综合英语教程4 第7单元Time to Stop Excuses for Lateness 课文答案、翻译等 很全面

Unit7 Time to Stop Excuses for Lateness P1 Listening and Speaking Activities

1 Brainstorming

Expressions of disciplinary matters at the workplace:

综合英语教程4 第7单元Time to Stop Excuses for Lateness 课文答案、翻译等  很全面

Expressions of types of employment:

综合英语教程4 第7单元Time to Stop Excuses for Lateness 课文答案、翻译等  很全面

Expressions of recruiting/firing:

综合英语教程4 第7单元Time to Stop Excuses for Lateness 课文答案、翻译等  很全面

Expressions of positions/job titles:

综合英语教程4 第7单元Time to Stop Excuses for Lateness 课文答案、翻译等  很全面

2 Listening

Listening script

I'm a policeman in New York City and my name is John Davy. Ever since I was a young boy I’ve always wanted to be a cop .I thought it would be the best job in the world. If I wasn't a cop, I don't think I could be anything else. Of course they tell me I'm a good cop. My superiors say I'm conscientious, that I have strong sense of justice and fairness and a great respect for the law. To be honest with you, my conscience would bother me if I didn't give 100% and if I didn't try to live up to my ideals. My friends tell me I'm too idealistic, too nice and, as the saying goes, nice guys finish last , but my job is to serve the people and I try to do my best.

I work with the police department's emergency service patrol in a largely black neighborhood in Brooklyn, New York. It's a rough and dangerous neighborhood, very rough. I admit it hasn't been easy. Since being assigned to the neighborhood, I've been shot, spit at, and hit with bottles, rocks, sticks, and Molotov Cocktails . Yes, it's not easy being a cop in New York City , but I've been awarded citations for my courage and for my quick thinking and performance in emergency situations.

Oh, I could tell you many exciting stories. Once, we set up a net for a potential jumper. A young man was on a ledge 23 stories up from the street. His girlfriend had left him and now he was threatening to jump. We got his girlfriend, his close friend, a priest, his mother to try and talk him out of jumping, but nothing worked. He was going to jump. Then I started to talk to him. I talked as long as I could — until I got too close to him. Then he shouted out, "Stop right where you are or I'll jump." I backed away. An hour later, with a belt tied around me, with a line my partner held, I jumped from the ledge and came up right in front of the young man and trapped him. I felt what they call "job satisfaction". A life has been saved and that's important to me. To me that's success - to do your job and to do it well. No holding back , especially when it means saving a human life.

Some people in the neighborhood think cops are the bad guys. They just don't like us. Yeah, we have some bad cops in the department who don't always obey the rules and who sometimes use too much force and injure people. But you know, when someone has been hit by a car and you walk into the crowd standing around dumbfounded and you take charge, telling this person to get a blanket, this one to get some water, and you comfort the injured person; that looks good in front of the crowd. They say, "There’re some good cops here." Boy, does that make me feel good. I feel like I'm doing my job . I feel like I'm helping people. Anyway, it's my duty as a cop.

Recently, I was again cited for outstanding service and this time was promoted to sergeant. As they say, I'm a good cop, and good guys don't always finish last.

1. What makes John a good policeman?

John likes his job as a cop. He feels it's "the best job in the world." He is conscientious, has a strong sense of justice and fairness, and respects the law. John exerts himself to the utmost and tries to live up to his ideals.

2. Has John’s job as a policeman been easy and safe?

No. Being a policeman in New York is difficult and dangerous. Besides, he works in a rough neighborhood. He has been shot, spit at, and hit with bottles, rocks, sticks, and Molotov Cocktails. Once he risked his life to save a man from jumping off a ledge 23 stories up from the street.

3. Why was John awarded citations?

John is given awards for his bravery, his quick thinking and performance in emergencies.

4. Why don’t some people like policemen in John’s district?

John admits that there are bad cops on the force, cops who don't always obey the rules and who sometimes use too much force and injure people.

综合英语教程4 第7单元Time to Stop Excuses for Lateness 课文答案、翻译等  很全面

综合英语教程4 第7单元Time to Stop Excuses for Lateness 课文答案、翻译等  很全面

Text Translation

别再为迟到找借口

哈里·贝地

每个办公室总有那么几个人习惯上班迟到。管理者该如何处理多元文化环境里的这一问题呢?文化背景不同,时间观念也大不相同,作为老板,应持何种态度,是忍气吞声还是采取惩罚措施呢?

专家告诉我们,西方人和东方人对时间的看法是不同的。从文化角度来说,西方人更多地生活在当前和不远的将来,而亚洲人却更多地生活在古老的过去和遥远的未来。

亚洲人尽力避免成为时间的神经质的奴隶。生活在他们看来只是永恒中的匆匆一瞬。他们喜欢旅游所带来的那种“失重”感,没有近期目标,也没有紧急任务。

对许多亚洲人来说,生活是一次漫长的旅行。幸福绝对不是一个时间问题。他们喜欢按部就班,不愿来去匆匆。静观季节的变化、儿女的成长也不认为是在虚度光阴。

西方人相信幸福就在不远的前方。多花点时间,多费点金钱,多下点工夫就能达到。尤其是美国人,他们就靠时间紧迫的日程安

排和最后期限而生存。

但是学究们深思熟虑悟出的这一见解又是如何与上班守时这一问题联系起来的呢?是否我们应该从这种文化方面的差异得出结论,一些雇员上班拖拖拉拉就是合情合理的?还是说这意味着一个管理者应该忽略守时这一工作守则呢?

表面上看来,管理者会不得不对一些文化群体比对另一些文化群体在守时方面更宽容一些,但是这在城市文明中是站不住脚的,它将使人相信此种文化的时间观念比西方的时间观念逊色这一学术论调。

这便混淆了两种截然不同的事情:遵守时间和对时间的哲学观。

一个人认为时间是以百年来度量的,并非以秒来计算,这与他每天能够按时到办公室上班并无关系。没有哪一个亚洲雇员会为自己的迟到找一个文化背景方面的借口。他可能会寻找一些更现代化的借口,如交通堵塞、表慢了以及停车麻烦等。这些措辞与西方办公室人员所用的藉口并无区别。为什么在亚洲经常以这些借口迟到可以被接受,而在西方这样一个人却被认为是不可依靠、不可信赖的呢?

问题可能是,在我们亚洲人的社会生活中,对于那些让我们在市区约会的地点等候半小时的亲友们,我们往往比较宽容。我们不会认为他们不把我们的友谊和亲情当回事儿。我们也不会认为他们失礼。更糟糕的是,我们还容许他们用含糊其辞的借口来为自己开脱。

可是,如何对待社会生活中的那些迟到者却是个人问题。而在现代商业领域,我们不容许有这种灵活性。

如果一个人偶尔一次上班迟到,谁也不会在意。遵守时间不应成为一时的风尚。而在一个办公环境中,应该有这样一种纪律约束的氛围来使人们遵守时间。

即使那些实行弹性工作时间的公司,也会规定哪些时间雇员必须在办公室,否则就无法召集各个部门一起开会。

一些公司可能会主动改变他们的上下班时间,以使雇员能够避开交通高峰期。但那并不是说就不再需要守时。

一般来说,迟到这一问题只和少数雇员有关。管理者应该试图通过劝告——必要的话可反复教育——来改变他们的坏习惯。这并非易事,而且有时还颇需要些耐心。

但是,我们也应摆脱那种认为期望别人守时就是不能容忍某种文化的迂腐观点。这种陈词滥调应当立即摒弃。

Text Organization

综合英语教程4 第7单元Time to Stop Excuses for Lateness 课文答案、翻译等  很全面

1 Comprehension work

A Probe the story

1. According to the scholars, what is the Asian concept of time?

Asians live more in the ancient past or in the distant future. They view life as a passing moment and prefer a steady pace.

2. How do Westerners view time?

Westerners live more in the present and the near future. They always have immediate and urgent objectives to achieve with time-pressing schedules or deadlines.

3. What figure of speech does the writer use to illustrate the cultural difference regarding the concept of time?

The writer uses a number of metaphors to make his point: "neurotic slavery" indicates being abnormally bound to tight schedules; "the sense of zero gravity" refers to the freedom of spending one's time at will; one's life course is compared to "a long journey"; and "the next hill" suggests something within reach.

4. Does the writer agree to the claim that unpunctuality is related to a certain cultural outlook? Why?

The writer does not agree to the claim. He thinks that whether a person is punctual or not has nothing to do with his cultural outlook, because observance of time and philosophical perception of time are two different things.

5. How do Asians and Westerners react to unpunctuality?

Asians tend to be more tolerant of bad punctuality and are more ready to accept a latecomer's dubious excuses, while Westerners view bad punctuality as an undesirable practice and believe that it shows that a person is not trustworthy or dependable.

6. What is the writer’s view on punctuality in t he business world?

The writer thinks that in daily life it is up to an individual whether to be punctual or not, but in an office environment people must respect the keeping of time.

7. Should a manager ignore unpunctuality in his/ her office? What, i n the writer’s view, should the manager do?

Generally, a manager should not take the academic concept that to require punctuality of his/her employees is intolerant of culture. He or she must strive to break bad habits through repeated counseling.

2 Language work

A In other words

B Work with sentence

1. Many people tried their luck in the lottery, though they knew the probability of winning the first prize was once in a blue moon.

2. Those who recklessly destroy rainforests should feel guilty for their stupid act.

3. The earth has offered all it has to nourish human beings, but they just take the generosity of the planet for granted.

4. Goods on sale are not necessarily inferior in quality to those sold at normal prices.

5. On the surface, primates are the suitable candidate for xenotransplants, but the same viruses that infect monkeys and apes are very likely to infect humans.

6. The host had expected thirty guests but finally more than forty showed up at the party.

7. Bad habits are easy to make but difficult to break.

8. Experts in education disregard boys' assertiveness as the only reason for classroom sexism.

C Word study

1. a. To many people, skating is just a matter of practice.

b. Dealing with these problems is all a matter of experience.

c. Success in business is simply a matter of knowing when to grab a chance.

2. a. There's a general feeling that the president has been too tolerant of corruption.

b. It seems that people in this town are more tolerant of children in public places.

c. It is said that her own mistakes made her very tolerant towards the faults of others.

3. a. The company director claimed such criticism was unwarranted and unjust.

b. Such fears are completely unwarranted now.

c. The white, male supremacy in the West is totally unwarranted in today's civilized worl

d.

4. a. Many young people take their parents' love for granted.

b. We take it for granted that students should be punctual for class.

c. Their relationship had become boring and they started to take each other for grante

d.

5. a. He was guilty of a serious misjudgment.

b. Their parents are guilty of gross neglect, abuse and cruelty.

c. I saw that I had been guilty of an irreparable blunder.

6. a. They made it a habit of having lunch together twice a week.

b. I'm trying to get him to break the habit of switching on the TV when he comes home at night.

c. Some children like to bite their finger nails - a bad habit and very difficult to break.

P3 Extended Activities

2 Read more

Text Translation

如何要求你应得的那份!

是的,你能够获得加薪!

卡洛·克莱曼

在我的事业刚刚起步的时候,我一直遵守着那条准则-----不兴风作浪。我独自一人抚养着三个孩子,拥有一份非常喜欢的工作。我害怕别人注意到我,所以,我默默无闻,只做自己被要求做的事情——因而,也错失了很多完成重要任务的机会。

当我最终鼓起勇气,坦言我的想法时,我的上司都非常吃惊,他们几乎对我的兴趣爱好一无所知。一旦我知道怎样要求我想得到的,我也获得了做重要工作的机会。

如今,你可不能让自己看起来是无足轻重的,因为你承担不起,——特别是当你想升职或者要加薪的时候。正象你推销自己得到了这份工作,现在你必须继续推销自己,使自己成为竞争者。

升职的途中,没有捷径。接下来,就是我,作为一个专写就业问题的专栏作家,根据每天听到的真实的人生经历,总结出的几条行之有效的策略。

面对你的恐惧和紧张。倘若你能胜任不同的任务或者你有资格晋升,尽管说出来。曾经有一位酒店的副经理告诉我:“我可以为部门的任何人争取利益,但是一旦牵涉到我个人的要求,就难以开口。”他因而错失了许多升职的机会。

你必须花点心思,让人们知道你多么想为考艾岛新建的酒店做贡献,或者你多么希望成为部门的下一任营业经理。没有人会主动给你一份高薪水的工作,除非你让大家明白那是你所渴望的。

成为A级游戏者。升职曾经是自然的事情,然而,现在情况大不相同了——倘若表现不好,可能永远得不到升职的机会。公司青睐的A级游戏者才会得到提拔。这就意味着你必须积极努力。需要时,任劳任怨地加班工作,同时也要对需要完成的其他任务保持警觉。今天,被称作“工作狂”是一种恭维。

十年前,当他的公司想要实行计算机化的时候,人力资源部的一位助理被任命负责这项新工程的一些具体事务。他先前已经有大

量的工作要做,而且计算机也不是他的专业,可是他还是欣然接受了任务,并且学习了与设备相关的所有知识。

这位助理协助公司挑选机器,软件,后来又负责公司职员的计算机培训——其中包括高级管理人员。今天,他不仅管理计算机,而且还负责办公室和公司外面的房地产股份。

充分利用你的工作总结。在许多公司,只有做过工作汇报的职员才有资格晋升。让工作总结成为升职的敲门砖。

你的经理会在测评之前通知你,然后,你有充分的时间来填写表格,回答问题,其中包括给自己的工作定级,陈述你的可取之处及对公司的贡献。同时你也获得机会来陈述公司的有待改进之处和你的工作目标。

倘若在过去的一年里,你帮公司成功地完成了一项工程,如实汇报。倘若你已经长时间工作,或曾经帮助过你的同事或者主动参加过特殊的活动,那么现在该是告诉你老板的时候了。

在许多自评表格里,都有一个非常重要的讨论题目,那就是“职员的职业目标”。明确地告诉你的老板并让他相信你真正想要的东西。

制定一个支持计划。“我走进老板的办公室,期待着一次轻松愉快的谈话。他们告诉我我的薪水会增加3%,明年他们会努力做得更好——就这些”一位办公室经理告诉我,“令人沮丧,但我无能为力。”

她是对的,大多数加薪都是事先决定的。部门经理通常拥有一笔固定的资金用于薪水发放,倘若你的薪水长了,那就意味着部门中的另一个人的薪水少了。发放薪水时,通常他们会努力增加报酬过低的职员的薪水,同时,奖励那些表现非常优秀的职员。

倘若你的薪水增加的不够,明确地告诉你的上级你是多么得失望。提醒他由你完成的那个项目给公司带来了多大的利润。并且要申请在几个月后的另一次会议上继续讨论你的报酬问题,才能知道公司能否给你增加薪水。

“我原以为我不可能赚得更多的钱,”一位读者告诉我说,“我的薪水每年只会增加3%。然而,每次在工作总结里,我都会让老板知道我对待工作严肃认真的态度和拼搏开拓事业的雄心壮志。”五年之后,我得到了应有的10%的加薪,而且升职了。

给自己升职的机会。倘若多年来你一直不满意自己报酬的增加幅度,或者说你的报酬已达到公司所能给你的极限,那么是你修改润色个人履历,寻找另一份工作的时候了。

首先要关注的是公司里的职位。许多人是因为填补了公司的空缺职位而拥有了一份正式的工作。尝试你感兴趣的工作——无论你是否完全具备资格。

“当我申请我所在的公司里的财务经理助理位置的时候,每个人都非常吃惊。”一位从事制造业的营销员说,“我表现很好,但是由于压力太大,有点精疲力竭。尽管我清楚我的资格不够,但还是申请了那份工作。”

营销员没有得到那份工作,但是至少管理部门现在注意到了一位积极向上的候选人。“我明白我需要的是获得MBA的学位,所以一年之内,我申请参加了公司在附近一所大学举办的专门毕业培训。”营销员说,“我还在读学位,而且还是一位营销员——但是我知道当我完成我的计划的时候,我就是第二匹有可能填补财务部门任何空缺的黑马。”

申请公开张贴招聘的工作是让老板知道你拥有重要技能而没有发挥的一种方法。抓住每一次遇到的机会,你将会成为不可代替的重要人物,一个没有必要问你的价值大小的人物。

Questions for Comprehension

1.the strategies the author recommended people to use when they apply for a position:

The author listed five strategies that work best.

?Don't be afraid to say you are qualified to do a different job or to move ahead;

?Be an "A" player. The raises go to those the company considers its "A" players;

?Take advantage of performance reviews;

?Have a backup plan;

?Give yourself a raise, that is, search for a better job.

Exercise for words:

1. b

2. a

3. c

4. a

5. d

6. b

7. a

8. c

3 Grammar work

While/As/When ... Clause

when, as, while 和whenever都可以引导时间状语从句。when 表示具体某个时间,引导的从句的动作可与主句同时发生或先于主句发生,可指一段时间也可指一个时间点。when 有一个用法是在主句动作进行过程中,从句动作发生了。而while只能表示持续性的动作或状态,不能表示一时性或短暂的动作,as表示的从句的动作与主句动作同时发生,具有延续含义。as和while可译为“一边……一边……”、“正当……的时候”。whenever指任何一个不具体的时间。

1.He entered the room when (while, as) the meeting was going on. (正当……,表示一段时间)

2.When she comes, I shall tell her to wait for you. (表示一个时间点,不能用while)

3.His mother was just coming along to see him when she ran into his classmate John. (when 引导的从句相当于一

个由and连接的并列分句,这里只能用when,意为“在那时”)

4.I felt somewhat disappointed and was about to leave when something occurred which attracted my

attention. (在主句动作进行过程中,从句动作发生了,这是一种主从关系颠倒的现象)

5.They made no effort to hide their amusement whenever I produced a packet of sweets from my pocket. (指任何

一个不具体的时间)

a. Join the following sentences by using time conjunctions when, while, or as. Make changes if necessary.

1.My mother burnt her fingers while/when/as she was lifting the kettle off the stove.

2.When the dog saw the burglar, it barked and barked until its master woke up.

3.The pupils pretended to be hard at work when/as they saw their teacher coming down the corridor.

4.When all the guests had left, Mr. and Mrs. Wilson started to clean up the house.

5.While/When Mr. and Mrs. Smith were out to attend an evening party, Mr. Smith's sister looked after their children.

6.Mary was cooking the lunch while we were playing chess.While Mary was cooking the lunch, we were playing chess.

7.The divers quickly swam to their boat when / as they saw some sharks approaching them menacingly.

b. Fill out the blanks with appropriate words.

1.c

2.d

3.a

4.d

5.a/c

6.b

7.d

8.a

9.c

4 Work with words

b. Use the words from the above group to complete the following passage.

1.job vacancy

2.advertisement

3.job title

4.job description

5.salary

6.working conditions

7.career prospects

8.application

9.curriculum vitae 10.personal details 11.experience 12.short list 13.interview 14.canditate 15.appointment

5 Match

Extract 1 = 1987 (Diploma)

Extract 2 = 1987—1989 (Assistant manager)

Extract 3 = 1990—1993 (Manager)

Extract 4 = 1993—Present (Corporate Client Services Manager)

6 Translation

1. An opportunity as good as this arises / occurs only once in a blue moon.

2. The boy felt guilty for taking money from his mother's handbag without permission.

3. She did not give credence to a single word of his story.

4. Generally speaking, teachers are tolerant of their students' mistakes.

5. I took it for granted you'd want to come with us, so I bought you a ticket.

6. Thanks to the manager's repeated counseling, the staff soon broke the bad habit of coming late to work.

7. He's furious with her now, but he'll forgive her soon. It's just/only a matter of a few hours, that's all.

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