自己努力一下,

承受点压力,还要失去一两分钟的自由。所以红灯会深深地印在司机的脑海里,而绿灯转瞬间就被

抛到脑后了。

2 Can anyone learn to sing? It’s a question that haunted me as I was writing

my most recent book The

Singing Neanderthals. My research had persuaded me that musicality is deeply embedded in the human

genome, with far more ancient evolutionary roots than spoken language. Yet here

I was, unable to carry

a tune or match a rhythm. Friends and academic colleagues claimed this was simply because I had been

“turned off” from music as a child and if only I took a few lessons I would find my voice. Maybe they

were r ight. So humiliated was I by music teachers who made me “sing” alone in front of the class that

I dropped music at the first opportunity and haven’t participated in anything musical for over 35 years.

Perhaps I could learn to sing. (被动说法I had been turned off from music 译

成主动态更好一些。倒

数第二句原文是倒装句,译文不必按原文的顺序译,但需把长句拆分成短句。)

人人都能学会唱歌吗?在撰写我最新出版的《唱着歌的尼安德特人》一书时,这个问题就一直萦

绕在我的心头。我做的研究让我相信音乐才能是深深植根于人类基因中的,从进化史的角度来说,

它比人类的口头语言都要古老得多。可是我本人一唱起歌来不是跑调,就是跟不上节奏。朋友们

和学术同僚们都说,那都是因为我小时候对音乐失去了兴趣,只要上几节音乐课,我一定能放声

歌唱。也许他们是对的。记得小时候,音乐老师们让我在全班同学面前独“唱”,让我觉得很丢脸。

所以后来一有机会,我就躲开音乐,35 年来从来没有参加过任何音乐活动。说不定学一学我也能

唱得不错。

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7 Translate the paragraphs into English.

1 媒体对于接连发生的两件惨剧之间没有任何关系的说法表示怀疑,总统没有迅速作出反应也让大家很

不满。谈到总统的执政能力,媒体早已失去信心,除非他能在随后的任期中有所作为。(consecutive;

independent of; responsive; when it comes to; if only)

The media doubt the claim that the two consecutive tragedies were independent of each other, and

are dissatisfied with the fact that the President was not responsive immediately. When it comes to his

competence in running the government, the media have long lost their trust, if

only he could do well in

his subsequent term.

2 时刻牢记不要因为你的孩子成绩不好而羞辱他们,因为这种被羞辱的痛苦记忆可能会困扰孩子很长时

间,使他们从小就厌学,并且会妨碍他们形成积极的生活态度。只有当父母发现孩子身上的优点,并

且不断鼓励他们,孩子的发展才能得以长久。(turn off from; humiliate; haunt; identify)

Keep remembering that do not humiliate your child because they don’t gain good grades, as their

memory of the humiliation will haunt them for a long time, turn them off from learning at an early

age and prevent them from gaining positive attitudes towards life. The development of children can be

sustained only when parents identify the strengths in their children and encourage them from time to time.

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