全新版大学英语(二)unit 5语法

Unit 5 True Height

Global Reading

Ⅰ. Questions about the Text

1.What does the text title True Height mean?

(=It has more than one meaning. They are:

1) the new bar heights that Michael cleared one after another.

2) the tremendous obstacles Michael had overcome in attaining his goal.)

2.As the text consists of the main story and a flashback, can you figure out the flashback

(=The flashback is from line 11 to line 35)

Ⅱ. Scanning

1. Scan the text again to find out all the instances where “work” is used as a verb and explain in English the different meaning of “ work”.

(=work: v. 1) (cause to) be active or use effort or power

* “… want something, work for it.” (LL. 24~25) (L. 35) (L. 84)

2) be active in the proper way, without failing

* “It wasn’t working.” (L. 5)

3) exercise

* “He worked out every other day…” (L. 27) )

2. Scan the whole text to find out all the words and phrases that are related to sports or stadium. And think about their Chinese equivalents.

National Junior Olympics 全国少年奥林匹克运动会

personal best 个人最高记录

stand(s) 看台

final race 赛跑决赛

pole vault event 撑竿跳高项目

track and field competition 田径比赛

gymnast 体操运动员

body builder 健美运动员

weightlifting 举重

bar 横杆

inflated landing mat 充气垫

vaulter 撑竿跳高运动员

finger-tipped push-up 俯卧撑

runway 跑道

National record 全国记录

pole 撑竿

take-off 起跳

set a new world record 刷新一项世界纪录

Ⅲ. Part Division of the Text

Parts Lines Main Ideas

1 1~11 Michael faced the most challenging competition in his pole-vaulting

career.

2 12~35 Michael’s childhood was marked with dreams and tough training.

3 36~90 Michael topped his personal best, won the championship and set a new

world record.

4 91~9

5 What was most unusual about Michael’s victory was that he was blind.

Ⅳ. Further Understanding

For Part 1

Description

http://m.wendangku.net/doc/8c7af99d5f0e7cd1842536f0.htmle your own words to draw a picture of the stadium on that day, including the weather,

Michael’s appearance and inner feeling, the audience’s response, etc.

http://m.wendangku.net/doc/8c7af99d5f0e7cd1842536f0.htmle your own words to describe what kind of event the pole vault is.

For Part 2

Questions and Answers

1.From the descript ion of Michael’ parents, what can you learn about his parents? (=Michael’s

mother is romantic and passionate, while his father is a hard-core realist.)

2.Brainstorm the various obstacles Michael might face during the hard training.

(Open-ended.)

3. What personality traits are attributed to Michael’s success?

(=He is diligent, perseverant, optimistic, ambitious, etc.)

For Part 3

Chart Completion

Height of the pole Michael’s reaction before/after clearing the bar Importance Before After

17 feet His palm were

sweating. He

needed a towel to

dry his grip. (L. 1) 1.If Michael Stone was

surprised, excited or

vain…(LL. 37~38)

2.He seemed unaware

of …(LL. 40~41)

3 inches higher than

his personal best

17 feet 2, 17 feet 4 …, again he showed no emotion. (LL. 43~44)

17 feet 6 1. It startled him...

(L. 53)

2. The intensity …

anxiety. (L. 56)

3. He became more

tense. (L. 57)

4. Afraid would be … 1.It was … that brought

Michael back to earth.

(LL. 79~80)

2.On his back with that

wonderful hot sun…(LL.

81~81)

9 inches higher than

his personal best

(LL. 58~59)

17 feet 216

He later went on that day to clear 17 feet 216 A National and International Junior Olympics record

For Part 4

Discussion

1. Why does the author keep the secret about Michael’s blindness until the last sentence?

2. Who would you admire better, a Michael Stone with a sound body or a blind Michael Stone? Ⅴ. Writing Skills

As the text consists of the main story and a flashback, the narration has to switch from the ongoing competition to earlier events and then return to the ongoing competition. How does the author manage to make these parts in the text flow smoothly?

1. One way is to repeat a key word in the last sentence of a paragraph in the first sentence of

the next paragraph, e.g.

It also has the element of flying , and the thought of flying as high as a two-story building is a mere fantasy to anyone watching such an event.

As long as Michael could remember he had always dreamed of flying .

2. Another way is to pick up a key idea from a previous paragraph and repeat it in the sentence

introducing the next paragraph, e.g.

All of Michael’s vaults today seemed to b e the reward for his hard work .

Detailed Reading

Ⅰ. Difficult Sentences

1. (LL. 8~9) It combines the grace of a gymnast with the strength of a body builder.

Translate the sentence into Chinese.

(=它融合了体操运动员的优雅与健美运动员的力量。)

2. (LL. 16~20) He would be running sown a country road. As he raced between golden wheat

fields, he would…

Why is Michael’s dream of flying described in details?

(=Because Michael has a very deep impression about the dream. There are two evidence for that: 1) His mother read him numerous stories about flying when he was growing up. 2) He always dreamed of flying.)

3. (L. 21) Where he flew would always coincide with his mother’s stories.

Paraphrase the sentence.

(=In his dreams, he would always fly over those places described in his mother’s stories.)

4.(L. 23) His dad, on the other hand, was not a dreamer.

1. What is function of the phrase “on the other hand”?

(=The phrase is used for comparing different things or ideas.)

2. What can you infer from the phrase?

(=Michael’ s parents are tota lly different types of people and they play the different roles in Michael’s success.)

5.(LL. 47~48) Nothing to be ashamed of, but Michael would not allow himself the thought of

not winning first place.

1. Paraphrase the first part of the sentence.

(=He wou ld not be ashamed of getting himself the second place, but…)

2. What can you learn from the sentence?

(=Michael holds a very attitude toward the competition. On the one hand, he wouldn’t think it is a shame of winning the second place, on the other hand, he would try his best to win the first place.)

6.(LL. 54) Then it all hit him like a wet bale of hay.

1. Paraphrase the sentence.

(=If something strikes you like a wet bale of hay, it comes as a sudden, forceful and unpleasant surprise.)

2. Use some adjectives to describe how Michael felt at that time.

(=He felt anxious, tense, nervous, etc.)

7.(LL. 68~69) The silence was deafening.

Is this sentence contradictory with “silence” and “deafening”?

(=No. “Deafening” here is used to modify “the silence”. It is not an ordinary silence, but a deafening one. This shows both Michael and the crowd are very tense at that moment.)

8.(L. 76) Only this time he knew he wasn’t dreaming.

What does “only” mean here?

(=“Only” here means “but”.)

Ⅱ. Words and Expressions

1.(L. 1) sweat:

1.v. produce sweat

*The white shirts were sweated through.

*He was sweating after working so hard.

2. n. liquid which comes out from the body through the skin to cool it

(=I was covered in sweat after running to catch the bus.)

2.(L. 8) grace: n.

1) quality of being smooth and elegant, esp. in movement or structure

*We admired the grace with which the fashion models walked across the room.

*She danced with a grace that surprised us.

2) kindness; willingness to do what is right

*She had the grace to say that he was right.

*他勉强地承认他错了。

(=He agreed that he was wrong with bad grace.)

3.(L. 10) mere: adj. nothing more than

(=She lost the election by a mere 20 votes.)

光说无济于事。

(=Mere words won’t help.)

4.(L. 10) fantasy: n. (creation of ) imagination

*The story is a fantasy.

*He lives in a world of fantasy.

CF: fantasy, fancy & imagination

fantasy 通常指无限制的,不受意志支配的,完全脱离现实的空想。例如:

*An amusement park full of figures from fairy tales may be called Fantasy Land. 一个游

乐园,如果充满了神话故事中的人物塑雕,则堪称虚幻境界。

fancy 强调凭空想象客观世界不存在之事物,这种凭空想象并非完全脱离现实,只是离现实较远。例如:

*Her mind went where fancy took it. 他总是不着边际地胡思乱想。

imagination 是个常用词,最少有贬义,它所表示的想象或想象力可以指对过去的事物的重新构想;也可以指对不存在或不能存在之事物的构想。例如:

*Does she have the imagination to figure out what happened? 她真的富有想象力,能

够推想出发生的事情吗?

*These plans reveal a complete failure of imagination. 这些计划显得毫无想象力。

5.(L.13) numerous: adj. very many

*He has a numerous acquaintance among politicians.

*During the Depression, numerous people wandered from town to town looking for work.

6.(L. 15) passion: n. strong feeling, esp. of love

(=The poet expressed his burning passion for the woman he loved.)

他特别喜欢吃冰淇淋。

(=He has a passion for ice cream.)

7.(L. 15) detail: n. small, particular fact or item

*Everything in her story is correct down to the smallest detail.

不要遗漏一点细节。

(=Don’t omit a single detail.)

Collocation:

go/enter into details 详细说明

in detail 详细地

8.(L. 16) recur: vi.

1) come or happen again

*If the pain recurs, take this medicine.

你知道循环小数吗?

(=Do you know the recurring decimals?)

2) (of ideas, events etc.)come back

*My first meeting with her often recurs to my memory.

*Thoughts of home and family recurred to the lonely traveler.

3) go back (to sth.) in words or thought

*Let us recur to what you said yesterday.

*Do you mind if I may recur to your idea

9.(L. 21) coincide: v.

1) (of ideas, opinions, etc.) to be in agreement

*His tastes and habits coincide with those of his wife.

*The judges did not coincide in opinion.

2) happen at the same time of during the same period of time

*They could not go to the theatre together because his free time never coincided with hers.

(=The art exhibition coincides with the 50th anniversary of his death.)

10.(L. 24) core: n.

1) most important or central part of anything

*The core of the problem is their objection to educational reform.

让我们直入事务的本质。

(=Let’s get to the core of the matter.)

2) hard central part containing the seeds of certain fruits, such as the apple

*An apple core is the part of an apple left after the flesh has been eaten.

Collocation:

to the core: 彻底地; 完全地

*She is French to the core. 她是个地道的法国人。

11.(L. 28) alternate:

1.adj. 1) every other or second

*He works on alternate days.

*The show was sponsored by different clients on alternate weeks.

2) (or two things) happening by turns

这是晴雨交替的一周。

(=This is a week of alternate rain and sunshine.)

*She wears a shirt with alternate stripes of blue and white.

2.v. (cause to ) follow by turns

*We alternated periods of work and rest.

汤姆时而发怒,时而害怕。

(=Tom alternated between anger and fright.)

Collocation:

alternate between 时而…时而…

*They alternate between supporting us and opposing us.

alternate in 轮流

*We alternate in doing the household chores.

alternate with (使)与…交替

*Sunny weather alternates with rain.

12.(L. 32) relax: v.

1) make or become less tense, worried or nervous

*Sit down and relax!

音乐可以帮助你放松一下。

(=The music will help to relax you.)

2) make or become less stiff or tight

(=His muscles relaxed.)

3) make (effort or control) less severe

*You must not relax your control for a moment.

13.(L. 37) vain: adj.

1) too pleased with one’s own abilities or looks

*She’s vain of her beauty.

他极其自负。

(=He’s as vain as a peacock.)

2) without result; useless

*After a number of vain attempts to climb the mountain, we were forced to return to camp.

*It is vain to resist.

NB: vain的常用词组是in vain,意为“徒劳地,白白地”

CF: vain, empty, hollow & bare

这几个词都是形容词,都有“空的”、“空着的”之意。

vain 意思是“空洞的”、“空洞的”。

empty 主要表示某空间没有人或物,无任何内容。

hollow 表示物体内部是空的,如数、气球等。

bare 主要指某物的表面上是空的,无装饰的。

(Directions:) Fill in the blank with the above words and change the form where necessary.

1.The cinema was half ______.

2.We’ve made a ______ attempt to make him change his mind.

3.Don’t sleep on ______ boards.

4.The poor girl went on for another ten miles on an ______ stomach.

5.The walls look solid, but in fact they’re ____

14.(L. 44) emotion: n.

1) any of the strong of feelings of the human spirit

*Love, hatred, fear and grief are emotions

*Jack is a man of great emotion, easily given to tears.

2) strength of feeling; excited state of the feelings

*He described the accident in a voice shaking with emotion.

*He thought of his dead child with deep emotion.

CF: emotion, feeling and sensitivity

这些词都是名词,都有“感情”之意。

emotion 表示人的精神、身体全部反映的一种状态,表现为人的任何强烈的感情。例如:*The speaker appealed to our emotions rather than to our minds. 演讲者激发了我们的情感而不是启发我们的思考。

feeling 是常用词,意思是“感觉”、“感触”、“心情”,部分体现为精神,部分体现为身体,但并不是具有情感反应特征的基本的感觉、反射或心境。除非有上下文的提示,一般

不表明反应的性质、程度。例如:

*Her feeling was that right would win. 她感觉公理会取得胜利。

*He had lost all of feeling in the left leg. 他的左腿完全失去了知觉。

sensitivity 意思是“感受性”、“敏感性”。例如:

*The dentist gave me an injection which reduced the sensitivity of the nerve. 牙医给

我注射一针以减轻神经的敏感性。(插入图片dentist)

15.(L. 48) be ashamed of: feeling foolish or uncomfortable because of (sth.)

*You should be ashamed of your behavior!

他由于问了这样简单的问题而感到难为情。

(=He was ashamed of asking such a simple question.)

16.(L. 53) startle: vt. Give a sudden shock or surprise to

*You startled me! I didn’t hear you come in.

*She was startled to see him looking so ill.

CF: startle, frighten & terrify

这组动词都是动词,都有“恐吓”的意思。

startle指短时间内叫人震惊的恐惧,可能造成突然的不由自主的身体不能动弹。例如:*The clap of thunder startled us. 雷鸣般的掌声惊呆了我。

frighten是最普通的词,没有特殊的意义,仅表示“吓唬”或“使…害怕”。例如:*Not wanting to frighten the poor man, Mrs Richards quickly hid in the small

store-room under the stairs. 理查夫人不想吓唬这可怜的人,所以她很快地藏到楼

梯下的小贮藏室里。

terrify 含义是“使恐怖”,受到这种惊怕的人是不能自制的

*Bruce engaged low gear and drove at a terrifying speed. 布鲁斯接通了低速挡,开车

速度快得令人害怕。

17.(L. 56) intensity: n. state of being intense

*The mayor didn’t realize the intensity of people’s feelings on the housing issue.

*The poem shows great intensity of feeling.

18.(L. 56) anxiety: n.

1) feeling of worry of fear

*They felt strong anxiety for her safety.

*After hearing their advice he had no more anxieties.

2) strong wish to do something; eagerness

*The teacher praised him for his anxiety for knowledge.

*He always shows his anxiety to please his employers.

Collocation:

anxiety about 对…的焦虑

anxiety for 为…的担忧

CF: anxiety, worry & concern

这些词都是名词,都有“担忧”、“担心”之意。

anxiety 主要指对不幸或失败的痛苦的恐惧和不确定。例如:

*At the most, he will experience feelings of anxiety, shame, insecurity, and helplessness?

他至多能体验到忧虑、耻辱、不安和无助感。

worry指扰乱人精神安宁的持续不断的疑虑或害怕。例如:

*I think rich people have about as many worries as poor ones. 我认为富人和穷人的烦恼一样多。

concern强调介入了思想不安的因素;它将严肃的思想和情绪结合起来。例如:*Concern for man himself and his fate must always form the chief interest of all technical endeavors? 对人类自身及其命运的关注,必将成为所有技术事业的主要关注内容。

19.(L. 57) tension: n.

1) worry or nervousness

*I am suffering from nervous tension.

你能适应大城市的紧张生活吗?

(=Can you adapt yourself to the tensions of life in a big city?)

2) degree of tightness of a wire, rope, etc.

*If you increase the tension of that violin string it will break.

20.(L. 63) tense: adj.

1) feeling worried or nervous; making people worried or nervous

*The two countries began to discuss their tense relations.

(=There is a tense moment before we heard the news.)

2) stretched tight; stiff

*With his body so tense, it seemed as though he were listening for something.

*Is the rope tense?

21.(L. 65) along with: together with

*He went on the journey along with his two friends.

她把钞票连同找回的零钱和发票一起重又放进抽屉。

(=She placed the bank notes, along with the change and receipts, back in the drawer.)

Collocation:

all along 始终, 一直

come along进展; 跟着来

get along 进展; 与…和睦相处

go along 进展; 前进; 同行

22.(L. 66) stretch out: spread out; straighten to full length

*He stretched himself out in front of the fire.

*The sea stretched out as far as I could see.

23.(L. 80) bring (sb.) back to earth: cause (sb.) to stop daydreaming; cause (sb.) to return to

reality

*Emily’s voice brought him back to earth.

*You had better bring yourself back to earth for an hour and cook us some dinner.

Collocation:

come back/down to earth (从幻想中)回到现实

on earth 人世间;究竟

24.(L. 81) in one’s mind’s eye: in one’s imagination

*In my mind’s eye I saw the cliffs rising sheer.

她在想象中酝酿自己的下一步作品。

(=She was writing her next piece in her mind’s eye.)

25.(L. 87) congratulate: vt. Speak to (a person) with praise and admiration for a happy event or

something successfully done

*We congratulate her on having passed the exams.

(=Let me congratulate you on the birth of your daughter.)

26.(L. 91) media: n. means of mass communication, e.g. TV, radio, newspaper

*The media controls/control the news.

*Much of what children learn comes directly from the mass media.

After Reading

Ⅰ. Useful Expressions

1. 田径比赛track and field competition

2. 俯瞰 a bird’s eye view

3. 深呼吸take a deep breath

4. 像雄鹰一样翱翔soar like an eagle

5. 如出一辙; 不谋而合coincide with

6. 每隔一天every other day/on alternate days

7. 农场杂活farm chores

8. 有一次on one occasion

9. 站着on one’s feet

10. 没有意识到unaware of

11. 仰面躺着lie on one’s back

12. 对…惭愧be ashamed of

13. 感到…fill one’s mind with…

14. 摆脱紧张情绪shake the tension

15. 在内心的最深处from the deepest depths of one’s soul

16. 在这种时候at a time like this

17. 舒展;伸展stretch out

18. 缓缓移动in slow motion

19. 使…回到现实中bring sb. back to earth

20. 想象see in one’s mind’s eye

Ⅱ. Talk about the Pictures

(略)

Ⅲ. Discussion

1. Work in pairs and find out those details about Michael Stone that shows him to be his mother’s boy or his father’s son.

2. Discu ssion in groups: Dreaming and hard work, which is more important to a person’s success? Why?

Ⅳ. Dictation

(Directions:) Dictate the following proverbs and translate them into Chinese

1. Where there’s a will, there’s a way. 有志者事竟成。

2. Rome wasn’t built i n a day. 伟业非一日之功/罗马非朝夕建成。

3. God helps those who help themselves. 皇天不负有心人/自助者天助。

4. You shall reap what you sow. 种瓜得瓜,种豆得豆/一分耕耘,一分收获。

5. Constant dripping wears away the stone. 锲而不舍,金石可镂。

6. Much outcry, little outcome. 乱糟糟,没成效/嘈杂多,没成果。

Ⅴ. Sentence Translation

1.The pole vault is truly the highlight of any track and field competition. It combines the grace

of a gymnast with the strength of a body builder.

(=撑竿跳高确实是所有田径比赛中最精彩的项目。它融合了体操运动员的优雅与健美运动员的力量。)

2. Her excitement and passion for details made Michael's dreams full of color and beauty.

(=她对细节的激情和酷爱使得迈克尔的梦境色彩缤纷、绚丽无比。)

3.He found his pole, stood and stepped on the runway that led to the most challenging event

of his 17-year-old life.

(=他找着了撑竿,站起身,踏上那引向其17年生命中最具挑战性的一跃的跑道。)

4. Then out of nowhere, and from the deepest depths of his soul, he pictured his mother.

(=这时,不知不觉地,在内心最深处,出现了他母亲的身影。)

5. 迈克尔一下子被围住了,人们拥抱他,祝贺他所取得的一生中最辉煌的成就。

(=Michael was immediately surrounded by people hugging and congratulating him on the greatest accomplishment of his life.)

6. 我认为在这整个世界里,就我一个人被选中去受苦受难。

(=I believed that in this whole world I alone had been chosen to suffer. )

7. 刹那间,时间凝固了,我感到万分的羞愧和震惊。我从来没有这么难受过。

(=In the next few frozen seconds, the shame and horror of that moment penetrated, and I was sick with an intensity I had never felt before. )

8. 我意识到我的自艾自怜、自私,以及对他人需求的冷漠,已到了无可复加的地步。

(=I realized that I was filled to overflowing with self-pity, selfishness, and indifference to the needs of others. )

Ⅵ. Writing

How to Write a Personal Description

1.An example

Directions: Write a paragraph of 80~100 words about two or three aspects of a person you know. Cite example to illustrate his/her personality traits.

He ‘s the sort of chap who loves to make entrances and exits. He’ll arrive ten minutes before everybo dy else and he’ll leave ten minutes before everybody else. He’ll come dashing in with a bunch of flowers, screaming hellos. He’s a well-informed chap and keeps up to date with all the current affaire. He likes to talk and give his view on life. He’s very s uccessful. When he sets himself a goal, he works hard to attain that and to achieve it. He knows what he wants and he’ll set out to get it. As a result, he’s successful.

2.Some useful expression in the description of an individual

A. Hair: dark (grey, greying, blond, brown, carrot-red, red) hair

curly (wavy, straight) hair

thick (thin) hair

long (short, shoulder-length) hair

have a large bald patch

wear one’s hair braided (辫成麻花状的) in long pigtails

tie one’s hair back in a pony tail

wear one’s hair in a tight bun (发髻)

hair hangs loose

B. Build: skinny

be of average build

well-bulit

plump (肥胖的), heavy, obese (肥胖的)

dwarfish (比较矮小的)

be of average height

have hunched shoulders (驼背)

straight back

C. Appearance: a high (narrow) forehead

bushy eyebrows

round (narrow, small, beady) eyes

double-fold eyelid

a flat (pointed) nose

thick (thin) lips

rosy cheeks

square jaw

a fair (dark) complexion

wear heavy (light) make-up

freckles (a mole, a scar) on the face

grow a beard (a moustache, sideburns)

D. Character:

(Directions:) Choose the right adjectives from the list and complete the following sentences.

ambitious cheerful clever flexible generous hardworking insensitive lazy mean punctual sensitive shy unreliable

1.She has never bought me a drink. She is______.

2. My sister is always making people a ngry or upset, because she just doesn’t consider their

feelings. She is______.

3. They are always on time. They are______.

4. He is lawyers aware of what other people think or feel. He is______.

5. Tom lawless shares his toys with his friends. He is______.

6. They work all the time. They are______.

7. He never makes his bed or tidies his room. he is very______.

8. He often promises to do things but then he forgets. He is______.

9. She likes to smile and be happy. She is______.

10. My best friend always gets the best grades at school. He is very________.

11. He would like to became a doctor. He is very_______

12. He could work in any of the departments. He is______.

13. Betty hasn't got a boyfriend because she is too______

3. Homework

1. Select a person, either whom you know or don't know, whom you greatly admire. Brainstorm what you know about them, which may include qualities that you find admirable in this person, along with specific stories, examples and facts about the person. Brainstorm the most important five to eight questions that you feel you should ask in order to learn more about him/her.

2. After class, If you know that person, you should arrange an interview based on the questions

developed in class. If you have chosen someone who you do not know, such as a celebrity, then you should use your research skills to find the answers to these questions. (The Internet will be the most useful way to locate this information.)

1. After you complete your interview or research, write a paragraph not less than 120 words,

cite supporting facts to illustrate the admirable qualities of that person.

The name of Albert Einstein is a household word across the civilized world. He helped mankind to understand the mysteries of the universe. But Einstein himself was a simple person without any pretension. For example, he did not use shaving cream. Instead he used only a razor and water to shave. When he worked, the only thing he needed was a pencil and some paper. When he corresponded with other people, he always used most inexpensive stationery. It is also noteworthy that Einstein was only interested in theory. He did not care about the practical application of his ideas or the material wealth his ideas might create. Even though it was he who worked out the most famous equation in the world, E=MC2, he never visited one atomic reactor site to see how his theory was put into practice.

Ⅶ. Quotations

1. If you have great talents, industry will improve them; if you have but moderate abilities, industry will supply their deficiency.

— Joshuas Reynolds American female essayist

如果你很有天赋,勤勉会使其更加完善;如果你能力一般,勤勉会补足其缺陷。

——美国女散文家约书亚·雷诺兹

2. It never will rain roses. When we want to have more roses we must plant tree.

— G. Eliot British novelist

天上不会掉下玫瑰来,如果想要更多的玫瑰,必须自己种植。

——英国小说家乔治·艾略特

3. Genius only means hard-working all one’s life.

— Mendeleyev Russian chemist 天才只意味着终身不懈的努力。

——俄国化学家门捷列耶夫

4. Few things are impossible in themselves; and it is often for want of will, rather than of means, that man fails to succeed.

— La Rocheforcauld French writer

事情很少有根本做不成的;其之所以做不成,与其说是条件不够,不如说是决心不够。

——法国作家罗切福考尔德

Supplementary Reading

Ⅰ. Culture Notes

ⅰ. Chicken Soup for the Soul

Chicken Soup for the Soul is a series of books, usually featuring a collection of short, inspirational stories and motivational essays. There have been numerous volumes of Chicken Soup issued. As of January 2006, there were over 105 titles. Many of the books are directed at specific groups of people, e.g. Chicken Soup for the Mother's Soul, Chicken Soup for the Prisoner's Soul, Chicken Soup for the Volunteer's Soul, Chicken Soup for the Grandparent's Soul, Chicken Soup for the Ocean Lover's Soul, etc. The name "Chicken Soup" was chosen for this series because of the use of chicken soup as a home remedy for the sick.

ⅱ. Proverb: A cat has nine lives.

1. Origin of the proverb

The belief that a cat has nine lives is probably based on the fact that a cat is more tenacious of life than most other animals. Cats can survive harsh conditions. They can fall from a few stories up and not die. This is because cats are built differently from other animals.

Attempts have been made to trace the origin of the common expression back to ancient Egypt. It is often said that the cat-headed goddess of Egypt had nine lives and that this circumstance gave rise to the old saying about a cat having nine lives. Another theory on the origin of this expression is that in ancient times nine was a lucky number. As cats seem able to escape injury time and time again, this lucky number seemed suited to the cat.

2. Does a cat really have nine lives?

1. The cat's earliest ancestors probably hunted both on the ground and in the trees. (T)

2. To survive, they needed not only claws, but remarkable balance. (T)

3. Because of having nine lives, the cat is very safe and free in today’s modern cities. (F)

(=The cat faces particular dangers in today's modern cities. )

4. High-rise syndrome means cats can jump high in the sky. (F)

(=High-rise syndrome means cats falling out of windows. )

Ⅱ. Language Study

1. (para. 1) incline: v. (make sb.) tend to feel sth. or want to do sth.

* I incline to the view that peace can be achieved.

* The Prime Minister is believed to be inclining towards an April election.

* 尽管不是很确定,我还是倾向于相信他说的话。

(=Although not very convincing, I'm still inclined to believe what he said.)

* She inclines to leanness.

(=她体质属偏瘦型。)

2. (para. 2) in good/excellent/poor health: 健康状况良好/很好/差)

* Living together with her sons, the old woman was very happy and in excellent health.

* 因为抽烟抽得很厉害,他的健康状况较差。

(=The man was in poor health due to his heavy smoking. )

3. (para. 4) horrible: adj. causing a feeling of extreme fear or dislike

* That fish smells horrible. // a horrible crime/nightmare

* 昨晚我做了一个可怕的恶梦。

(=I had a horrible nightmare last night. )

4. (para. 4) suffer from: experience physical or mental pain

* She's been suffering from (= been ill with) cancer for two years.

* 他妻子去世时他遭受了很大的痛苦。

(=He suffered quite a lot when his wife left him. )

5. (para. 4) progressive: adj. happening or advancing gradually by stages over a period of time * Cancer is a disease caused by progressive growth of abnormal cells.

* 过去几年来,生活水平逐渐下降。

(=There's been a progressive decline in the standard of living over the past few years. )

6. (para. 6) in spite of: (used before one fact that makes another fact surprising) taking no notice

of; not being affected by

* In spite of the fact that she was too ill to see anyone, he insisted on visiting her.

* 尽管有伤在身,比尔还是会参加周六的比赛。

(=In spite of his injury, Bill will play in Saturday's match. )

7. (para. 6) aid: n. help

* A woman in the street saw that he was in trouble and came to his aid.

* 她帮助了一个被困在车内的男人。

(=She went to the aid of a man trapped in his car. )

8. (para. 6) install: vt. place, fix (a piece of equipment) in position for use; add new software

to the computer

* The plumber is coming tomorrow to install the new washing machine.

* 你能帮我装一下这个软件吗?

(=Can you help me install this software? )

9. (para. 6) optimistic: adj. believing that good things will happen in the future

* The doctor said he was optimistic that the little boy would make a full recovery.

* 她有信心赢得金牌。

(=She is optimistic about her chances of winning a gold medal. )

10. (para. 6) to a degree: to a certain extent, partly

* To some degree I think that's right, but there are other factors which may affect the situation.

* 那部电影有点枯燥。

(=The film was boring to a degree. )

11. (para. 8) Our home was a split-level affair with 14 steps leading up from the garage to the

kitchen door.

What is “a split-level affair” ?

(= A room or building that has floors at different heights in different parts. )

Translate the sentence into Chinese.

(=我们家住的是错层式的房子,从汽车间通往厨房门有14级台阶。)

12. (para. 8) I felt that if the day arrived when I was unable to lift one foot up one step and then

drag the other painfully after it — repeating the process 14 times until, utterly spent, I would be through — I could then admit defeat and lie down and die.

Translate the sentence into Chinese.

(=我觉得如果有一天我无法再抬起一只脚迈上一个台阶,再痛苦地拖起另一只脚——将这个过程重复14遍,直到精疲力竭爬上去——到那时我就会服输并躺下死去。)

13. (para. 10) hold on to: not give up; not let go of

* I'd hold on to that house for the time being; house prices are rising sharply at the moment. * 他依然努力想保住在政府部门的职位。

(=He was still managing to hold on to his position in the government. )

14. (para. 10) miserable: adj. causing great unhappiness, discomfort, etc.; extremely unhappy

* What a miserable existence! How could anyone live in such dreadful conditions!

* 过去,农民的生活很痛苦。

(=In the old days the peasants lived a miserable life. )

15. (para. 13) dismiss: vt. put (thoughts, etc.) out of one's mind; remove (sb.) from a position * The committee dismissed the idea as rubbish.

* 凡是违反公司规定的人都将被解雇。

(=Anyone who breaks company rules will be dismissed. )

16. (para. 15) bundle: vt. wrap; dress warmly because it is cold

* We're supposed to bundle newspapers before throwing them away.

* 你最好穿暖和一点,外面很冷。

(=You'd better bundle up because it's very cold outdoors. )

17. (para. 17) interval: n. a period of time between events, activities, etc.

* After an interval of three days the peace talks resumed.

* There's often a long interval between an author completing a book and it appearing in the bookshops.

* 我们每隔一段时间见个面,一般大约一月一次。

(=We see each other at regular intervals — usually about once a month. )

18. (para. 24) penetrate: v. force a way (into or through sth.); be fully understood

* Amazingly, the bullet did not penetrate his brain.

* In a normal winter, the frost penetrates deeply enough to kill off insect eggs in the soil.

* 西方观念逐渐传入东方。

(=Western ideas penetrate slowly through the East. )

19. (para. 24) In the next few frozen seconds the shame and horror of that moment penetrated,

and I was sick with an intensity I had never felt before.

Translate the sentence into Chinese.

(=刹那间,时间凝固了,我感到万分的羞愧和震惊。我从来没有这么难受过。)

20. (para. 25) trait: n. a particular quality, esp. of a person’s character

* His sense of humour is one of his better traits.

* Arrogance is a very unattractive personality/character trait.

* 那个老师上课很有幽默感。

(=The teacher teaches with a trait of humor. )

21. (para. 27) pray: v. speak to God to give thanks or ask for sth.; wish or hope very strongly

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