中小直径直缝焊管三点弯曲辊式成型工艺及应用

中小直径直缝焊管三点弯曲辊式

成型工艺及应用

高清军,刘峰岭

(新乡市凯迪轧辊有限公司,河南新乡453000)

摘 要:根据直缝焊管变形规律,摸索设计出了一套三点弯曲辊式成型(即TPF 成型)工艺设计方法。该方法采用分部成型法,第一道采用 W 成型弯曲带钢边缘;第二道水平辊弯曲带钢中部使带钢为 U 形;第三道水平辊弯曲 U 形的两直线边,使其接近双半径截面并送入立辊组对带钢进行三点式弯曲。该方法采用多半径组合轧辊片,轧辊共用性强;采用三点弯曲,减小了对带钢中部的约束,减轻了轧制磨损,有利于提高钢管的成型质量。关键词:直缝焊管;成型;三点弯曲辊式成型(TPF);轧辊配置

中图分类号:TG332+

.2 文献标识码:B 文章编号:1001-3938(2006)03-0053-04

0 引 言

近几年,我国大量引进焊管生产设备,荟萃了国外各种形式的焊管机组。国内各焊管机组设计、制造厂家对这些设备进行大量消化吸收,形成了各种类型、各种流派的国产化机组。同时,随着机组形式的变化,演化出了各种形式的轧辊孔型设计方法。笔者根据多年的轧辊孔型设计及实际生产经验,结合ERW 成型原理、排辊成型原理、F .F(F lex i b le For m i n g)成型原理及冷弯型钢成型方法,通过对直缝焊管变形规律的理解,摸索设计出了一套三点弯曲辊式成型,即TPF 成型(T r.i Po int For m i n g )工艺设计方法。TPF 成型更符合直缝焊管变形的特点,可最大限度地减少边缘变形,降低成品管表面划伤;TPF 成型更符合焊管生产的低辊耗要求,可最大限度地增加轧辊的共用性。该方法普遍适用于国内各中、小型机组。

1 带钢变形规律

焊管成型是使带钢在横断面上不等曲率弯曲和纵向变形连续进行的综合过程。带钢在形成管子过程中的变形主要表现在连续的横向和纵向变

中小直径直缝焊管三点弯曲辊式成型工艺及应用

形两个方面,横向变形的约束力通过轧辊的孔型

来实施,纵向变形的约束则是靠机组机架的布置来实现。在整个变形过程中表现为横向连续弯曲的收缩过程,其中伴随部分回弹发生。

带钢的横向弯曲变形可以理解为连续压弯成型,在压弯成型的截面上其受力分布如图1所示。按梁的弯曲模型求解弯曲曲线方程可知,该曲线为抛物线。在连续曲面构成的型腔内,许多微段抛物线充满整个型腔。直缝焊管成型的最终形状是圆形,在生产实践中,成型中间过程的带钢弯曲形状则根据不同的变形方法而异。

图1 带钢横向弯曲变形示意图

焊管成型过程大致分三个阶段:初(粗)成型

段!中间成型段!精成型段。以双半径孔型设计为例,初成型段的主要目标是弯曲边部,弯曲半径接近成品管半径;精成型段是将经过中间成型的双半径截面进一步闭合,使最终截面成为或接近

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53?焊管?第29卷第3期?2006年5月

圆形。但是中间成型形状并不一定必须为双半径或圆弧,也可以是其它曲线和直线组成的形状。例如排辊成型的中间成型段形状是 U 形,F .F 成型的中间成型段形状接近渐开线。这两者在成型过程中弯曲比较平滑,属于自然成型法。所以,在中间成型段采用连续曲面组成闭式型腔并非可取,中间成型段宜采用如图2

中小直径直缝焊管三点弯曲辊式成型工艺及应用

所示的三点弯曲。

图2 三点弯曲变形示意图

带钢的纵向变形可以理解为窄板的扭曲变形,如图3所示。变形量的大小是由窄板的边值条件决定的。不考虑带钢的回弹,把带钢看作纯粹的弹性体,窄板的扭曲形状和机组机架间距有关。因此,适当的机架间距和机架数量是带钢纵向变形的必要条件。这里可以引入 装辊密度 的概念,机架间距小、轧辊辊径大、机架数量多则装辊密度大,有利于带钢的纵向变形,反之则不利于带钢的纵向变形。排辊成型机组的排辊数量多,装辊密度大,有利于带钢的纵向变形,可以有

中小直径直缝焊管三点弯曲辊式成型工艺及应用

效缩短成型区。

图3 纵向变形区域示意图

焊管成型是弹塑性变形,带钢反复回弹弯曲会促进边缘延伸,形成鼓包、波浪等不良现象。所以,抑制轧制回弹是成型中的一个主要问题。研

究任意两相邻机架之间的带钢变形,可将其变形过程分为四段(如图3),即带钢的接触变形区、非接触变形区、不变形区和弹性恢复区。带钢的有效成型区是指接触变形区和非接触变形区。装辊密度大,轧辊辊径大则带钢的有效成型区长,不变形区和弹性恢复区短,有利于抑制轧制回弹。

带钢的边缘延伸在成型过程的初期表现得特别明显,后期受到带钢自身几何形状的约束,属于弹性范围的延伸会完全恢复,已经产生的塑性延伸可以通过精成型段矫正吸收。当塑性延伸较大时,精成型段不能矫正吸收就会在带钢边部形成鼓包,破坏带边的稳定性。采用下山成型法可以使带钢边缘的轨迹长度相对缩短,纵向应变相对减小,以达到减小边缘延伸的目的。带钢的边缘延伸是相对中部延伸而言的,当成型截面的中心

为直线时,带钢的边缘延伸相对中部延伸最小。所以轧制底线的确定以中心不变为宜。

2 TPF 成型工艺

(1)采用分部成型方法,明确各道次的成型目的:#第一道采用 W 成型弯曲带钢边缘(如图4(a)),优化各种规格的边缘成型半径,使每一个弯曲半径都能涵盖部分规格的成品管曲率半径;?第二道水平辊弯曲带钢中部(如图4(b)),使带钢逐步形成 U 形;%第三道水平辊弯曲 U 形的两直线边(如图4(c)),使带钢形状接近双半径截面,以便进入立辊组对带钢进行三点式弯曲;&第四道水平辊起辅助成型和递送作用(如图4(d));?立辊组对带钢进行三点式弯曲(如图4(e)),使成型截面收缩变形,直到进入精成型段(如图4(f))。

(2)采用多半径组合辊片,最大限度地提高轧辊的共用性。在一定的规格范围内,优化边部弯曲半径,使一件轧辊能满足不同规格成品管的成型要求;优化带钢中部变形,按照等比收缩的原理,合理选取中部压辊的辊形曲线,使轧辊能满足不同规格成品管的成型要求。

(3)采用三点弯曲成型原理(如图4(e)),减小对带钢中部的约束,使中间成型段自然成型,降低轧制磨擦,提高成品管表面质量。

(4)加强立辊的成型作用,提高装辊密度抑

?54?焊 管 2006年5月

图4 TPF成型工艺过程示意图

制轧制回弹,有利于带钢的纵向变形。

(5)采用带钢中心不变的下山成型,使带钢

的边缘延伸相对中部延伸最小。

3 TPF成型对成型机组的要求

TPF成型的机架排列可分以下三种:

(1)平、平、立、平、立、平、立、立、立、平、立、平、平(闭口);

(2)平、平、立、平、立、立、平、立、立、立、平、立、平、平(闭口);

(3)平、平、立、平、立、立、立、平(万能机架)、立、立、立、平、立、平、平(闭口)。

立辊组为三辊式,两立辊的中下方设置托辊。立辊的形式有两种,一种是普通垂直立辊(如图5 (a)),另一种是可斜置立辊(如图5(b))。后者的立辊共用性强,当采取第(2)、(3)种机架排列时,闭口之前一套轧辊可以满足所有规格成品管的成型。

4 TPF成型的应用实例

以昆钢冷弯型钢公司的L W700机组为例,生产的产品规格见表1,计算出的成型参数见表2。

机组排列为:

平、平、立、平、立、立、立、平(万能机架)、立、立、立、平、立、平、平(闭口)

中小直径直缝焊管三点弯曲辊式成型工艺及应用

图5 两种立辊组示意图

表1 产品规格

管径/mm壁厚/mm管径/mm壁厚/mm

89165

114 2.5~61804~8

140219

表2 成型参数

管径/

mm

边缘预弯半径/

mm

边缘预弯角度/

(()

闭口第一架

成型半径/mm

带宽/

mm 8957.344.7(51.3277 11457.357.3(65.8353 14082.948.6(80.8435 16582.957.3(95.2512 18011047(103.8558 21911057.3(126.3674

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55

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第29卷第3期 高清军等:中小直径直缝焊管三点弯曲辊式成型工艺及应用

中小直径直缝焊管三点弯曲辊式成型工艺及应用

由于立辊组的立辊可以斜置,所以立辊设计为多半径孔型,通过改变斜置角度来适应不同规格要求的边缘预成型半径。第一道水平上辊设计为双半径孔型,用两种辊片满足不同规格的要求,下平辊的边辊设计有三种。第四道及闭口机架为万能机架,所以配辊时使用侧立辊,减少磨擦。

计算每道次截面的中心位置,按中心不变配置轧制底线,绘制变形图(如图6所示)。

根据TPF 成型法的工艺,结合机组条件绘制每道次的配辊图(如图7所示)

中小直径直缝焊管三点弯曲辊式成型工艺及应用

图6

中小直径直缝焊管三点弯曲辊式成型工艺及应用

变形图

图7 配辊图

首次按照 219mm 配辊图装辊,一次穿带通过,轧制成功。到笔者投稿之日止,不更换轧辊,调整闭口前成型辊的位置,轧制 89mm 、 114mm 、 140mm 、 165mm 焊管都取得成功。

5 结束语

按照常规双半径设计,在上例机组上轧制6套直缝焊管产品共需轧辊约40余吨。采用TPF 成型法设计仅用轧辊18吨,较常规双半径设计节约轧辊50%以上。采用TPF 成型法轧制的成品管表面没有明显擦痕,成品管的尺寸及椭圆度达到GB /T 6728!2002的要求。

综上所述,TPF 成型法有三个方面的优点:

(1)有利于带钢的自然成型,减少磨擦,降低轧制功耗;

(2)降低轧辊消耗,节约轧辊50%左右;(3)适合国内的机组设备条件及操作习惯,便于安装调试。

在基本不改变机组设备的条件下,采用TPF 成型法生产直缝焊管可以提高生产效率,降低生产成本。TPF 成型法具有极强的实用价值和广泛的推广意义。

作者简介:高清军(1971-),男,河南省辉县人,工程师,主要从事机床设计及高频直缝焊管轧辊孔型设计。

收稿日期:2005-09-19

编辑:罗 刚

?56?焊 管 2006年5月

p i pe d ia m eter is s m aller and fi nal pro ject to tal cost can sav e 5%~15%.K ey word s :gas trans m issi on pipe line ;grade X120;property resea rch ;app licati on progra m

Production P rocess Developing St atus of N on Shearing Edges in China )s SpiralW elded P ipe

C HANG T ie chu i

Abstrac t I D :1001 3938(2006)03 0033 EA Abstrac t :T hrough t he conti nuous deve l op m ent of m eta ll urg i ca l techno logy ,the m anufacture of m illi ng un it f o r producti on of w e l ded p i pe and study for m anufactur i ng pro cess of m illi ng d i e head and ch i ps bo th reach a new lev el thereby t he producti on process level o fw e l ded pipe has grown up .It i s consi dered tha t sp ira l we l ded pi pes adopts non shear i ng edges producti on pro cess is the ne w trend o f its produc ti on techno logy develop m ent t h rough the statistics and analysis o f adopti ng non shearing edges producti on process i n recent ten years .It briefl y analyses each pe rf o r m ance of ch i p used by m illi ng unit .K ey word s :sp ira l subme rged arc w elded pi pe ;non shear i ng edges production pro cess

P i p e for C it y Natural Gas Trans m ission P roject

FANG X iao dong ,YANG B i n fu

Abstrac t I D :1001 3938(2006)03 0035 EA Abstrac t :It puts fo r w ard that sp ira l sub m erged a rc we l ded p i pe is t he first choice of we l ded p i pe for m a i n trunk gas trans m iss i on w it h m ed i u m and high pressure for se lecti ng o f c it y natural gas pi pe w ith several co m prehensi ve consi dera ti on o f secu rity ,econo m y and applicab ility ,e tc t hrough co m parison o f advantage and d isadvantage and i n troduction of PE pi pe ,cast iron pipe and w elded p i pe for c ity na t ura l gas .K ey word s :p i pe for c ity natural gas trans m i ssi on ;PE pi pe ;cast iron pipe ;w e l ded p i pe ;se lect

L ine Scanni n g DR D igital I m aging Technology Application on Spiral Sub m erged A rcW e l d ed P ipe

TANG Yan lin ,D I N G X iao j u n,WANG H ua gong

Abstrac t I D :1001 3938(2006)03 0037 EA

Abstrac t :T o utilize new type li ne scann i ng d irec t rad i ography d i g ita l i m ag i ng techno l ogy is t o carry out X ray d irect i m ag i ng i n spection t o w e l d on p i pe ends of spiral we l ded p i pe .Its sensiti v ity and disti ngu i shed ra te i s superior to i m age i ntens ifier and rea ches and ex ceed the l eve l o f fil m and can rep lace t he ex isted fil m inspection t o i m prove inspecti on rate and qua lity .K ey word s :X ray ;spiral sub m erged arc w e l ded pipe ;di g ita l i m ag i ng ;i m age d i sposa l

D igitized PulseW idthM odul a tion Technique for Inverter Typed A rcW e l d ing Power Suppl y w ith

Pulsating V ariable P olarit y Out put Based on DSP 56F 805FU Ce ji a n ,Z HU Zh i m i n g ,Z H OU Xue zhen ,JI Sheng r u

Abstrac t I D :1001 3938(2006)03 0041 EA

Abstrac t :A fu ll di g itized contro l syste m,w hich i s used fo r i nverter typed arc w eldi ng power supply w it h pulsating variab le po lar it y output ,was estab lished based on dua l DSP s ,M o torola 16-bit hybr i d d i g ital si gnal pro cessor D SP56F 805.By adopting the PWM m odules i n teg ra ted i n DSP56F805and se l ec ting the i r reasonab le wo rk i ng mode ,the direct di g itized control of the P WM contro l pulse for the pr i m ary i nverte r and the polar ity counte rchang e contro l signa l for the secondary inverte r was rea li zed .T he A /D sa m p li ng is synchron ized w ith the P WM control pu l se ,t hus the d isturbance of surge vo ltage and current during s w itch i ng transiti on i s avo i ded .A ll of t hese m easures enhance the stability and re liab ility o f d i g ita l contro l system.Event ua lly ,t he w e l d i ng current output w avefor m w ith pu l sati ng variab le po larity ,wh ich is the comb i nati on o f m id frequency var i able po l ar ity output and low frequency pulse output ,w as rea lized .T his establi shes the foundati on f o r i m prov i ng t he we l d i ng quality of T I G w eldi ng .K ey word s :d i g ita l s i gna l processo r DSP56F805;pu l se w i dth m odu l a ti on ;A /D synchronous sa m pli ng ;var i able po larity

Application of M i x ed Gas in GasM etal ArcW el d ing

Z HANG Jian chun ,WANG Guo rong ,SH I Yong hua ,Z HONG Ji guang

Abstrac t I D :1001 3938(2006)03 0046 EA

Abstrac t :G as m e tal arc we l d i ng (GM AW )is the m a i n we l d i ng m ethod i n w e l d i ng produc tion .Th is paper ill ustrates t he applica ti ons o fm i xed gases i n GMAW and analyzes the different proporti on o f shie l d i ng gas i m pac ts on the w e l d i ng techn ics perfo r mance and qua lity i n GM AW.K ey word s :GM AW;m ixed gas ;gas characteristi cs

Computer Syste m D evelop m ent of N ew TypeW elded P ipe F ixed Length Flying Saw

GUO Sheng m i n ,P AN Jian guo ,Liu Z i zhuang

Abstrac t I D :1001 3938(2006)03 0050 EA

Abstrac t :It reco mm ends the co m pute r syste m )s flex i b ility contro,l the i n li ne adj ust m ent o f fi xed length accuracy and re liab l e de si gn o f new t ype w e l ded p i pe fi xed leng t h flying sa w.T he computer syste m o f new type fi x ed leng t h fly i ng sa w adopts pe rfect tech n i ca l scheme and re liab le progra m ca l culati on t o m ake t he fixed leng t h fl y i ng sa w w it h good m ove m ent capab ilit y ,g reatly reduce m echan ical i m pact and w eari ng due to sa w movem ent and rea lize fl ex i b ility operati on of sa w.M ean wh ile ,this sy stem adopts pe r fect se lf fit ca lcu l ation ,suit the operation status o f site sa w by ti m i ng adj ust m ent contro l pro ject both assure the cutting accuracy o f fi xed leng t h o fw e l ded pipe and i m prove t he re liab ilit y of contro l sy stem .K ey word s :fi xed length fly i ng saw ;flex ibility contro ;l fi xed l eng t h accuracy on li ne autom atic ad j ust m ent ;re liab ilit y

Three Points Bending R ollers Type For m i n g Process and Its Application for

M edi u m and Sm allD i a m eter LongitudinalW elded P i p e

GAO Q i n g jun ,LI U Feng li n g

Abstrac t I D :1001 3938(2006)03 0053 EA

Abstrac t :It gropes and desi gns a m ethod o f three po i nts bendi ng ro ll er type fo r m ing process desi gn as per l ong it udi na l w elded

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79?第29卷第3期 英文摘要

p i pe )s transfor m rule .T h i s m ethod adopts seve ra l steps f o r m i ng m e t hod and first adopts f o r m ing bend i ng str i ps edges to W and second adopts l eve l ro ller bend i ng t he m i ddle o f strips into U Shape and the t h ird level ro llers bend i ng t he t wo stra i ght edges o fU shape strips to m ake it approach to doub l e rad i us sec tion and feed i nto verti ca l ro llers se ts to fo r m t he strips w it h three po ints type bending .Th is me t hod adoptsm ulti radi us comb i nation ro ller flakes w it h shar i ng universal usage .T o adopt t hree po i nts bend i ng i s to reduce t he restra i n of m iddle of str i ps and decrease the wear i ng o f rolling w ith advantage of i m prov i ng for m i ng qua lit y o f p i pes .K ey word s :long it udina lw e l ded pipe ;fo r m i ng ;TPF ;ro ller confi gurati on

Siz i n g Pass D esign on H igh P recisionW elded P i p e

DONG X i n g hu,i TANG Chuan p i n g

Abstrac t I D :1001 3938(2006)03 0057 EA

Abstrac t :It ana lyses the key facto rs i nfl uenc i ng the sizi ng qua lit y of high precision l ong it udi na lw e l ded p i pe ,and ra ises the rea sonable sizi ng pro cess and the des i gn m ethod o f pass on h i gh prec i sion w elded p i pe .T he practice proves that the e ffect o f ne w de si gn m ethod is no ti ceab le on i m prov i ng the di m ens i ona l precisi on and the surface qua lity o f h i gh prec isi on w elded pipe and de creasi ng t he setti ng diffi culty .K ey word s :long it udina lw e l ded pipe ;prec i s i on ;sizi ng m ach i ne ;pass ;qua lit y

Technical Characteristic of H ydrost atic Tester for H igh Pressure P i p e

W E I L i n g yun ,DU Xue b i n ,LI U Ji gao

Abstrac t I D :1001 3938(2006)03 0059 EA

Abstrac t :H ydrostatic tester i s the pressure i nspecti on equi p m ent o f p i pe m anufactur i ng producti on line .It recomm ends t he m a i n structure and technical character i stic of high pressure hydrostatic teste r for sea m less pipe and w elded pipe designed and developed by X i )an H eavy M echan ical R esearch Instit u te .It a lso expounds t he proble m need to be solved i n the develop m ent o f h i gh pres s ure pipe hydrostati c tester in Chi na .K ey word s :hydrostati c tester ;au t om atic ;high pressure ;techn ica l character i stic

Pass D esign of O val P i p e

Z HANG Jun

Abstrac t I D :1001 3938(2006)03 0063 EA Abstrac t :The fo r m ing m ethod of ova l p i pe i s i ntroduced and the observed prob l em duri ng str i ps transfor m ati on of d ifferent g rade m ater i a l w ith t wo different f o r m i ng m ethod .M eanwh ile ove r transf o r m concepti on i s i n troduced and this is a l so use f o r refe rence t o o t her rectangu l ar pipe pass desi gn .K ey word s :ova l p i pe ;pass desi gn ;over transf o r m ati on ;rebound a m ount

W el d ing Procedure D iscussion on S m allD ia m eter P i p e of Special Steel for Power Stati o n Boiler

Z HU Ji yuan

Abstrac t I D :1001 3938(2006)03 0065 EA

Abstrac t :The cha racter istic of austen itic sta i nless stee l represented by TP 304,e tc .and tempered m artensite steel represented by T 91is i n troduced and t he we l d i ng procedure o f t hese t w o kinds o f stee l dur i ng insta llati on .K ey word s :stee lT P304;steel T 91;w elding

Technica lP roble m Observed Duri n g P ipeline Aut om aticW e l d ing Construction

M E NG Q ing l,i REN L i yuan,WENG Le ning

Abstrac t I D :1001 3938(2006)03 0069 EA

Abstrac t :Through t he site investi ga tion of pipe li ne auto m atic w eldi ng technology tr i ed to be used i n W est to East gas trans m iss i on projec,t it ana l y zes and sho w s the w e l ding procedure ,p i pe m atch i ng ,w eld seam qua lity ,NDT,etc .i n de ta il and puts for w ard the suggesti on to i m prove we l d i ng quality and autom ati c w eldi ng constructi on speed proble m,etc ..K ey word s :p i pe li ne constructi on ;automa ti c w eldi ng ;w e l ding process ;ends f ac i ng

Approach and Save Energy Steps ofW eldi n g Qualified Rate of

I m proving H igh FrequencyW elded Spira l Fin P ipe

LI U Ka i xu

Abstrac t I D :1001 3938(2006)03 0072 EA

Abstrac t :The high frequency w eldi ng pro cedure and i ts f o r m ing f unda m ental of spiral fin p i pe is i n troduced .The reason o f l ow er w e l ding qua lified ra te o f high frequency we l d i ng spiral fi n pipe is ana l yzed .T he analysis and test proves that to i m prove the w eld i ng qua lified rate o f sp i ra l fi n pipe shall be taken m easures fro m the fo llow i ng aspects .#R a ti ona lly fi xed t he tunne l w idt h and dep t h o f press band wheel to the best to reduce the distri buti on of press band whee.l ?T o adjust po le )s po siti on to i m prov e po l e )s struct ure .%T o try to reduce electr ic energy consu m pti on o f h i gh frequency units .&T o ad j ust equi pment to t he bestm atc h i ng stat us .?T o try t o reduce iron consu mption of iron magneti c m a terial near h i gh frequency transfo r me r .?T o i ncrease top f o rg i ng pressure duri ng app l y i ng we l d i ng.K ey word s :h i gh frequency w e l d i ng ;fin p i pe ;sk i n collecti on effec t ;neighbo rhood effect

R ussian P i p eM anufact urer P repares P i p es for Russian Eastern O il Trans m ission Trunk pipeline

Translated and edited by WANG Lin

Abstrac t I D :1001 3938(2006)03 0076 EA K ey words :R ussian p i pe m anufacturer ;Russ i an eastern o il trans m issi on trunk p i peli ne ;w eldi ng m achi ne ;technical transfo r ma ti on

?80?焊管?第29卷第3期?2006年5月

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