1) People’s ideas on permanent education.
2) One is an ordinary “man in the street”. The other is an educational psychologist.
3) The first person thinks this idea of permanent education is crazy. He can’t understand people
who want to spend all their lives in school. The second person thinks the idea of permanent education is practical because people are never really too old to go on learning.
1) was; hated; stand; got out 2) all their lives 3) certain limits; age limits
Two people are interviewed about their ideas on education. One is an ordinary "man in the street"; the other is an educational psychologist.
The man in the street:
When I was at school, I hated it. I couldn't stand it. I wasn't happy until I got out. I think this idea of permanent education is crazy. I know some people go back to school when they're older, go to language classes at the local "tech" and all that, but I can't understand people who want to spend all their lives in school.
The educational psychologist:
The idea of permanent education is practical because we're never really too old to go on learning. Of course, there are certain limits, but they aren't age limits. For example, let's say a man past sixty tries to learn how to play football. It's foolish for him to do that, but only because his body is too old, not his mind!
1) He stayed there for a year.
2) He has faint, but very pleasant memories of it. He had fun and played games---including story-telling, drawing, singing and dancing.
3) He began t have more formal lessons and even worry about exams.
4) The exam was called the “Eleven Plus”. Students took the exam to see what kind of secondary school they would get into.
John is talking to Martin about his primary schooling.
Martin: Did you go to a state primary school?
John: Yes, I did. I went to a nursery school first, at the age of four, but this was purely voluntary.
There was a good kindergarten in our neighbourhood so my parents decided to send me
there for a year.
Martin: Can you still remember it?
John: Yes, I have faint, but very pleasant memories of it. It was a delightful place, full of fun and games. As in most nursery schools, work —if you can call it that —consisted of storytelling, drawing, singing and dancing.
Martin: You probably don't remember but you must have missed it when you left — you know, when you went to the Infants' School at the age of five.
John: I suppose I must have, but you know, right up to the age of seven, school life was very pleasant. It was only later in the Junior School that we began to have more formal lessons and even worry about exams.
Martin: Really? Did you have to do exams at that age?
John: Yes, we used to then. We had to take an exam at the age of eleven called the "Eleven Plus"
to see what kind of Secondary school we would get into. But this exam has disappeared nowadays.
1) compulsory; the ages of 5 and 16; state-funded; independent
2) available; at a nursery school; in the nursery class at a primary school
3) preparatory; primary; aged 5 to 13
4) enter the state education system; at the age of 5; secondary school
5) 7, 11, 13 or 16; gain admission at 11 or 13; the Common Entrance Examination
6) one further year; Advanced Supplementary Examinations; Advanced Level Examinations
7) classroom; laboratory; work independently; undertake research for projects
8) vocational; conventional
9) secondary education; with A-levels; further; higher
1) GCSE stand for the General Certificate of Secondary Education. It is normally take at the age of sixteen.
2) Students usually study form 8 to 12 subjects over two years.
3) Some subjects take account of the work students do throughout the year, while others are assessed entirely by examination.
Education in the United Kingdom is compulsory for everyone between the ages of five and sixteen, and is provided by two kinds of schools: state-funded schools and independent (fee-charging) schools.
Pre-school or pre-preparatory education: pre-school education is available in both the independent and the state systems. Many children start their education at the age of three or four at a nursery school or in the nursery class at a primary school.
Preparatory education: in the independent system, preparatory (or primary) education is available for children aged 5 to 13.
Primary education: most children in the United Kingdom enter the state education system
when they go to primary school at the age of five and generally move to secondary school or college at the age of 11.
Secondary education (including the General Certificate of Secondary Education and equivalents)
Most pupils enter independent boarding schools at the age of 7, 11, 13 or 16. To gain admission at 11 or 13, some pupils sit an exam called the Common Entrance Examination. At 16, they enter the school to study in its sixth form (for A-levels and equivalent qualifications).
All UK secondary schools, both state and independent, teach pupils at least until the age of sixteen and prepare them for the General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) or equivalent qualifications. Significant numbers of international students enter the UK secondary education system when they are either eleven or thirteen. Many attend independent boarding schools.
GCSEs in vocational subjects are normally taken at the age of 16. Following these, students can do one further year of academic study before taking Advanced Supplementary examinations (AS-levels).
Alternatively, there are career-based qualifications, such as General National Vocational Qualifications (GNVQs) or vocational A-levels, which can be taken after one or two years of study. All these courses give access to university or further study.
Students usually study from 8 to 12 GCSE subjects over two years. Most students study a core of statutory subjects and choose additional subjects from a list.
On any GCSE course, you receive formal tuition in the classroom and laboratory but are also encouraged to work independently and undertake research for projects, often outside school hours. Educational visits, either on your own or as part of a small group, are often part of the timetable. Some subjects take account of the work you do throughout the year, while others are assessed entirely by examination. Examinations are independently marked and graded. GCSE grades range from A (the highest) to G.
New GCSEs in vocational subjects are a career-based version of the GCSE. Eight subjects are available: Art and Design, Business, Engineering, Health and Social Care, Information and Communications Technology (ICT), Leisure and Tourism, Manufacturing, and Science. One vocational GCSE is equivalent to two conventional GCSEs. As with other GCSEs, grades range from A (the highest) to G.
Sixth-formers usually finish their secondary education at the age of eighteen with A-levels or equivalent qualifications, then go on to study at either further or higher education level.
1) F 2) F
Kate: Yes, it's difficult to teach children these days, when many of them know they won't get jobs.
It's hard to control the class if you can't punish them. I often hit them with a ruler. Of
course, in my part of Scotland we're allowed to hit them, and I think it's necessary —
some children need discipline.
Interviewer: What do you think, Rolf? I know you feel very strongly about corporal punishment.
Rolf: I don't agree with Kate. I know it's difficult to be a teacher, but I think it always has been. But you don't have to use violence. It's impossible to teach students about
non-violence and being good citizens when you are violent yourself.
Interviewer: What do the Welsh think, Jane? Rolf thinks corporal punishment is wrong.
Jane: Yes, I think so too.
Interviewer: And Raoul?
Raoul: Well, I think it's sometimes necessary. When one child constantly disobeys, you have to beat him, or else send him away — maybe to a special school. It's impossible to
teach the rest of the class if you have one student who constantly misbehaves. It's bad
for the others.
Interviewer: Did anyone beat you when you were at school?
1) Because the television program by that name can now be seen in many parts of the world.
2) This program is very popular among children. Some educators object to certain elements in the program. Parents praise it highly. Many teachers also consider it a great help, though some teachers find that problems arise when first graders who have learned from “Sesame Street” are in the same class with children who have not watched the program.
3) In order to increase the number of children who can watch it regularly.
1. The reasons may include the educational theories of its creators, the support by both
government and private businesses, and the skillful use of a variety of TV tricks
2. Perhaps an equally important reason is that mothers watch “Sesame Street”along with their
children. This is partly because famous adult stars often appear on “Sesame Street”.
3. The best reason for the success of the program may be that it makes every child watching it feel able to learn. The child finds himself learning, and he wants to learn more.
1) six million; regularly; half; economic; racial; geographical
2) fifty; Spanish; Portuguese; German; one hundred thousand; English; every two weeks
3) songs; stories; jokes; pictures; numbers; letters; human relationships
Sesame Street" has been called "the longest street in the world. That is because the television program by that name can now be seen in so many parts of the world. That program became one of America’s exports soon after it went on the air in New York in 1969.
In the United States more than six million children watch the program regularly. The viewers include more than half the nation’s pre-school children, from every kind of economic, racial, and geographical group.
Although some educators object to certain elements in the program, parents praise it highly. Many teachers consider it a great help, though some teachers find that problems arise when first graders who have learned from “Sesame Street” are in the same class with children who have not watched the program.
Tests have shown that children from all racial, geographical, and economic backgrounds have benefited from watching "Sesame Street". Those who watch it five times a week learn more than the occasional viewers. In the United States the program is shown at different hours during the week in order to increase the number of children who can watch it regularly.
In its American form "Sesame Street" is shown in nearly fifty countries. Three foreign shows based on "Sesame Street" have also appeared in Spanish, Portuguese, and German. Viewers of the show in Japan buy one hundred thousand booklets with translations of the English sound track every two weeks.
The program uses songs, stories, jokes and pictures to give children a basic understanding of numbers, letters and human relations. But there are some differences. For example, the Spanish program, produced in Mexico City, devotes more time to teaching whole words than to teaching separate letters.
Why has "Sesame Street" been so much more successful than other children's shows? Many reasons have been suggested. People mention the educational theories of its creators, the support by the government and private businesses, and the skillful use of a variety of TV tricks. Perhaps an equally important reason is that mothers watch "Sesame Street" along with their children. This is partly because famous adult stars often appear on "Sesame Street". But the best reason for the success of the program may be that it makes every child watching it feel able to learn. The child finds himself learning, and he wants to learn more.
1) It is to have all public schools connected to the Internet computer system and have computers
available for all students.
2) Its web site provides information about the school, the teacher and their mail addresses. It also
lists student events and organizations.
3) They learn numbers and letters. They also learn how to use the computers they will need later in
1) 1994; 35%; Last year; 89%
2) universities; colleges; urge; require
One of the goals of American education officials is to have all public schools connected to the Internet computer system and have computers for all students. Government studies show that in 1994 only 35 percent of American public schools were connected to the Internet. Last year, that number reached 89 percent.
Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University is a large university in the southern state of Virginia. Officials at Virginia Tech say computers are very important to a student's education. All students at Virginia Tech have been required to have a computer since 1998.
Each student's living area at Virginia Tech has the necessary wires to link a computer to the Internet. The students can send and receive electronic mail, use the World Wide Web part of the Internet and link with other universities, all without leaving their rooms. They can also use their computers to send electronic copies of their school work to their teachers. And they can search for books in the school's huge library.
Most major American universities and colleges strongly urge or require new students to have a computer. Most colleges and universities also have large rooms where students can use computers for classwork.
American high schools also have computers. Many have their own areas on the World Wide Web. If you have a computer you can learn about Fremont Union High School in Sunnyvale, California, for example. Its web site provides information about the school, the teachers and their electronic mail addresses. It also lists student events and organizations.
Young children also use computers in school. Smoketree Elementary School, in Lake Havasu, Arizona is a good example. The school also has a World Wide Web site. It tells about the school and the teachers and has an area for young children. These young children use computers in school to learn numbers and letters. They also learn how to use the computers they will need later in their education.
I. spoken; written
A. saying poetry aloud; giving speeches
B. advanced degrees; field of study; custom; candidates; doctor’s degree
B. the great increase in population; the development of modern industry
1. objective; personal opinions; memory of facts and details; range of knowledge; a fairer chance; easier; quicker; learning
2. essay; ling answers; broad general questions; the element of luck; put facts together into a meaningful whole; really knowing much about the subject; have trouble expressing their ideas in essay form; examiner’s feelings at the time of reading the answer.
unsatisfactory; along with
In ancient time the most important examinations were spoken, not written. In the schools of ancient Greece and Rome , testing usually consisted of saying poetry aloud or giving speeches.
In the European universities of the Middle Ages, students who were working for advanced degrees had to discuss questions in their field of study with people who had made a special study of the subject. This custom exists today as part of the process of testing candidates for the doctor's degree.
Generally, however, modern examinations are written. The written examination, where all students are tested on the same question, was probably not known until the nineteenth century. Perhaps it came into existence with the great increase in population and the development of modern industry. A room full of candidates for a state examination, timed exactly by electric clocks and carefully watched over by managers, resembles a group of workers at an automobile factory. Certainly, during examinations teachers and students are expected to act like machines. There is nothing very human about the examination process.
Two types of tests are commonly used in modern schools. The first type sometimes called an “objective” test. It is intended to deal with facts., not personal opinions. To make up an objective test the teacher writes a series of questions, each of which has only one correct answer. Along with each question the teacher writes the correct answer and also three statements that look like answers to students who have not learned the material properly.
For testing a student's memory of facts and details, the objective test has advantages. It can be scored very quickly by the teacher or even by a machine. In a short time the teacher can find out a great deal about the student's range of knowledge.
For testing some kinds of learning, however, such a test is not very satisfactory. A lucky student may guess the correct answer without really knowing the material. For a clearer picture of what the students knows, most teachers use another kind of examination in addition to objective tests. They use “essay”tests, which require students to write long answer to broad general questions.
One advantage of the essay test is that it reduces the element of luck. The student cannot get a high score just by making a lucky guess. Another advantage is that it shows the examiner more about the student’s ability to put facts together into a meaningful whole. It should show how deeply he has thought about the subject. Sometimes, though, essay tests have disadvantages, too. Some students are able to write rather good answers without really knowing much about the subject, while other students who actually know the material have trouble expressing their ideas in the essay form.
Besides, on an essay test the student's score may depend upon the examiner's feelings at the time of reading the answer. If he is feeling tired or bored, the student may receive a lower score than he should. Another examiner reading the same answer might give it a much higher mark. From this standpoint the objective test gives each student a fairer chance, and of course it is easier and quicker to score.
Most teachers and students would probably agree that examinations are unsatisfactory. Whether an objective test or an essay test is used, problems arise. When some objective questions are used along with some essay questions, however, a fairly clear picture of the student's
knowledge can usually be obtained.
Americans know that higher education is the key to the growth they need to lift their country, and today that is more true than ever. Just listen to these facts. Over half the new jobs created in the last three years have been managerial and professional jobs. The new jobs require a higher level of skills.
Fifteen years ago the typical worker with a college degree made 38 percent more than a worker with a high school diploma. Today that figure is 73 percent more. Two years of college means a 20 percent increase annual earnings. People who finish two years of college earn a quarter of a million dollars more tan their high school counterparts over a lifetime.