语言学定义

胡壮麟《语言学教程》课后答案

Define the following terms:
1. design feature:
are features that define our human languages, such as arbitrariness, duality, creativity, displacement, cultural transmission, etc.

2. function:
the use of language to ommunicate, to think ,etc. anguage functions inclucle imformative function, interpersonal function, performative function, interpersonal function, performative function, emotive function, phatic communion, recreational function and metalingual function.

3. etic:
a term in contrast with emic which originates from American linguist Pike’s distinction of phonetics and phonemics. Being etic mans making far too many, as well as behaviously inconsequential, differentiations, just as was ofter the case with phonetic vx.phonemic analysis in linguistics proper.

4. emic:
a term in contrast with etic which originates from American linguist Pike’s distinction of phonetics and phonemics. An emic set of speech acts and events must be one that is validated as meaningful via final resource to the native members of a speech communith rather than via qppeal to the investigator’s ingenuith or intuition alone.

5. synchronic:
a kind of description which takes a fixed instant(usually, but not necessarily, the present),as its point of observation. Most grammars are of this kind.

6. diachronic:
study of a language is carried through the course of its history.

7. prescriptive:
the study of a language is carried through the course of its history.

8. prescriptive:
a kind of linguistic study in which things are prescribed how ought to be, http://m.wendangku.net/doc/98e1710cba1aa8114431d930.htmlying down rules for language use.

9. descriptive:
a kind of linguistic study in which things are just described.

10. arbitrariness:
one design feature of human language, which refers to the face that the forms of linguistic signs bear no natural relationship to their meaning.

11. duality:
one design feature of human language, which refers to the property of having two levels of are composed of elements of the secondary. level and each of the two levels has its own principles of organization.

12. displacement: one design feature of human language, which means human language enable their users to symbolize objects, events and concepts which are not present c in time and space, at the moment of communication.

13. phatic communion:
one function of human language, which refers to the social interaction of language.

14. metalanguage:
certain kinds of linguistic signs or terms for the analysis and description of particular studies.

15. macrolinguistics:
he interacting study between language and language-related disciplines such as psychology, sociology, ethnograph, science of law and artificial intelligence etc. Branches of macrolinguistics include psycholinguistics, sociolinguistics, anthropological linguistics, et

16. competence:
language user’s underlying knowledge about the system of

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