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Unit 1

Culture Is Subject to Change

three common mechanisms: innovation, diffusion, and acculturation.

Although many aspects of culture are subject to change, the deep structure of a culture resist major alterations. Innovation: is usually defined as the

discovery of new practices, tools, or concepts that many members of the culture eventually accept and that may produce slight changes in social habits and behaviors

Diffusion: is the borrowing by one culture from another. Historically, diffusion has been part of cultural contact for as long as cultures have existed.

l Acculturation: as a type of cultural change, occurs when a society undergoes drastic culture change under the influence of a more dominant culture and society with which it has come in contact.

?The features of stereotypes

?Overgeneralization, oversimplification and the often negative evaluations.

?In the same cultural group, people seemingly bear consistent stereotype.

?The stereotypes are both changeable and unchangeable.

?Embedded in single word, phrase or an image, or a combination of words and images.

E.g. “Negros”, “Japs”小日本

Unit2

Traits of Highly Individualist Cultures

?Emphasis on individual initiative, decisions, and achievement.

?Control the behavior through Self-generated sanction or guilt

?Rapid decision-making but slow implementation

?The belief that in society, everyone is supposed to take care of himself or

herself and his or her immediate family

?“I” consciousnessand self-orientation: identity based in the individual

?Emotional independence of the individual from organizations or institutions

?Belief that everyone has a right to a private life and opinion

?The idea that the same value standards should apply to all: universalism

Traits of Collectivist Cultures

? Emphasis on belonging to groups and organizations that make decisions and

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