Unit 2 Deer and the Energy Cycle
Directions: What words will occur to you whenever we mention the word “energy”？Write down as many words as possible about it.
Directions: Watch the video and write down the kinds of energy mentioned.
Tips: flowing water, wind, fossil, solar, chemical reaction, nuclear
MICRO-HYDRO:Small-scale systems tap the energy of flowing water. These are not to be confused with big dam projects which totally transform ecosystems, wreaking environmental havoc.
WINDPOWER :An ancient source undergoing a revival with modern turbine technology FOSSIL FUELS :Derived from long-dead organic and animal matter. Oil, coal, and natural gas are all fossil fuels.
SOLAR ENERGY:The sun’s power can be harnessed in various ways: by using photovoltaic cells to generate electricity directly; by using thermal collectors to make steam to generate electricity; by using passive solar materials that maximize or retain the sun’s heat.
BIOMASS:Biomass is vegetal or organic material －including dung and plants －and biofuels are the solid or liquid or gaseous fuels that derive from it. Wood, methane and alcohol are all biofuels.
NUCLEAR ENERGY:Currently produced by “fission”. An atom is split －using uranium －and the heat produced drives steam turbines to generate electricity.
3. A Quiz
4.An English Song
Directions: Listen to the song and fill in the blanks.
Green, Green Grass of Home
The old home town looks the same,
As I step down from the train.
And there to meet me is my mamma and my papa.
Down the road I look, and there runs Mary,
Hair of gold and lips like cherries ,
It’s good to touch the green green grass of home.
Yes, they’ll all come to meet me, Arms a-reachin’smiling sweetly ,
It’s good to touch the green, green grass of home.
The old house is still standing,
Though the paint is cracked and dry,
And there's that old oak tree,
That I used to play on.
Down the lane, I’ll walk with my sweet Mary,
Hair of gold and lips like cherries.
It’s good to touch the green, green grass of home.
Then I awake and look around me,
At the four gray walls that surround me,
And I realize.
Yes I was only dreaming ,
For there’s a guard and there’s a sad old padre,
Arm in arm, we’ll walk at daybreak,
Again I’ll touch the green, green grass of home.
Yes they’ll all come to see me in the shade of that old oak tree,
As they lay me meet the green, green grass of home.
Directions: Listen to the following passage，write down the words you think important, then retell the story according to what you’ve heard.
There are about 100 different kinds of deer. Some live in grasslands. Others live in forests. The female deer becomes pregnant annually in late autumn, producing one to three young in late spring or early summer. The normal lifespan is 15 to 20 years.
2. Energy Crisis
Directions: Listen to the following passage，write down the words you’ve heard.
Energy crisis refers to a critical shortage in the supply of energy-producing fuels, such as gas, oil, and coal. During the early 1970’s, the demand for petroleum increased sharply, and Western countries depended heavily on imported supplies . The situation became worse during the Arab-Israeli War of 1973, when the Arab nations reduced to the United States and other countries that supported Israel, causing an acute energy shortage in these countries during the winter of 1973 to 1974.
3. Ecological System (Ecosystem)
Directions: Read the following passage and fill in the blanks with the help of the words
the relationship between them. A pond, a lake, a forest or an ocean may be an ecosysem . An ecosystem includes such factors as food supply, weather and natural enemies .
Any change in environment has far-reaching effects on living things. The clearing of a forest, for example, may drive away birds and affect drainage (排水). Without birds to keep harmful insects under control, the insects multiply and may do serious damage to crops. Without trees to hold back rain water, erosion may set in and ruin farmland. Scanning
Directions: Scan the text and discuss in pairs, list the facts about the life of deer in four seasons.
1.summer: eat as much as they can, storing the excess in the form of fat; active in
growing, reproducing or storing fat
adult males: grow antlers and get fat
adult females: give birth to young; produce milk
fawns: become less dependent on their mother’s milk and begin to search for growing plants as food
2.fall: continue to eat high quality food in order to deposit fat for the winter
3.winter: reduce their activity, grow a winter coat of hair, and lower their metabolism;
use the reserves of fat to survive the cold winter
4.spring: become active again
and white-tailed deer in North America, the author wants to lead us to pay more attention the importance of conserving the energy. And also the author develops the article by using the writing techniques such as exemplification (LL.18~70), cause and effect (LL.7~17, LL.51~62, LL.71~74), comparison (LL.51~62), classification (LL.29~37), etc. The last paragraph is a conclusion, i.e. “Life depends on energy, thus the cycle continues.”
Some persons say that love makes the world go round. Others of a less romantic and more practical turn of mind say that it isn’n of love; it’s money. But the truth is that it is energy that makes the world go round. Energy is the currency of the ecological system and life becomes possible only when food is converted into energy, which in turn is used to seek more food to grow, to reproduce and to survive. On this cycle all life depends. Questions and Answers
1. How do wild animals survive the hard times in winter?
They eat as much as they can during times of plenty, the summer and the fall, storing the excess, usually in the form of fat, and then using these reserves of fat to survive during the hard times in winter when food is scarce.
2. What is the best time for milk production?
The best milk production occurs at the same time that new plant growth is available.
3. What is the use of fat deer accumulate in summer and fall?
Fat reserves are like bank accounts to be drawn on in the winter when food supplies are limited and sometimes are difficult to reach because of deep snow.
4. What changes take place in deer when winter draws near?
Fawns lose their spotted coat. Hair on all the deer becomes darker and thicker.
5. What further safeguard does nature provide to help deer survive the winter?
They have an internal physiological response which lowers their metabolism, or rate of bodily functioning, and hence slows down their expenditure of energy.
6. What changes take place in deer’s behavior when they lower their metabolism? Their behavior changes from more activities in summer and fall to less as winter progresses.
7. What will happen to deer if deep snows come and the weather remains cold for a long time?
Some will die.
8. What is the fundamental rule of life for wild, free wandering animals?
Only the largest and strongest are likely to survive －the survival of the fittest.
What conclusion does the author supply?
Life depends on energy, and thus the cycle continues.
Is there anything we can learn from deer? During the “energy crisis” of 1973－1974 the writer of this essay was living in northern Minnesota and was able to observe how deer
survive when winter arrives. The lessons he learns about the way deer conserve energy turn out applicable to our everyday life.
Deer and the Energy Cycle
Some persons say that love makes the world go round. Others of a less romantic and more practical turn of mind say that it isn’t love; it’s money（另一些并不那么罗曼蒂克而更为注重实际的人则说，不是爱情，而是金钱。）. But the truth is that it is energy that makes the world go round. Energy is the currency of the ecological system and life becomes possible only when food is converted into energy, which in turn is used to seek more food to grow, to reproduce and to survive.（能量是生态系统的货币，只有当食物转变为能量，能量再用来获取更多的食物以供生长、繁殖和生存，生命
http://m.wendangku.net/doc/abf64b6548d7c1c708a14593.htmleful Expressions 1. 能源危机energy crisis
2. 金融危机financial crisis
3. 节能conserve energy
4. 更重实际的人people of a more practical mind
5. 生态体系ecological system
6. 反过来in turn
7. 转化成convert into
8. 一个相关的好例子 a good case in point
9. 富含营养的食物nutritious food
10. 生理上成熟physically mature
11. 生育give birth to
12. .搜寻search for 13. 满足需求meet one’s needs
14. 储存脂肪deposit fat
15. 银行帐户bank accounts
16. 充足的食物供给abundant food supply
17. 内在生理反应internal physiological response
18. 减缓新陈代谢lower metabolism
20. 度过难关pull sb. through
21. 生命的基本规律pull sb. through
22. 慢下来slow down
Ecology is the science of how living creatures and plants exist together and depend on each other and on the local environment. Where an environment is undisturbed, the ecology of an area is in balance, but if a creature is exterminated or an alien species introduced, then the ecology of the district will be upset . In other words, the balance of nature will be upset. Man is a part of the environment and has done more to upset the ecology during the short span on earth than any other living creature. He had poisoned the atmosphere and polluted both land and water. He has squandered the earth’s natural resources with no thought for the future, and has thought out the most devastating ways of killing his fellow men and every other sort of life at the same time.
Even at this moment many of the earth’s natural treasures are being destroyed, many valuable animals and plants are being killed. Besides, it is becoming increasingly difficult to grow enough food to preserve much of the earth’s population from starvation.
1. As I’m short of money I must draw on my ______.
A) resources B) reserve C) conservation D) currency
2. He couldn’t join the army, because he was below the ______ height allowed by the rules.
A) maximum B) minimum C) smallest D) lowest
3. The small furniture shop has been ______ into a big business.
A) expended B) expanded C) extreme D) extracted
4. The unusually cold weather this winter gave birth to a larger ______ of heaters.
A) consume B) consuming C) consumption D) consumers
5. He is not able to earn enough salary, so he has to ______ economy.
A) do B) make C) reserve D) practice
6. In this country, husbands are adored by their wives ______ an absurd extreme.
A) to B) at C) with D) on
7. The car ______ as it approached the parking lot.
A) speeded up B) slowed down C) broke down D) caught up with
8. There are various ______available which the students can use alone or in a small group.
A) sources B) material C) resources D) causes
9. A fresh idea has just ______ to me.
A) occurred B) happened C) come D) sparked
10. The sweater is hand-knitted and ______ expensive.
A) since B) also C) hence D) in consequence
Wild animals survive from year to year by eating as much as they can in summer and fall, (以脂肪的形式储存多余的食物) storing the excess in the form of fat , and then use their stored fat to survive (冬季的艰难时期)the hard times in winter when food is scarce. But, even with their (脂肪储备) stored fat/fat reserves, wild animals spend less energy to live in winter than in summer. (一个恰当的例子) A good case in point is the white-tailed deer. In summer, after they (生下小鹿) have given birth to fawns , physically mature female deer must search for (处于生长旺期，可转换成能量的植
物)growing plats which can be converted into energy, because milk production is (一个消耗能量的过程) an energy-consuming process. Both males and females continue to eat high quality food in the fall in order to (储存冬季可利用的体内脂肪)deposit body fat which can be drawn on in winter. As fall turns into winter, hair on all the deer becomes thicker, which (提供了一个外部保护层) provides an external safeguard to help deer to survive the winter. In addition, and most important of all, deer have (一种内部生理反应) an internal physiological response which helps to (降低能量消耗) slow down their expenditure of energy by lowering their metabolism. If the winter has deep snow, which means the deer has to spend more energy to (四处走走) move about. they must then be (更多地依靠脂肪储备来度过难关)more dependent on fat reserves to pull through. Even if some small and weak deer die in the freezing winter, their bodies become food for other life forms. (至于能源危机) in the case of energy crisis, we still can (多穿衣服保暖) put on more clothes to stay warm; deer (降低新陈代谢水平) lower their metabolism while we can turn the thermostat on the furnace down.