Book 4

Unit 1

I. Fill in the blank in each sentence with a word or phrase taken from the box in its

appropriate form.


1. She wouldn’t want to ______ them _____ the suffering of a huge ceremony.

2. The famous orator ________ the public to promote his newly-published book which could

add to his reputation.

3. At that period, South Africa _____ a period of unchangeable events as the Blacks were

fighting for quality.

4. ______, we should not be surprised about some of Mrs. Thatcher’s comments, bearing in

mind the party she belonged to.

5. Parley ______ general pressure from the society and bitterly took the child to a specialist.

6. The world is changing rapidly, our plans must change accordingly. Otherwise, we

should _______ with the harsh market economy.

7. Martin’s upbringing shaped his whole life, with so many _______ every now and then.

8. Julia has been made to undergo physical and psychological _______ for her inability in

having children.

II. Translation exercises

1. 我安排他们在小酒吧见面,但那个小伙一直都没有来。(turn up)

2. 你无法仅凭表象判断形势是否会变得对我们不利。(tell from appearance)

3. 那个士兵每次打仗都冲锋在前,从而赢得了国家最高的荣誉。(stand in the gap)

4. 主席讲话很有说服力,委员会其他成员都听从他的意见。(yield to)

5. 他们现在生活富裕了,但也曾经历坎坷。(ups and downs)

6. 这次演讲我将说明两个问题。(address oneself to)

7. 我们正筹划为你举办一次盛大的圣诞聚会。(in somebody’s honor)

8. 听到那个曲子,我回想起了儿童时代。(throw one’s mind back)



1. put…through

2. addressed himself to

3. was going through

4. Throwing our minds back to

5. yielded to

6. close an account

7. ups and downs

8. misfortunes


2. I had arranged for them to meet each other at the pub but the young man never turned


3. You cannot tell merely from appearance whether things will turn out unfavorable to us

or not.

4. The soldier, who stood in the gap in every battle, gained the highest honors of the


5. The chairman spoke so frequently that the rest of the committee yielded to his opinion.

6. They are well-to-do now, but along the way they had their ups and downs.

6. There are two questions to which I will address myself in the lecture.

7. We are planning a big Christmas party in your honor.

8. Hearing the tune threw my mind back to my childhood.

Unit 2

I. Fill in the blank in each sentence with a word or phrase taken from the box in its appropriate form.


1. As I was about to leave the restaurant, a young man ______ to me and said, “May I help you?”

2. Not satisfied with the present position in the company, he is trying to ______ a much greater role for himself.

3. Women tend to __________ their success ____ external causes such as assistance from friends.

4. Ronald’s success ________for his place in Germany’s world championship team.

5. My job is to challenge, but not threaten them. So I must be careful not_______ their toes.

6. A young lady and her little son were seriously injured when a car _______ them on a crossing.

7. Loss of weight ________ directly _________ the rate at which the disease is progressing.

8. In contemporary society, most farmers have bank managers _________ in order to secure their financial balance.

II. Translation exercises

1. 那只鸽子被夹在树叉里,不一会儿就跌落下来。(wedge sth/sb.in)

2. 驾车人该付多少钱需要根据他对别人车子造成损坏的程度而定。(be proportional to)

3. 你只有伏在地上慢慢爬过一条狭长的通道才能进入山洞。(inch)

4. 他一面结结巴巴地说着道歉的话,一面羞怯地朝门口走去。(sidle)

5. 他尽力向我解释说不是因为我工作不好而解雇我, 而是因为公司支付不了我的工资。(take pains to)

6. 年轻士兵的入伍给军队带来了新的希望并鼓舞了士气。(infuse into)

7.一旦大一些的男孩子声称草坪属于他们,别的孩子就不敢去玩了。(stake a claim to)

8. 跟在她身后的人让她心神不安,她不由得加快了脚步。(make sb. uneasy)



1. sidled up

2. carve out

3. attribute…to

4. staked a claim

5. to tread on

6. plowed into

7. is…proportional to

8. breading down their necks


1. The pigeon was wedged in the fork of a branch but fell off after a while.

2. The payment that the motorist will have to make will be proportional to the amount of damage

he has done to the other person’s car.

3. You can only enter the cave by inching through a narrow tunnel on your stomach.

4. She stammered some apology as she sidled towards the door.

5. He took pains to explain to me that I was being dismissed not because I didn’t do my work well but because the company could not pay my wages.

6. The enlistment of young soldiers infused new hope and morale into the army.

7. Once the older boys stake a claim to the lawn, no other boys dare go on it.

8. The man following her made her uneasy and she couldn’t help quickening her steps.

Unit 3

I. Fill in the blank in each sentence with a word taken from the box in the proper form.


1. John’s mind if always full of fantasies. He dreams of changing the world__________.

2. Edward Stuart became a brilliant scholar, but only_____________ his health.

3.The corporation was determined to push forward the policy of reform, but the new system

____________ great difficulties at the start.

4. In order to gain the utmost amount of benefit, this corporation __________ the exceptional

opportunities open in exports.

5. It presented in satirical terms points made ____________ by catholic writers, which proved

to be a great success.

6. Two tennis courts and a swimming pool______________ the regular members of the club,

but the season tickets are only valid for three months.

7. According to the Federal Bureau of Inspection, a man seen hanging around the area

_________the shooting could have been involved in the assassination of the President. 8. An opposition statesman said he hoped the agreement __________ them _________ about

the futility of violence.

II. Translation exercises:

1. 15年来,医生们一致用抗癌药治疗这种疾病,这些药就像大锤一样打垮患者体内的防御力量。(equivalent of )

2. 无可否认,香烟会使人上瘾。而一旦你上了瘾,就很难戒除这个习惯了。(addict)

1. 在日本人生产的一种电子游戏中,玩游戏的人可以模仿爱滋病人患者从染上艾滋病毒知道死亡的经历。(simulate)

1. 我肯定,他说你可以用这笔钱继续学习音乐时认真的。(in earnest)

2. 我们只能以牺牲质量为代价来提高生产率,但这可能会损害公司的声誉。(at the expense of )

1. 探险者遇到了几乎难以逾越的峡谷。(confront with)

2. 一名外语教师如果要在中学任教,他最起码要持有正规教育院校颁发的穴位证书。(at


very least )

1. 我很快觉察到我无法使他改变想法。(perceive)



1. for the better

2. at the expense of

3. was confronted with

4. took advantage of

5. in earnest

6. are available for

7. prior to

8. would give…pause to think


1. For the past 15 years, doctors have tried to treat this disease with anticancer drugs, equivalent of

a hammer, to beat down the body’s defense forces.

2. There’s no denying that smoking is addictive. And once you are addicted, it’s very difficult to get rid of the habit.

3. In a Japanese-made video game, players can simulate the experience of AIDS from HIV infection until death.

4. I’m sure he was in earnest when he said that you could use this money to continue your study of


5. We can only increase production at the expense of quality, which could ruin the company’s reputation.

6. The explores were confronted with an insurmountable valley.

7. A teacher of foreign language should possess at the very least a graduate degree from a certified

education school or institute if he is to teach high school.

8. I soon perceived that I couldn’t make him change his mind.

Unit 4

I. Fill in the blank in each sentence with a word taken from the box in the proper form.


1. John _______ if the firm needs an Information Technology engineer because he can encode programs for the firm.

2. The old man’s face _________ the lines of pressu re and exhaustion that have accumulated over the years.

3. The Johnsons thought this relative had come just for a short visit, but it seems he is staying ______.

4. The root of all these events ____________ the feudal system that had existed for thousands of years.

5. ____________ history seems to be impossible to be repeating itself. Otherwise, human beings cannot make any progress at all.

6. The company actually _________ in 1945 in the war-demolished city of London with the fund of the commonwealth.

7. This tribe has lingered on the ________ of civilization for centuries, but slight advances have yet been made.

8. The two parties have decided to settle the economic disputes between

them____________ in case these matters will influence their further co-operation.

II. Translation exercises

1. 他们的牛都打上了字母C的烙印。(be branded with)

2. 本赛季Brooks真正发挥了一个得分手(goal scorer)的作用。(come into one’s own)

3.一场经济危机正在威胁着那个国家。(hang over)

4. 他是真正发号施令的人物,但他总是躲在幕后。(in the background)


6. 你只要一叫,他马上就到。(in a flash)

7.他们在战争的阴霾下整整生活了17年。(in the shadow of )

8.这些是现存的最后7头东北虎,如果人类不加以保护的话,这一种群的老虎将濒临灭亡。(in existence)



1. will come into his own

2. is branded with

3. for good

4. lay in

5. In certain respect

6. came into existence

7. outskirts

8. once and for all


1. Their cattle were branded with the letter C.

2. In this season Brooks has really come into his own as a goal scorer.

3. An economic crisis is hanging over that country.

4. He is the man who really gives the order, but he always remains in the background.

5. After dispatching the messenger, what is left for us t o do is nothing but to wait.

6. You just have to call and he’s here in a flash.

7. They have lived in the shadow of war for totally seventeen years.

8. These are the last seven Northeast Tigers in existence .If human beings failed to protest them,

the tigers of this species would face extinction.

Unit 5

I. Fill in the blank in each sentence with a word or phrase taken from the box in its

appropriate form.


1. At the critical moment of presidential election, the candidate urged his supporters

to _________.

2. When you have made up your mind, ___________ a particular day when you will not be

under much stress.

3. From the age of 52 onwards, General Jackson was not engaged in ________ at all.

4. He actually enjoys his newly-bought Jaguar and has decided to start ________ it ____.

5. It is sad to see him go because it really ________________to the way we conduct our daily


6. After the death of her only son, she went on occasional drinking ______.

7. Invitation to have dinner together is usually treated as a means of achieving _________ with

another person in eastern culture.

8. In his research, profess or Danes found the ______ human beings to fight after they’ve been


II. Translation exercises

1. 你的批评近于粗暴。(border on)

2. 失业人员都应该得到政府的帮助。(count as)

3. 总的来说,我对这项实验是相当满意的。(on the whole)

4. 一个人的外表会影响别人对他的看法。(make a difference)

5. 广告倾向于把妇女描绘成非常传统的角色。(portray)

6. 刚刚继承了一大笔遗产的孪生姐妹急不可耐地炫耀她们的珠宝首饰。(show off)

7. 公众关注的中心再次转移到了城市环境的变化问题。( shift focus)

8. 相比之下,甚至最新式的飞机也显得笨拙和缓慢。(in contrast)



1. hand together

2. pick on

3. soldiering

4. showing…off

5. will make a difference

6. binges

7. intimacy

8. resiliency


1. Your remarks border on rudeness.

2. Any unemployed person counts as deserving government help.

3. On the whole I am quite satisfied with the experiment.

4. A person's appearance makes a difference in how others judge him.

5. Advertising tends to portray women in very traditional roles.

6. Having inherited a considerable wealth, the twin sisters were eager to show off their jewelry.

7. Public interest has once again shifted focus to the changes in the urban environment.

8. In contrast, even the most modern aircraft look clumsy and slow.

Unit 6

I. Fill in the blank in each sentence with a word or phrase taken from the box in its

appropriate form.


1. All the people of the country ________ offering the highest standards to the man who had

used up all his talents for the welfare of the people.

2. The medical expert who had just immigrated to our country _________ the research of gene


3. Los Angeles is confident and alive after the disastrous earthquake, _______ all the qualities

of a civilized city.

4. Under the protection of their well-furnished residence, they _______ not _________most

diseases common to urban populations.

5. The murderer was about to be hanged. Before the execution, ___________ he confessed

all the crimes he had committed.

6. As university campuses become increasingly multi-ethnic, they offer ______ the conflicts

society will face tomorrow.

7. The railway company decided to extend a branch line to Newcastle to ______ coal direct

____ other cities.

8. The CEO ______ his attention _________ the practical matters relating to forming a

company specializing in securities.

II. Translation exercises

1.大厅里回响着小号独奏的乐曲声。(resonate with)

2. 我想象得出母亲在听到儿子死讯时那张苍白的脸。(in one’s mind’s eye)

3.他走路的样子使我想起他父亲也是这样走路的。(remind of)

4. 我把日期搞错了,所以到达的日期不对了。(mix up)


6. 从理论上说,全体公民都有权直接获取信息,而不必等政府或媒体的过滤。(have access to)

7.在此次总统选举中,民主党发动了一场拉拢女性选民的宣传活动。(launch )

8.他继承父亲的产业后,便沉溺于声色全马之中。(be immersed in)



1. took pride in

2. was immersed in

3. resonating with

4. had…been exposed to

5. in his mind’s eye

6. a glimpse of

7. convey…to

8. turned…to


1. The hall resonated with the notes of the trumpet solo.

2. I saw, in my mind’s eye, the pale face of the mother when she heard the news of her son’s death.

3. His walk reminds me of the way his father used to walk.

4. I mixed the dates up and arrived on an wrong day.

5. Her heart was welled with pride when she learned that her daughter was accepted by Oxford University.

6. Theoretically speaking, the whole population have direct access to information without waiting for being filtered by the government or the media.

7. The democrats have launched a campaign to win women votes over in this presidential election.

8. After he inher ited his father’s estate, he was immersed in all kinds of pleasure.

Unit 7


1. When people are asked what kind of housing they need or want, the question ________ a

variety of answers.

A) defies B) magnifies

C) mediates D) evokes

2. If you want to set up a company, you must ________ with the regulations laid down by the


A) comply B) adhere

C) confirm D) accord

3. Although there are occasional outbreaks of gunfire, we can report that the rebellion has in

the main been ________.

A) canceled B) destroyed

C) suppressed D) restrained

4. Since the two countries couldn’t ________ their differences, they decide d to stop their


A) rectify B) oblige

C) reconcile D) obscure

5. The presidential candidate ________ his position by winning several primary elections.

A) enforced B) enriched

C) intensified D) consolidated


Unit 8


1. The fuel of the continental missile is supposed to be ________ by this device.

A) ignited B) lighted

C) fired D) inspired

2. Mike just discovered that his passport had ________ three months ago.

A) abolished B) expired

C) amended D) constrained

3. Frankly speaking, your article is very good except for some ________ mistakes in grammar.

A) obscure B) glaring

C) trivial D) rare

4. There was once an ________ idea that the earth was flat and motionless.

A) absurd B) intrinsic

C) eternal D) offensive


Unit 9


1. Certain species disappeared or became ________ as new forms arose that were better

adapted to the Earth’s changing environment.

A) feeble B) extinct

C) massive D) extinguished

2. His ________ directions confused us; we did not know which of the two roads to take.

A) ambiguous B) complicated

C) arbitrary D) intricate

3. Franklin D. Roosevelt argued that the depression stemmed from the American economy’s

________ flaws.

A) underlining B) vulnerable

C) vulgar D) underlying

4. Some studies confirmed that this kind of eye disease was ________ in tropical countries.

A) prospective B) prevalent

C) provocative D) perpetual

5. Because of a long drought, the farmer was ________ about the prospect of a good yield.

A) doubtless B) dubious C) realistic D) cautious

6. The United Unions Conference on Drug Abuse, which took place earlier this year in Vienna,

was a very ________ meeting.

A) protective B) overwhelming C) compulsory D) productive

7. Don’t pay much attention to youthful beauty which is only ________.

A) efficient B) transient C) obedient D) residential

8. The flooding of large areas of land is ________ on the heavy rain which lasted five

consecutive days.

A) resultant B) productive C) consequent D) conspicuous


Unit 10


1. I am afraid that you have to alter you ________ views in light of the tragic news that has just


A) indifferent B) distressing

C) optimistic D) pessimistic

2. Although he has had no formal education, he is one of the ________ businessmen in the


A) shrewdest B) sternest

C) nastiest D) alertest

3. Stop shouting! I can’t hear the football ________.

A) judgment B) interpretation

C) commentary D) explanation

4. The cultures of China and Japan have shared many features, but each has used them

according to its national ________.

A) engagement B) destiny

C) capacity D) temperament

5. If you go to the park every day in the morning, you will ________ find him doing physical

exercise there.

A) ordinarily B) invariably C) logically D) persistently

6. The master of the house has got more money than taste, so his rooms are full of expensive

but very ________ furniture.

A) luxurious B) worn C) vulgar D) shabby

7. Overseas students are ________ to apply for admission to almost all the courses in British

universities, provided they have the necessary qualifications.

A) applicable B) eligible C) liable D) negligible


Unit 11


1. Every member of society has to make a ________ to struggle for the freedom of the country.

A) pledge B) warranty

C) resolve D) guarantee

2. I was deeply impressed by the hostess ________ and enjoyed the dinner party very much.

A) hostility B) indignation

C) hospitality D) humanity

3. David tends to feel useless and unwanted in a society that gives so much ________ to

those who compete well.

A) prestige B) regime

C) superiority D) legislation

4. As you have seen, the value of a nation’s currency is a ________ of its economy.

A) reaction B) reflection

C) response D) revelation

5. A number of ________ have been put forward concerning the possible origins of mankind.

A) hypotheses B) theses C) syntheses D) crises

6. In order to build one of the biggest stadiums, the stadium was said to be built with an

obvious ________ for cost.

A) consideration B) attention C) ignorance D) disregard

7. You should take the ________ to avoid the traffic in the center of town even though it takes

you more time.

A) pavement B) sidewalk C) path D) bypass




1. We should make a clear ________ between the two scientific terms for the purpose of our


A) separation B) discrimination

C) deviation D) distinction

2. The terrorists might have planted a bomb on a plane in Athens, set to ________ when it

arrived in New York.

A) go off B) get off

C) come off D) carry off

3. although the body is made up of many different tissues, these tissues are arranged in an

________ and orderly fashion.

A) intricate B) initial

C) internal D) incredible

4. The younger person’s attraction to stereos cannot be explained only ________ familiarity

with technology.

A) in quest of B) by means of

C) in terms of D) by virtue of

5. The noise of the falling rock created a ________ from the serious argument we were having.

A) diversity B) disturbance C) diversion D) division

6. It comes to be realized that different diseases are attributed to the ________ of particular


A) deficiencies B) deficits C) efficiency D) defects

7. A county’s ________ on imported oi l makes it vulnerable to an energy shortage in time of


A) emphasis B) trust C) obedience D) reliance

8. The test results are beyond ________; they have been repeated in labs all over the world.

A) conflict B) dispute C) bargain D) negotiation


Unit 13

I. Translation exercises

1. 过去日本妇女的活动更多地局限在家里。(be confined to)

2. 这在一篇妙语连珠的发言中可是一个乏味的插曲。(sparkle with)

3. 有些像Michael Jordan那样的篮球运动员以魔术搬的技术扬名,而有些则以丑闻出名。(be

renowned for)

4. 我们对他精湛的医术惊叹不已。(marvel at)

5. 据说,原始人用石头制作一件工具要花上几个月甚至几年的时间。(fashion)

6. 学生们在老师身边转来转去,想知道考试的结果。(hover)

7. 强烈的责任感使他接过了这项危险性很大的任务。(set…on)

8. 没有谁跟你过不去,别那样想了。(get…out of one’s head)



1. In the old days women in Japan were more confined to the household.

2. This is a dull interlude in a speech sparkling with witticism

3. While some basketball players like Michael Jordan were renowned for their magic

skills, others were notorious for their scandals.

4. We all marveled at the perfection of his medical skills.

5. It is said that it took primitive men months or even years to fashion a single tool from


6. The students hovered round their teacher, hoping to hear the examination results.

7. A strong sense of responsibility set him on taking over his hazardous task.

8. Nobody’s got anything against you at all. Get that idea out of your head.