大学英语二期末复习资料(1)(2)

大学英语(二)期末复习资料

听力

Long conversation

一.1. A. She impresses the man with her performance.

B. She has no difficulty finishing the assignments.

C. She often fails to turn in her homework on time.

D. She comes late to class from time to time.

2. A. It improves her performance in other subjects.

B. It enables her to help her father in business.

C. It makes her lose interest in Spanish.

D. It presents great difficulty for her.

3. A. He has a good personal relationship with the woman.

B. He scolds the woman for challenging his authority.

C. He thinks the woman has a gift for Spanish.

D. He dislikes giving advice to his students.

4. A. Engage in creative activities.

B. Try her best to please her father.

C. Work harder in her Spanish class.

D. Exercise to strengthen her muscles.

二、1. A. There are so many plants that it is hard to see the sky.

B. Many plants are sick because of lack of sunlight.

C. The plants are more spectacular than she has ever dreamed.

D. The plants struggle hard to see the sun or the sky above.

2. A. They enjoy being so far away from technology.

B. They live miles and miles away from each other.

C. They never travel more than 15 miles along the river.

D. They are separated from the world outside of the jungle.

3. A. Because Emily showed her a great treasure.

B. Because Emily helped her win a big prize.

C. Because Emily gave her an empty bottle.

D. Because Emily gave her a bottle of wine.

4. A. Small and common things should also be valued.

B. Local people in the rainforest are easier to please.

C. Without modern technology life can be quite different.

D. Local people in the rainforest take modern life for granted.

三、1. A. They like the lifestyle at the beginning of the 1960s.

B. They are inspired by the entertainment of the 1960s.

C. They are big fans of famous actresses in the 1960s.

D. They are likely to dress like people in the 1960s.

2. A. They are brightly colored.

B. They are in honor of the movie The Godfather.

C. They are noodles popular in the 1970s.

D. They are served on bright green leaves.

3. A. Because regular noodles don't fit the theme of the party.

B. Because alien noodles are better than regular noodles.

C. Because they want to give everyone a big surprise.

D. Because they don't like the movie The Godfather.

4. A. They will watch some classic movies and old TV shows.

B. They will start with some light desserts and coffee.

C. They will have a drinking contest at a special bar.

D. They will make and have fancy mixed drinks.

四、1. A. They are foolish.

B. They are spoiled.

C. They are attractive.

D. They are fashionable.

2. A. She wanted to have her picture on the front cover of magazines.

B. She wanted to use her fame to help starving children in Africa.

C. She wanted to be famous so that she could earn more money.

D. She wanted to look fashionable like Hollywood actresses.

3. A. He was quite pleased with her plan.

B. He had doubt about her real intentions.

C. He thought she should help feed the hungry.

D. He encouraged her to work with charity organizations.

4. A. She will prove that she has excellent fashion sense.

B. She will give up her plan of being a famous actress.

C. She will be a volunteer and help a few people at a time.

D. She will stick to her original plan and prove it to the man.

五、1. A. She is going to move to Santa Fe.

B. She is going to have a trip to Santa Fe.

C. She is going to get a new job in Santa Fe.

D. She is going to visit her husband in Santa Fe.

2. A. It is tedious.

B. It seems great.

C. It looks unique.

D. It sounds amazing.

3. A. Its coffee shops.

B. Its restaurants.

C. Its night life.

D. Its history.

4. A. Its beautiful shops.

B. Its colorful scenery.

C. Its unique architecture.

D. Its various art galleries

六、1. A. She does not know where to start for her jobs.

B. She has been scared to death by taking part-time jobs.

C. She plans to do some part-time jobs first.

D. She plans to find an internship at Microsoft.

2. A. He went to the Student Union.

B. He sent his resume to Microsoft.

C. He went over to the Career Center.

D. He got information from the Internet.

3. A. Quit her job at McDonald's.

B. Seek help from the Career Center.

C. Try to get an internship at Microsoft.

D. Review her resume carefully by herself.

4. A. A job offer.

B. A good plan.

C. Information.

D. An internship.

七、1. A. He told his grandmother funny stories.

B. He taught his grandmother how to use electronic gadgets.

C. He cleaned up his grandmother's apartment.

D. He helped his grandmother move to Washington D.C.

2. A. She refuses to have any new electronic gadgets.

B. She is unable to use her household electronic items.

C. She has difficulty adapting to the life in this new city.

D. She orders the man to set up household electronic items.

3. A. They are both reluctant to learn how to use electric items.

B. They are both learning how to use emails.

C. They are both too old to try anything new.

D. They both take lessons to use electronic items.

4. A. Get her easy and fun Wii golf games.

B. Spend time playing Wii tennis with her.

C. Try to make her interested in electronic items.

D. Buy her video games made for elderly people.

八、1. A. Because he wanted to change his major.

B. Because his parents gave him much stress.

C. Because he had to make a crucial decision.

D. Because he had too many dream jobs in his mind.

2. A. Students cannot change their major once they've decided.

B. Most students usually don't want to change their major.

C. Students are allowed to change their major only once.

D. Most students change their major at least once.

3. A. He is a big picture kind of guy.

B. He is a detail-focused guy.

C. He is a quiet and easygoing guy.

D. He is a detail-focused and outgoing guy.

4. A. Business.

B. Marketing.

C. Mathematics.

D. Computer design.

Passage

一、

1. A. She worked ahead of schedule and skipped a level.

B. She enjoyed the traditional method of learning Spanish.

C. She felt discouraged while studying in the top level class.

D. She showed dissatisfaction with the slow pace of her class.

2. A. She had to learn the material that she already knew.

B. She had to study sentence structures and grammar.

C. She failed to pass the test in the top level class.

D. She had to learn with a teacher she didn't like.

3. A. It aroused in her a strong interest in Spanish culture.

B. It excluded the use of other languages in the classroom.

C. It proved to be an unbalanced way to learn the language.

D. It explored the cultural and language elements in great depth.

4. A. She worked as an interpreter in a company.

B. She volunteered to work in a Spanish church.

C. She acted as a tourist guide in a trip to Mexico.

D. She taught Spanish speakers how to speak English.

二、1. A. They may know the real meaning of nature experiences.

B. They may know how distant they are from nature.

C. They may gain a real experience of nature.

D. They may be more distant from the actual nature.

2. A. By experiencing it with the five senses.

B. By going to the forests of the Amazon.

C. By watching the Discovery Channel.

D. By going to the wilds of Africa.

3. A. Nature is too mysterious to understand.

B. Nature seems very far away from them.

C. Parks and gardens are not precious nature.

D. Backyard trees and flowers are part of nature.

4. A. Nature programs are good for adults but not good for children.

B. Parks and gardens are good places to experience nature.

C. Children should learn a lot of knowledge about nature.

D. Real nature experiences come from physical contact with nature.

三、1. A. He will soon graduate from school.

B. He watches TV in the evenings lately.

C. He usually goes shopping on weekends.

D. He spends eight hours at school on weekdays.

2. A. Going for long walks in the countryside.

B. Going with his friends to his cottage.

C. Going downtown with his family.

D. Going canoeing with his family.

3. A. Having canoeing competitions.

B. Preparing food along the riverside.

C. Having swimming races.

D. Drifting down the river.

4. A. Spending the evening talking with friends.

B. Cooking sausages over the campfire.

C. Singing songs around the campfire.

D. Cooking potatoes in the hot ashes.

四、1. A. He was very active in community service.

B. He did quite well in mathematics and science.

C. He had excellent records in almost all subjects.

D. He searched for information to keep himself busy.

2. A. Because he met a programmer called Allen there.

B. Because he joined Information Sciences Inc. there.

C. Because he liked the serious academic environment there.

D. Because it was there he had his first contact with a computer.

3. A. Harvard University made him feel bored.

B. Harvard University aroused his interest in programming.

C. Harvard University gave him new ideas for future projects.

D. Harvard University made him devoted to serious academic work.

4. A. He developed a small computer to measure traffic flow.

B. He formed the "Programmers Group" at Harvard University.

C. He spent many long nights in front of the school's computer.

D. He discussed with his classmates about starting a new business.

五、1. A. That parents having full-time jobs have to keep little kids occupied.

B. That parents buy their young kids expensive electronic products.

C. That parents have to try their utmost to keep their kids quiet.

D. That parents living in the city have little peace and quiet.

2. A. Lego.

B. Colored pencils.

C. Building blocks.

D. Old-fashioned paper books.

3. A. They make for excellent entertainment.

B. They are useful for the annual family vacation.

C. They keep children at different age levels occupied.

D. They are helpful when going to the grocery store.

4. A. It is advisable.

B. It is wasteful.

C. It is surprising.

D. It is understandable.

六、1. A. It has increased 57 percent since 2011.

B. It has increased 200 percent since 1970.

C. It has reached 65 million in 1964.

D. It has increased 46 million since 1964.

2. A. A lot of women are doing part-time jobs.

B. Most women are engaged in lower-end jobs.

C. Chief executive is the best-paying job for women.

D. Women on average earn two-thirds as much as men.

3. A. A physician or a surgeon.

B. A chief executive officer.

C. A health care worker.

D. A pharmacist.

4. A. It is gloomy.

B. It is declining.

C. It is uncertain.

D. It is promising.

七、1. A. Virtual image.

B. Virtual pastime.

C. Virtual equation.

D. Window shopping.

2. A. Shopping websites.

B. Travel websites.

C. Music websites.

D. News websites.

3. A. People under 25 were more likely to wilf than those aged 55 and above.

B. Women confessed that wilfing damaged the relationship with their partners.

C. Internet users spent no more than 30 percent of their Internet time wilfing.

D. Women tended to spend more time wilfing on the Internet than men.

4. A. By using appealing advertisements.

B. By using transferring mechanisms.

C. By linking with popular websites.

D. By using pop-up technology and bulk emails.

八、1. A. Two.

B. Three.

C. Four.

D. Five.

2. A. Female bosses usually criticize them for their wrong doings.

B. Female bosses usually take no account of their situations.

C. Female bosses usually encourage them and guide them.

D. Female bosses usually enjoy working with them.

3. A. Because they are more likely to be dismissed for poor work.

B. Because they want to do better than male managers.

C. Because they are quite good at solving problems.

D. Because they are barely functioning managers.

4. A. Women managers are better managers than men.

B. Women managers often face a double standard.

C. Women managers are widely accepted and approved.

D. Women managers are recognized as more effective.

英译汉

第一单元

一堂难忘的英语课

1 如果我是唯一一个还在纠正小孩英语的家长,那么我儿子也许是对的。对他而言,我是一个乏味的怪物:一个他不得不听其教诲的父亲,一个还沉湎于语法规则的人,对此我儿子似乎颇为反感。

2 我觉得我是在最近偶遇我以前的一位学生时,才开始对这个问题认真起来的。这个学生刚从欧洲旅游回来。我满怀着诚挚期待问她:“欧洲之行如何?”

3 她点了三四下头,绞尽脑汁,苦苦寻找恰当的词语,然后惊呼:“真是,哇!”

4 没了。所有希腊文明和罗马建筑的辉煌居然囊括于一个浓缩的、不完整的语句之中!我的学生以“哇!”来表示她的惊叹,我只能以摇头表达比之更强烈的忧虑。

5 关于正确使用英语能力下降的问题,有许多不同的故事。学生的确本应该能够区分诸如

their/there/they're之间的不同,或区别complimentary 跟complementary之间显而易见的差异。由于这些知识缺陷,他们承受着大部分不该承受的批评和指责,因为舆论认为他们应该学得更好。

6 学生并不笨,他们只是被周围所看到和听到的语言误导了。举例来说,杂货店的指示牌会把他们引向stationary(静止处),虽然便笺本、相册和笔记本等真正的stationery(文具用品)并没有被钉在那儿。朋友和亲人常宣称 They've just ate。实际上,他们应该说 They've just eaten。因此,批评学生不合乎情理。

7 对这种缺乏语言功底而引起的负面指责应归咎于我们的学校。学校应对英语熟练程度制定出更高的标准。可相反,学校只教零星的语法,高级词汇更是少之又少。还有就是,学校的年轻教师显然缺乏这些重要的语言结构方面的知识,因为他们过去也没接触过。学校有责任教会年轻人进行有效的语言沟通,可他们并没把语言的基本框架——准确的语法和恰当的词汇——充分地传授给学生。

8 因为语法对大多数年轻学生而言枯燥且乏味,所以我觉得讲授语法得一步一步、注重技巧地进行。有一天机会来了。我跟儿子开车外出。我们出发时,他看到一只小鸟飞得很不稳,就说:“它飞的不稳。”(It's flying so unsteady.)我小心翼翼地问:“儿子,鸟怎么飞?” “有问题吗?我说得不对吗?(Did I say anything incorrectly?)” 他一头雾水。“太好了,你说的是incorrectly而不是incorrect。我们用副词来描述动词。所以,要用unsteadily来描述鸟飞,而不是unsteady。”

9 他对我的纠正很好奇,就问我什么是副词。我慢慢解释道:“副词是用来修饰动词的词。” 这又导致了他询问我什么是动词。我解释说:“动词是表示行为的词,例如:爸爸开卡车。‘开’是动词,因为它是爸爸在做的事。”

10 他开始对表示行为的词产生兴趣,所以我们又罗列了几个动词:“飞行”、“游泳”、“跳水”、“跑步”。然后,他又好奇地问我,其他的词有没有说明它们的用法和功能的名称。这就引发了我们对名词、形容词和冠词的讨论。在短短十分钟的驾驶时间内,他从对语法一无所知到学会了句子中主要词语的词性。这是一次毫无痛苦而又非常有趣的学习经历。

11 也许,语言应该被看成是一张路线图和一件珍品:我们要常常查看路线图(核对语法)和调整汽车的引擎(调节词汇)。学好语法和掌握大量的词汇就好比拿着路线图在车况良好的车里驾驶。

12 路线图为你的旅行提供所需的基本路线和路途指南,可是它不会告诉你一路上你究竟会看见什么树或什么花,你会遇见什么样的人,或会有什么样的感受。这里,词汇会使你的旅途变得五彩缤纷、栩栩如生。大量的词汇让你享受到开车途中所见的点点滴滴。借助语法和丰富的词汇,你就有了灵活性,掌控自如。路线图会把你带到目的地,而一台好车却能让你完全陶醉于旅途的所有景色、声音及经历之中。

13 对学生来说,有效、准确且富有成效的沟通技能取决于语法和词汇这两大有利条件,可是学校并没有教他们这些。

14 就在今天早上,我跟儿子吃早饭时,我想把牛奶加入我的茶里。“爸爸,” 他说,“如果我是你的话,我不会这样做。牛奶会变酸。(If I were you, I wouldn't do that. It's sour.)”

15 “哦,上帝!” 我满怀着无比的骄傲说道,“这是一句语法完全正确的句子。你用了were而不是was。”

16 “我知道,我知道,”他愉悦地舒了口气,“这是虚拟语气!”

17 这下轮到我“哇!”了。

第二单元

人文学科:过时了吗?

1 当形势变得困难时,强者会去选学会计。当就业市场恶化时,许多学生估算着他们不能再主修英语或历史。他们得学一些能改善他们就业前景的东西。

2 数据显示,随着学生肩负的学费不断增加,他们已从学习人文学科转向他们相信有益于将来就业的应用科学和“硬”技能。换言之,大学教育越来越被看成是改善经济而不是提升人类自身的手段。这种趋势可能会持续,甚至有加快之势。

3 在未来几年内,由于劳动力市场的不景气,人文学科可能会继续其长期低迷的态势。在上一代大学生中,主修文科的学生数跌幅已近50%。这种趋势会持续、甚至加速的想法是合情合理的。人文学科曾是大学生活的重要支柱,而今在学生们的大学游中却只是一个小点缀。现在,实验室要比图书馆更栩栩如生、受人青睐。

4 在这儿,请允许我为人文学科给人们的生活所增添的真实价值进行支持和宣传。自古以来,人们一直在思索人类自身具有什么神奇的内力使一些人变得崇高伟大,而使另一些人走向自我毁灭。几个世纪以来,这股内力被称作很多东西。著名的心理学家西格蒙德·弗洛伊德称之为“潜意识”,或更为人熟知的“本能”。

5 从一开始,人类这股可以是建设性也可以是毁灭性的内在驱动力,就令我们心驰神往。这些惊人的、充满内心挣扎的故事形成了世界文化的基础。历史学家、建筑师、作家、哲学家和艺术家们以故事、音乐、神话、绘画、建筑、雕刻、风景画和传统的形式,捕捉到了这些撞击心灵的文字、形象及内涵。这些男男女女创造出了具有艺术性的“语言”,帮助我们了解人类的这些强烈愿望,并用以教育一代又一代人。从古时起开始的这些充满想象的大量作品,正是文明的底蕴,它奠定了人文研究的基础。

6 学习人文学科会提高我们的阅读和写作能力。无论我们这一生中从事什么职业,如果我们能读懂复杂的思想并理解它们的内涵,我们都会受益匪浅。如果我们是在办公室里能对这些思想写出既明确又简洁的分析的人,我们会有光明的职业前景。

7 学习人文学科会让我们熟悉表达情感的语言及进行创造的过程。在信息经济中,很多人都有能力创造出一个如新的MP3播放器那样的有用产品。然而,仅有很少的人具有能力创造出一个如iPod那样的精彩品牌。最重要的是,学习人文学科使我们具有伟大的洞察力和自我意识,从而以积极和建设性的方式来发挥我们的创造力和才艺。

8 也许,支持人文学科的最好论点是,人文学科为我们提供了广阔的机会。你知道世界闻名的电影《泰坦尼克号》的导演詹姆斯·卡梅隆拿的是人文学科的学位吗?第一个登上太空的女宇航员萨利·赖德拿的也是人文学科的学位。还有电影演员李小龙、格温妮丝·帕特洛、蕾妮·齐薇格及马特·达蒙,也都如此。获诺贝尔医学奖的哈罗德·瓦慕斯博士也学过人文学科。甚至迪士尼公司的总裁迈克尔·艾斯纳也主修人文学科。学习人文学科的有名人士确实可以列出一长串。显而易见,人文学能为我们从事许多不同的职业做准备,不管是医学、商务、科学或娱乐。如果我们仅学习数学,我们很可能只能申请数学家之类的工作。如果我们还学了人文学科,那我们就能突破许多障碍,只要我们愿意付出努力,敢于想象。

9 当然,在当下,如果我们单学人文学科,可能会失去很多机会。我们每个人都需要尽可能变得技能化、职业化,以满足现代生活的需要。事实上,技术知识和内在洞察力的结合越来越被看成是建立职业生涯的理想搭配。如果我是某个医学院的招生部主任,有两个人同时申请我们学校,这两个人都学过基础的科学课程,一个主修哲学,另一个仅是医学院的预科生,我会选择那位哲学专业的申请者。

10 总之,人文学科帮助造就全面发展的人,这些人具有洞察力,并理解全人类共有的激情、希望和理想。人文学科,这个古老、永恒的知识储蓄库,教我们如何以不同的方式看待事物,同时也拓宽我们的视野。在

现代社会中,人文学科一如既往地同生活息息相关,也发挥着重要作用。我们在学习中花一些时间与人文学科——我们杰出、非凡的知识宝藏——相伴,这难道不是明智的吗?谁知道你将来会变得多有名气呢!

第三单元

奥德赛岁月之旅

1 我们大多数人都知道,根据不同的年龄和生活阶段,人生可与此平行划分为童年、青春期、成年和老年这四个阶段。我们把这些阶段想象为婴儿在童年之前,中年在老年之前,每个阶段都会面临一系列特有的挑战,如孩子对学习的需要,成人对找到合适的职业生涯和建立一个家庭的需要,以及年长者对得到帮助和良好医疗保健的需要。通过对它们的充分了解,我们就可以战胜这些挑战。

2 有趣的是,关于人生阶段的观念正在发生变化。

3 在先前的年代,人们并没有一种固有的把童年和成年分开的想法。一百年前,谁也没有想到过青春期。直到最近,人们还很自然地认为:只要他们一从大学毕业,他们的成人入门阶段就结束了。他们就会找到一份把他们引入职业生涯的合适的工作。然后在此职业生涯期间,他们会成家,三十岁之前成家更为理想。

4 今天,我们同样需要认识一个新的人生阶段:从高中毕业到上大学,然后到成家立业,即所谓的奥德赛岁月。由于年轻人正按照一种不同的模式生活,最近的趋势出现了根本性的变化。他们从学校休学,与朋友同住,也常回去与父母同住。同样,他们恋爱又失恋,辞掉一份工作又去寻找新的,甚至改行。因此,我们需要认识这个新阶段——奥德赛岁月。现在许多人认为这是步入成年之前的一个难以回避的阶段。

5 出生于上个世纪60年代或70年代之前的人们往往会将成年的概念基于是否取得了某些成就:从父母家搬走,经济上独立,找到合适的配偶并组织家庭。但是,对稳定的强调并没能保持不变。今天,年轻人不太可能仿效他们的父母。在奥德赛岁月中,相当比例的年轻人都推迟结婚、生子,甚至推迟就业。

6 奥德赛岁月使年轻人承受了巨大的压力,迫使他们快速往前冲。作为他们父母唯一的继承人和所有期望、希望和梦想的聚焦,有些年轻人以叛逆和桀骜不驯的行为和态度对待父母。他们往往憎恨他们所感到的压力,并同他们的父母保持距离,甚至离家出走。他们的困惑源于很难让家长了解他们,也源于这段需要进行自我探索的、不确定的人生之旅。为了逃避困惑和不安,许多年轻人诉诸电脑游戏,iPod,iPhone或iPad,以帮助分散他们的痛苦和压力。

7 同样,他们的父母更是着急。虽然他们理解从学生到成年需要一个过渡阶段,但看到他们已成年子女的过渡阶段的生活与他们的期望渐行渐远,过渡阶段延至五年,七年,甚至更长时,他们感到生气。父母甚至不能清楚地觉察到他们孩子未来生活的方向,只能看着他们,看着要做的事被拖延着。

8 接下来会如何发展很难预测。新的准则还没有建立,一切似乎都被一个不确定的版本所取代。两性之间地位和权力的平衡也有了转变。取得学位的女性比男性更多。男性的工资在过去的几十年里一直停滞不前,而女性的工资却出现激增。

9 别的不说,这对择偶产生了不言而喻的影响。即使未婚,受过教育的妇女仍可以得到很多她们想要的东西,如安全感,成就感,和认同感。不过,不论男女都更难找到合适的伴侣来一同建立他们的生活。在讨论这一切时,有助于让大家知道,即使毕业生离开大学后推迟了做很多事,调查结果显示,他们仍持有很传统的愿望。例如,当今的一代比以前的几代对如何扮演好父母的角色有着更高的要求。

10 这一新阶段在未来几年可能更明显。世界各国都目睹了相似的趋势,人们推迟结婚,花更多年的时间徘徊在接受高等教育和建立职业生涯及家庭之间。

11 然而,毕业生不应误认为因情况已变得更困难,他们就可以放弃。大批的人努力角逐相对较少的机会,这会导致强大的竞争压力。所以,从一开始你就要将个人简历写得很专业,并做到随时更新。

12 要强化这一重要信息:顺利度过奥德赛岁月的将是那些不急于即刻实现目标的人——但这些人知道他们必须保持实力、能力、信心去度过这段较长的岁月。如果你的目标起步稍晚了点,不要认为自己是个失败者!意志坚定,态度积极,并集中精力!有一天,你会回头审视,并对奥德赛岁月给你带来的巨大改变感到惊叹。

第四单元

大学情侣

1 我微笑着看着我那两个可爱的女儿,她们似乎比她们的父母还是大学情侣那会儿更为成熟。琳达,21岁,在大学一年级交过一个男友,她曾以为会跟那个男孩结婚,但他们已不再来往了。梅丽莎,19岁,还没有一个固定的男友。我的女儿不知何时才能遇到她们的那个“唯一”,她们伟大的爱。她们认为她们的父亲和我有着一段经典的、童话般的浪漫史,从一开始就直奔婚姻的殿堂。也许,她们是正确的,但在那时似乎并不是那么回事。在某种程度上,爱神恰恰在你最没准备时来临。谁曾想到,布奇和我最终会结婚呢?他之所以成为我男友,只是因为当时我那肤浅的打算:我要找一个可爱的男友!

2 我们通过我的大学室友介绍在大学食堂相识。在那个命中注定的夜晚,我只是好奇,但对他而言,我认为是一见钟情。他凝视着我的脸,说:“你有一双美丽的眼睛。” 他整个晚上一直盯着我。我真的对他没那么感兴趣,其原因有二。首先,他看起来就像是一个野小子,甚至还有些危险。其次,虽然他很可爱,却似乎有点怪异。

3 他骑着自行车经过我的宿舍,装作与我“偶遇”,看到我时还假装惊讶。我喜欢被重视的感觉,但对他的野性和充满活力的个性却小心谨慎。他很会说话,这会迷倒任何女孩。当我开始爱上他时,恐惧向我袭来。他那令人激动的“坏小子形象”简直太诱人了。究竟是什么吸引了我?我,一直口碑极好。为了获得优异的成绩,我的注意力只专注在自己的学习上。但又怎么样呢?大学应该是学习的好时间,可也应该有一些乐趣。我已几乎达成了伟大的教育目标,离毕业只有一学期之遥了。但我却还没有享受过任何乐趣,我的生活乏味,没有一点新鲜感!我需要一个男朋友,当然不是任何男朋友。他必须很可爱。于是我那个学期的目标就成为:雄心勃勃,抓住一个我能找到的最可爱的男友。

4 我担心他会怎么看我。不错,我们生活在一个性观念正在发生戏剧性转变的时代,但我是一个传统的女孩,对在校园里似乎常见的新方式还没有心理准备。布奇看上去很出色!我对他的个性毫无免疫力,但我对此很害怕。那天晚上当他向大家宣布我是他女友时,我是同意的。但我随后突然清醒:“噢,我的天哪!我是他女友吗?这是怎么回事?” 紧接着,他在我耳边低声地甜言蜜语:“有一天我要娶你,我会成为一名律师。你会看到这一天的。”

5 我笑着对自己说:“我绝不会嫁给这个家伙。他是一个没有前途的叛逆者。他是我男朋友,只因为我恨枯燥的学生生活。我只想得到乐趣而已。”

6 果然,一个月后,我发现他所有的课程都不及格。因而,他将被大学除名。令我厌恶的是,他似乎屈从了自己的命运。我知道还有希望,所以我让他去学院的秘书那儿进行复议。

7 我告诉他:“你要先从宾夕法尼亚大学拿到政治学学士学位,然后进入法律学院。”我以他的名义递交了呈请书,结果被批准了。校方同意复议布奇的情况。我们的男女朋友关系一经确定,他就协调了他的学习和社交生活,结果各门课都通过了。他最终学了法律。

8 尽管布奇的性格有点野,但他在骨子里却是一个完美的绅士,这值得高度赞扬。的确,他有时会在我朋友面前亲吻我的嘴,擅自表达他的爱。我的朋友看到了很惊讶,也很不以为然。但事实上,我们在整整七年的恋爱关系中一直是纯洁和负责的。我们坐在棕榈树下,手牵着手,听着浪漫的歌曲,观赏着日落,编织着和我们自己的孩子在一起的美梦,一直到永远。

9 两年糊里糊涂地过去了。一天,布奇出其不意地手捧着一打红玫瑰跪下向我求婚。我心中充满了深情,也坦诚了对他的爱:“太太太太太浪漫了!!” 可我随即从幻想中惊醒。我大喊出来:“天哪。不!我们现在结婚还太早了。我们甚至还没有大学毕业呢!” 我真的很喜欢他,但我对我们感情修成正果的机率却持悲观态度。

10 五年后,我们结了婚。

11 我们忠实的爱和学习之旅带我们走过艰难崎岖的岩石路,走上平坦易行的公路。它是一个永久、浪漫,有时又疯狂的爱情故事。它诠释了一对仍在疯狂地爱着对方的夫妇如何一起度过了29年之久的蜜月。我们的爱从漫不经心的互相吸引开始,但最终却发展出成熟的爱情和富足的生活。

第五单元

花钱还是存钱,学生进退维谷

1 你是不是跟我一样对“我应该花钱还是存钱”这个问题感到困惑,且有被操纵的感觉?我觉得我们从生活的环境里所获得的信息似乎是有违常识、互相矛盾的。政府告诉我们要花钱,否则我们将永远走不出衰退;与此同时,他们又告诉我们,除非我们节省更多的钱,否则我们的国家会处于严重危险之中。银行提供较高的利率以增加储蓄。然后,同样是这些银行又提供信用卡让我们可以花更多的钱。

2 这里还有一个大家熟悉的例子:如果我们不按时支付信用卡账单,我们会收到从信用卡公司发来的类似这样的令人讨厌的催缴账单的电子邮件:不还款是不可接受的。请立即缴付,否则后果自负!之后,一旦还款,我们就会收到一封跟进的电子邮件,语气和蔼可亲,说我们是多么宝贵的客户,并鼓励我们继续花钱。到底哪一个描述是正确的?有麻烦的失败消费者还是宝贵的客户?这两者之间可是天壤之别!

3 自相矛盾的情况还有,我们每天都收到彼此相左的两种信息。一种从“纵容”的角度,让我们“买东西,花钱,现在就得到它。你需要这个!” 另外一种,我们可称之为“正直”的信息,它力劝我们:“努力工作,把钱存起来。控制你的欲望,不要买奢侈品,不要垂涎那些你并不真正需要的东西。” 这类信息来源甚多,有学校方面的,有家长方面的,甚至还来自提及传统价值观的政治人物。艰苦创业,忠于家庭、能推迟欲望是美国价值观的核心,它使我们的国家变得强大。

4 但相反的信息,即那些纵容人们不断花钱的广告,无所不在。虽然此类信息有时经过了乔装打扮,但仍随处可见,电视、电影、印刷媒介和路牌、商店,及公共汽车、火车和地铁上,比比皆是。广告侵入了我们的日常生活。我们时时被包围在花钱,花钱,花钱的信息中。最近有人说:“唯一可以逃脱广告的时候是当在床上睡着时!”

5 据计算,普通的美国人到18岁时,会看过60万则广告;到40岁时,看过的广告总数近百万。每个广告都在尽最大努力影响我们形形色色的购买决定——从我们吃的早餐麦片到我们的假期将使用哪条邮轮线路。决不会缺少怎么花钱和买什么东西的广告!现在,我们当然不能确切地记得广告上的产品,但重要的信息已凝聚在我们的意识里:“要满足你的愿望。你应该拥有你想要的。你应该得到最好的。所以,你应该买下它——现在!” 一个著名的广告诠释得很完美:“我爱自己。我是自己的好朋友。我做让我感觉舒服的事。我从精美的东西里得到乐趣,并感觉到它们给我的滋养。我过去常想着等一下再买,现在再也不会了。今天,我会购买全新的滑雪装备,看看新型的小巧灵便的轿车,买下那台我一直想要的相机。我今天就要实现我的梦想,不会等到明天。”

6 当我们接受这些相互矛盾但很明确的信息时,会有什么事情发生呢?这种控制我们花钱习惯的宣传活动会造成什么心理和社会上的影响呢?一方面,我们希望买更多的东西,来满足我们的物质欲望。我们中的大多数通过善待自己来得到乐趣。与此同时,我们身体里面有一个微弱的声音与那些正直的信息在共鸣:“当心,要掂量掂量自己的生活,不要让注意力分散。推迟欲望。不要陷入债务。要等待!保留对自己生活的控制权。这会让你更坚强。”

7 总之,一个成功的学生所需要的很多技能可以应用到你的财务中去。把良好的财务状况看成是大学教育中的一个关键因素,因为对金钱的担忧会让人倍感压力,并让人分心。它们会让你感觉很糟糕,并阻止你专注首要目标,即成功完成学业。

8 怎样才能成为一个聪明、有相关知识的消费者呢?许多学校、社区组织,甚至一些银行都提供金融扫盲班。可以考虑向学校的财务援助办公室咨询,或向父母或其他值得尊敬的成年人请教如何建立一个预算方案。另外一个选择是找一个合作伙伴来帮你保持良好的财务状况,并在管理自己的金融事务中找到乐趣。最重要的是,如果你发现自己正陷入财务困境,不要让你的自大妨碍你,在情况变得失控并惹上法律麻烦前,赶紧寻求帮助来解决问题。

9 这一切都将帮助你成为一个拥有相关知识的消费者和储蓄者。学会了如何平衡支出和储蓄,你就会成为你自己的船长,驾驶着你的生活之船,乘风破浪,驶向成功和富有。

第六单元

“关门者”,你是吗?

1 下次你要在两个难于取舍的、主要的和次要的选择之间做决定时,不妨问自己这样一个问题:项羽会怎么做?

2 项羽是公元前三世纪中国古代王朝的一位将军。他带领他的部队横渡漳河,突袭进入了敌方的领地。他下令砸锅烧船,令他的部队大为震惊。

3 他解释道,他强加给他们的是战胜对手的必要举措。他所说的无疑十分鼓舞士气,但当他那许多忠诚的士兵眼睁睁地看着他们的船只在火焰中被焚毁时,他们并不赞成他的做法。不过项羽将军的这种砸锅焚船

的做法所显示出的天赋,在战场上和现代社会科学研究中都将得到肯定。项羽将军是一个罕见的不墨守成规的人,他是一位经验丰富的领袖,由于他征战无数并达到了成功的顶峰,他深受尊敬。

4 丹· 阿雷利极富启迪性的新书《可预见的非理性》对项羽作了专题介绍。这本书对看似非理性的人类行为,譬如人类总想留住多项选择机会的倾向,进行了引人入胜的调查。大多数人都不能整理自己的思路来做痛苦的选择,麻省理工学院上阿雷利博士行为经济学这门课的学生也不例外。在调查作决策的一项实验中,几百名学生都不能忍受眼睁睁看着他们的选择机会消失,即使他们很清楚这样做对他们有利。

5 实验是围绕着一个游戏展开的,这个游戏排除了我们通常不肯放手的借口。在现实世界里,我们总会说:“保留我们的选择机会是对的。” 想要一个好的例子吗?一个十多岁的女孩被足球、芭蕾舞、钢琴、中文课给累得筋疲力尽,但她的父母不会让她停止任何一项活动,理由是它们有一天可能会派上用场!

6 在这个实验里,学生要玩一个电脑游戏: 在电脑屏幕上会显示三扇门,每扇门后都会提供一些现金。该游戏的规则是每个人都只能点击100次,你点击获取的钱越多,你就玩得越好。学生每点击一次打开一扇门,他们会用掉一个点击数,但却不会得到任何钱。然而,随后接着在那扇门上的每次点击都会挣得数额不等的钱,三扇门显示的钱总有一扇比另外两扇多。这个游戏规则的重点是虽然每次换门没有金钱回报,可还是会用掉一次点击数。所以,制胜战略是要迅速查看所有的门,然后只点击那扇似乎是钱最多的门。

7 在玩游戏时,学生们注意到了一个视觉上的变化:如果有片刻没点击某扇门,那扇门就会慢慢缩小并消失。由于他们已了解了游戏规则,他们本应对要消失的门不予理睬。然而,在它们消失以前,他们却迫不及待地去点击那些变小的门,试图让它们开启着。结果是,他们在匆忙回去点击那些快消失的门时浪费了很多点击数以至于最后输了钱。为什么学生对那些变小的门如此依恋呢?他们可能会争辩说,他们紧抓住这些门是为将来多留一些机会。但是,据阿雷利博士说,这不是真正的原因。

8 在他们为将来多留一些机会的借口背后反映出的是所有的学生都不堪目睹眼前的选择机会被剥夺,尽管这种痛苦是临时的。阿雷利博士说:“每闭上一扇选择之门就如同经受了一次损失,人们宁愿付出很大的代价,也要避免情感的失落。” 在实验中,损失很容易用丢失的现金来衡量。在生活中,相应的损失就往往没那么明显,如浪费时间,错过机会。

9 “有时候,这些门是慢慢关闭的,我们没有看到它们在悄然消失,”阿雷利博士写道:“我们可能花很多时间在工作上,却没有意识到我们子女的童年正在悄悄溜走。”

10 那么,我们可以做些什么让我们的生活恢复平衡呢?阿雷利博士说,一个办法是制止更多的超额预约。我们可以自己减少选择,将任务委派给其他人,甚至放弃一些点子,让其他人去做。他用婚姻作为例子:“在婚姻中,我们承诺不保留选择机会,我们就创造了获得最佳选择的有利局面。我们关上可选择的门,并告诉别人我们已作出选择。”

11 阿雷利博士说,自从进行了这个点击门的实验,他已经有意识地努力减轻自己的负担。他敦促我们辞去委员会的工作,删减送节日贺卡的名单,重新思考兴趣爱好,并记住像项羽那样的关门者给我们的启示。

12 换言之,他是鼓励我们放弃那些似乎只有表面价值的东西,而去追求那些能真正丰富我们生活的东西。我们很自然、很偏执地相信选择越多越好,但阿雷利博士的研究却强有力地告诉我们事实并非如此。

13 我们想在生活中得到越来越多选择的代价是什么?我们能从更集中的精力和注意力中获得什么样的喜悦和满足?当然,我们每个人都会有自己的答案。

14 试想一下这些重要的问题:怎么做会使我们获得更多,是不断增加选择,还是只保持少数精心挑选的选择?我们应关闭什么门,以便让机会和幸福之窗打开?

汉译英

1、中国书法(calligraphy)是一门独特的艺术,是世界上独一无二的艺术瑰宝。中国书法

艺术的形成、发展与汉文字的产生与演进存在着密不可分的关系。汉字在漫长的演变发展过程中,一方面起着交流思想、继承文化的重要作用,另一方面它本身又形成了一种独特的艺术。书法能够通过作品把书法家个人的生活感受、学识、修养、个性等折射出来,所以,通常有"字如其人"的说法。中国书法不仅是中华民族的文化瑰宝,而且在世界文化艺术宝库中独放异彩

Chinese calligraphy is a unique art and the unique art treasure in the world. The formation and development of the Chinese calligraphy is closely related to the emergence and evolution of Chinese characters. In this long evolutionary process, Chinese characters have not only played an important role in exchanging ideas and transmitting culture but also developed into

a unique art form. Calligraphic works well reflect calligraphers' personal feelings, knowledge,

self-cultivation, personality, and so forth, thus there is an expression that "seeing the

calligrapher's handwriting is like seeing the person". As one of the treasures of Chinese

culture, Chinese calligraphy shines splendidly in the world's treasure house of culture and art.。

2、近年来,随着互联网技术的发展,我国的数字化教育资源建设取得了巨大的成就。很多

高校建立了自己的数字化学习平台,数字化教学在教育中发挥着越来越大的作用。和传统教学方式相比,数字化教学方式有很大的优势。一方面,数字化教学使教学资源得以全球共享;另一方面,它拓展了学习者的学习时间和空间,人们可以随时随地通过互联网进入数字化的虚拟学校学习。这使得人类从接受一次性教育走向终身学习成为可能。

In recent years, with the development of Internet technology, the construction of digital

education resources of our country has made great achievements. Many universities have set up their own digital learning platforms, and digital teaching is playing an increasingly

important role in education. Compared with the traditional way of teaching, the digital way has a lot of advantages. On one hand, digital teaching makes global sharing of teaching

resources possible; on the other hand, it expands the learner's study time and space to learn, allowing people to get access to the digital virtual schools through the Internet anytime and anywhere. These advantages make it possible for people to shift from one-time learning to

lifelong learning.

3、孝道(filial piety)是中国古代社会的基本道德规范(code of ethics)。中国人把孝视为人

格之本、家庭和睦之本、国家安康之本。由于孝道是儒家伦理思想的核心,它成了中国社会千百年来维系家庭关系的道德准则。它毫无疑问是中华民族的一种传统美德。孝道文化是一个复合概念,内容丰富,涉及面广。它既有文化理念,又有制度礼仪(institutional etiquette)。一般来说,它指社会要求子女对父母应尽的义务,包括尊敬、关爱、赡养老人等等。孝道是古老的"东方文明"之根本。

Filial piety is the basic code of ethics in ancient Chinese society. Chinese people consider

filial piety as the essence of a person's integrity, family harmony, and the nation's well-being.

With filial piety being the core of Confucian ethics, it has been the moral standard for the

Chinese society to maintain the family relationship for thousands of years. It's undoubtedly a traditional Chinese virtue. The culture of filial piety is a complex concept, rich in content and

wide in range. It includes not only cultural ideas but also institutional etiquettes. Generally speaking, it refers to the obligation of children to their parents required by the society,

including respect, care, support for the elderly and so forth. Filial piety is fundamental to the ancient "Oriental civilization".

4、农历七月初七是中国的七夕节(Qixi Festival),是中国传统节日中最具浪漫色彩的一个

节日。一些大的商家每年都举办不同的活动,年轻人也送礼物给他们的情人。因此,七夕节被认为是中国的“情人节”(Valentine's Day)。七夕节来自牛郎与织女(Cowherd and Weaving Maid)的传说。相传,每年的这个夜晚,天上的织女都会与牛郎相会。所以,在七夕的夜晚,人们可以看到牛郎织女在银河(the Milky Way)相会。姑娘们也会在这一天晚上向天上的织女乞求智慧,以获得美满姻缘。但随着时代的变迁,这些活动正在消失,唯有标志着忠贞爱情的牛郎织女的传说一直流传民间。

July 7th on the Chinese calendar is Chinese Qixi Festival, the most romantic of all the

traditional Chinese holidays. Every year, some big businesses organize various activities, and young people send gifts to their lovers. As a result, the Qixi Festival is considered to be

Chinese "Valentine's Day". The Qixi Festival is derived from the legend of Cowherd and

Weaving Maid. The legend holds that on this particular night every year the Weaving Maid in heaven meets with Cowherd. So, people can see Cowherd and Weaving Maid meeting in the Milky Way on the night of Qixi. On this night, girls would also beg Weaving Maid for some wisdom for a happy marriage. But, with the changing of times, these activities are diminishing.

All that remains is the legend of Cowherd and Weaving Maid, a sign of faithful love,

continuously circulated among the folk.

5、丝绸之路(Silk Road)是我国古代一条连接中国和欧亚大陆(Eurasia)的交通线路,由

于这条商路以丝绸贸易为主,故称"丝绸之路"。作为国际贸易的通道和文化交流的桥梁,丝绸之路有效地促进了东西方经济文化交流和发展,对世界文明进程有着深远影响。当前,在新的历史条件下,我国提出了"一带一路"(One Belt, One Road)(即"丝绸之路经济带"和"21世纪海上丝绸之路")的战略构想。"一带一路"以合作共赢为核心,强调相关各国的互利共赢和共同发展。这一战略一经提出即受到沿线各国的积极响应。

The Silk Road is a traffic route in the ancient times connecting China and Eurasia. This trade route focuses on the trade of silk, hence the name "the Silk Road". As an international trade channel and a bridge of cultural exchanges, the Silk Road effectively improved the economic and cultural exchanges and development between the East and the West, exerting a profound impact on the progress of the world civilization. Nowadays, under the new historical

circumstances, our country proposes the strategy of "One Belt, One Road" (namely the Silk Road Economic Belt and the 21st-century Maritime Silk Road). The strategy of "One Belt, One Road" focuses on cooperation and mutual benefits, emphasizing mutual benefits, win-win, as well as common development of the related countries. Once proposed, the strategy has

received positive responses from the related countries along the road.

6、国民幸福指数(National Happiness Index,NHI)是衡量人们幸福感的一种指数,也是衡

量一个国家或地区经济发展、居民生活与幸福水平的指标工具。随着中国经济的高速增长,中国政府越来越重视人民群众生活质量和幸福指数的提升。政府注重改善民生,努力改善人民群众的经济状况,满足人民群众日益增长的物质文化需求。当前,中国政府提倡释放改革红利,让人民群众得到更多实惠。所有这些都将有效促进我国国民幸福指数不断提升。

National Happiness Index (NHI) is an index that measures how happy people are. It is also a

tool that measures the levels of economic development and people's livelihood and happiness in a country or region. With the fast growth of Chinese economy, the Chinese government has been paying more and more attention to people's living quality and the increase of happiness index. The government stresses improvement of its people's livelihood, striving to improve their economic conditions and meet their growing material and cultural needs. Currently, the Chinese government advocates the unleashing of more reform dividends, with the aim of offering more real benefits to its people. All these measures will combine to effectively

increase the NHI of our people.

十五选十

1.The Internet has made English learning much easier. English learners used to be (1)

大学英语二期末复习资料(1)(2)

to spend their time in libraries looking for the books that would help them in their language studies. It was very inconvenient because a lot of materials could only be found in

大学英语二期末复习资料(1)(2)

and uninteresting textbooks and readers. But today authentic content

on a variety of subjects is only a click away.

大学英语二期末复习资料(1)(2)

This is especially for those who wants to learn English earnestly.

In order to achieve fluency in English, you need to be comfortable using at least 10,000 words.

The materials on the Internet make it possible for

大学英语二期末复习资料(1)(2)

you to choose appropriate content to read and listen to. These materials can be (5)to your level if you input some key words in the search engine. But

大学英语二期末复习资料(1)(2)

大学英语二期末复习资料(1)(2)

how can you remember the of unfamiliar words?

大学英语二期末复习资料(1)(2)

In this case, the Internet use online dictionaries to instantly find out their grammatical

and

大学英语二期末复习资料(1)(2)

the specific meaning of these words. The Internet helps you to

大学英语二期末复习资料(1)(2)

accumulate vocabulary based on lively and interesting

language content, which greatly reduces your caused by

大学英语二期末复习资料(1)(2)

inability to remember the new words. The efficiency of this vocabulary

learning is one of the reasons why the Internet has become an ideal place to learn English.

互联网使英语学习变得更容易。英语学习者过去不得不把时间花在图书馆里寻找能帮助他们学习语言的书。这是很不方便,因为很多材料只能在冗长乏味的教科书和读者发现。但今天各种题材的真实内容只是一个点击。这对那些想认真学习英语的人尤其有益。

为了达到流利的英语,你需要使用至少10000个单词。互联网上丰富的材料使你有可能选择适当的内容来阅读和聆听。这些材料可以调整到您的水平,如果你输入一些关键字在搜索引擎。但是你怎么能记住大部分不熟悉的单词呢?

在这种情况下,互联网显然更容易学习词汇。你可以使用在线词典立即找到他们的语法功能和这些词的具体含义。互联网可以帮助你有效地积累词汇的基础上生动有趣的语言内容,这大大减少了你的痛苦所造成的无法记住新单词。这种词汇学习的效率是互联网成为学习英语的理想场所之一。

2. Through exploration of the humanities, we learn how to think creatively and critically, to analyze, and to ask questions. Because these skills allow us to gain new

into everything from poetry and paintings to business models and

大学英语二期末复习资料(1)(2)

大学英语二期末复习资料(1)(2)

politics, humanistic subjects have been at the heart of a liberal arts since the ancient Greeks first used them to educate their citizens.

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