I Answer the following quesitions related to EST Translation (30’) （2个题）
1.What’s the definition of EST (English of Science & Technology)?
2.What are stylistic features of EST?
3.What are the general features of Compound Technical Terms?
4.What are common rules for Technical Term Translation?
II. Underline and mark out the themes and rhemes of the following sentences with the capital letters T and R respectively. (10’)（2个题）
1.Aluminum, though much less strong than steel, can be given a strength
approaching that of steel when it is alloyed with small quantities of copper, manganese and magnesium, and subjected to hot treatment processes.
2.Each cylinder therefore is encased in a water jacket, which forms part of a circuit
through which water is pumped continuously, and cooled by means of air drawn in from the outside atmosphere by large rotary fans, worked off the main crankshaft, or in the large diesel-electric locomotives, by auxiliary motors.
3.We, the authors having handled a variety of metals and alloys for over forty years,
can reassure those following that there is still much scope for craft and ingenuity in metallurgy, despite the fact that great strides have been made in it as a science during the past seventy years, and also that real fundamental understanding and
valid explanations of many of the properties of metals which are used by man still call for intensive scientific work.
III. Improve the following translation. As for the first sentence you should provide your improved English translation and as for the second sentence you should provide the improved Chinese one. (10’)（2个题）
The joint gap between a piston and a cylinder has great influence on the service life of an engine. The primary factor influencing the joint gap is the deformation of piston under working condition. In order to indicate the actual deformation of piston, the finite element method has been widely applied to analyze it numerically.
Improved English Version:
2.Correct timing is of the utmost importance, and also extreme accuracy, down to a
twenty-thousandth part of an inch, in the grinding of certain parts of the fuel injection pump and the valves.
Improved Chinese Version:
If we measure the seismic travel time and amplitude, we can define the surface geometry and give estimate of the acoustic impedances related to rock velocities and densities.
Improved English Version:
Although the rocket may appear impressive and complex it is a relatively simple device and was invented in china as early as 800 years ago.
Improved English Version:
IV. Sentence Translation (30’)
A. C-E Translation (15’)（2个题）
B. E-C Translation (15’)（2个题）
1.The advert of jet and rocket propulsion, and of nuclear reactors, has shown
that the materials which previously served for constructional purposes are no longer wholly satisfactory for the manufacture of equipment on which the efficient functioning of theses new sources of power depends.
2.The technical possible could well exist, therefore, of nationwide integrated
transmission network of high capacity, controlled by computers, inter-connected globally by satellite and submarine cable, providing speedy and reliable communications throughout the world.
3.In this paper, Q-processes are classified in new method and the existence and
uniqueness as well as the forms of each class of Q-processes are obtained.
The result obtained has important application in the construction and qualitative theory of Q-processes, especially, in that of instantaneous state of Q-processes.
4.In the course of deepening reform, our institute, relying on quality for
existence and technology for development, actively carries out total quality
control in its management.
5.By keeping faithfully to signed contracts and rendering hearty services to all
the customers as our guiding objective, our institute is opening up successfully survey and design market both at home and abroad.
V. Passage translation (20’)（1个段落）
Suspension bridges are frequently constructed in preference to other types of bridge, especially where relatively light traffic has to be carried over long spans, since they are more economical in material and are extremely strong. There are in existence suspension bridges with main spans of more than 3000 feet, the entire weight of the deck being supported from above by cables (usually only two or four in number) suspended between two towers at either side of the river.
The cables are composed of thousands of wires, made of high-ensile steel, which are galvanised to resist corrosion. Two or three hundred of these wires, each of about 0.19 inch in diameter, are clamped together to form a single strand, and the whole able may consist of a considerable number of such strands compacted and bound together with wire. In constructing the cable, two distinct methods may be adopted. The wires may either be listed into strands, the strands then sometimes being twisted round a central strand to form the completed cable, or they may be spun parallel to each other, and clamped together at intervals. The latter method obviously involves a much longer spinning operation, since each wire or small group of wires must be spun and adjusted to the correct sag individually, whereas the strands of Twisted wire can be erected as units, provided that they are not so heavy as to be unmanageable. However, on bridges with very long spans, there are certain advantages in the parallel wire method of spinning the cable.
The cables are normally made continuous through the tops of the towers, down through side towers, where these exist,and thence into the anchorage. They bear on specially constructed saddles on the towers, which are shaped to accommodate them, the saddles being either fixed so that the cables may slide over them, or mounted on rollers so that they move with any movement of the cables. In view of the enormous pull exerted by the heavy cables, their ends must be secured in firm anchorages,and unless they can be embedded in sound natural rock, constructions of masonry or concrete must be provided strong enough to withstand the severe pressures put upon them. The cable strands are normally looped round strand-shoes, which are in turn connected by chains to an anchor-plate embedded in the base of the anchorage.
At intervals along the main span, cast-steel cable bands are attached to the cables, gripping them firmly and excluding moisture from them, and from these bands suspenders of wire-rope or chains hang down. Since these suspenders have to take the weight of the deck to which they are attached, they must have high tensile strength. One advantage of using the braced-chain
suspenders is that they largely dispense with the need for a system of stiffening, being themselves rigid. This stiffening is necessary to resist deformations of the deck of the bridge due to moving traffic loads and also to resist lateral pressures from wind. In the case of wire-rope suspenders, the stiffening must be provided by trusses constructed at the level of the deck, the depth of the truss varying with the length of the span.