感染相关英文词汇-5.7.1 肠杆菌

感染相关英文词汇小结G-(7.1肠杆菌)

1.Enteric Bacilli

肠杆菌

2.diverse anatomic sites 不同解剖位置

http://m.wendangku.net/doc/c5336df2a300a6c30d229f4f.htmlpromised hosts 免疫抑制的宿主

4.colonic flora

肠道菌群

5. Escherichia coli

大肠埃希氏菌

6.Klebsiella

克雷伯杆菌

7. Proteus

变形杆菌

8. Enterobacter

肠杆菌属

9.Serratia

沙雷菌属

10.Citrobacter

枸橼酸菌属

11.Morganella

摩根菌属

12. Providencia

普罗威登菌属

13.Edwardsiella

爱德华氏菌属

14.pathotypes 致病类型

15.gram-negative bacilli (GNB)

革兰阴性菌

16.GNB (primarilyE. coli ,Klebsiella , and Proteus ) only transiently colonize theoropharynx and skin of healthy individuals GNB(特别是大肠埃希菌,克雷伯菌,变形杆菌)仅短暂定植于正常人群体的口咽部和皮肤

17.long-termcarefacilities (LTCFs)

长期照护机构

18.GNB emerge as the dominantflora of both mucosal and skin surfaces

(在某些环境下),GNB成为粘膜、皮肤表面的主要菌群

19.extended length of stay

住院时间延长

20.severe illness

疾病严重

21.antimicrobial use

抗菌药物应用

22.colonization may lead to subsequent infection

定植可造成感染

23.oropharyngeal colonization may lead to pneumonia

口咽部定植可造成肺炎

24.extracytoplasmic outer membrane

胞质外外膜

25.lipid bilayer

磷脂双层

26.lipoproteins

脂蛋白

27.polysaccharides[capsule,lipopolysaccharid

e (LPS)]

多糖(夹膜,脂多糖)

28.critical determinants in pathogenesis and antimicrobialresistance

发病过程以及抗菌药物耐药的重要决定因素

29.bacterial virulence factors

细菌致病因子

30.infect thehost efficiently

快速感染宿主

31.cognate pathogens

共生的病原菌

32.microbes and hosts

微生物群和宿主

33.evolutionary history

进化历史

34. commensal/symbiotic interaction

共生关系

35.mitochondria—formerly bacteria—within eukaryotic cells

线粒体曾经为原核生物的细菌

36.dead-end relationship

死亡关系(无前途)

37.chess match

国际象棋对抗赛38.Extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC)

肠外致病大肠埃希菌

39.extracellular pathogens

细胞外的病原菌

40. Innate immunity

固有免疫

41.activities of complement

补体活性

42.antimicrobial peptides

抗菌多肽

43.professionalphagocytes

吞噬细胞

44.Extraintestinalattachment

肠外粘附(能力)

45.mucociliary blanket

粘膜纤毛层(毯,啧啧那么形象么)

46. Multiple adhesins

不同的粘附分子

46.type I, S, and F1C fimbriae; P pili

(不同的粘附分子)

47. Nutrient sequestration

攫取营养

48.iron via intracellular storage

细胞内储存的铁

49.extracellular scavenging via lactoferrinand transferrin)

细胞外通过乳铁蛋白和转铁蛋白获取铁

50.Cellular lysis

细胞裂解

51.hemolysin

溶红细胞素

52.multiple mechanisms forcompeting for iron and other nutrients

多种攫取铁和其他营养素的机制

53.siderophores

嗜铁素

54.diarrhealdisease

腹泻疾病(E. coli独特之处)

55.defining traits

独特特点

56.many important virulencegenes await identification

许多重要的毒力基因尚待确认

57.understanding of many aspectsof the pathogenesis of infections due to GNB is in its infancy

对GNB感染过程的理解尚浅

58.septic shock

感染性休克

59. The lipid A moiety of LPS (via interaction withhost Toll-like receptor 4)

脂多糖的脂质A部分(通过与宿主Toll样受体4作用)

60.overly exuberant

(细菌)生殖旺盛

61.antigenic variants (serotypes)

抗原变异(致使不同的血清型)

62.>150 O-specific antigens(in E. coli )

超过150种氧特异性抗原

63.>80 capsularantigens(in E. coli )

>80种夹膜抗原64.immuneevasion

免疫逃逸

65.recurrent infection

感染复发

66.different strains of thesame species

同一种的不同菌属

67.impeded vaccine development

加速疫苗的开发

68.intrinsic or acquired antimicrobialresistance

天然或后天获得性耐药

69.alterations or disruptions of hostdefenses. 宿主防御系统改变及损害

70.pneumonia

肺炎

71.bacteremia(arising from any source)

菌血症(可能来源于各个部位)

72. Isolation of GNB from ordinarily sterileanatomic sites

从原本无菌的体内部位分离出G-菌

73.nonsterilesites

非无菌区

74.open soft-tissue wounds

开放的软组织伤口

75.respiratorytract

呼吸道

76.clinical correlation

结合临床

77.differentiate colonization frominfection

鉴别定植还是感染

http://m.wendangku.net/doc/c5336df2a300a6c30d229f4f.htmlctose fermentation

乳糖发酵

79.indole production

产生吲哚

80.evolving patternsof antimicrobial resistance

逐渐变化的耐药特性

http://m.wendangku.net/doc/c5336df2a300a6c30d229f4f.htmlg between published and

real-timeresistance rates

已公布的和真实世界耐药率间的时间差

82.ever-increasing prevalence

ofmultidrug-resistant (MDR) GNB

多药耐药的G-菌的流行

83.broad-spectrum treatment

广谱的药物治疗

84.appropriate narrowerspectrumagent

适合的窄谱抗菌药物

85.antimicrobial stewardship

抗菌药物合理应用

86.superinfectionwith resistant bacteria

耐药的超级细菌

87.maximizethe useful longevity of available antimicrobial agents

延长现有抗菌药物的使用寿命

88.not to treat patients who are colonized but notinfected

如为定植,无需治疗

89.antimicrobial resistance profiles of GNB G-菌的耐药谱

90.species

细菌的种属91.geographic location

地理位置

92.regional antimicrobial use

当地抗菌药物的应用情况

93.hospital site [intensive care units (ICUs)versus wards]

医院的位置(ICU或普通病房)

94.carbapenems

碳青霉烯类

95.imipenem

美罗培南

96.aminoglycoside

氨基糖苷类

97.amikacin

阿米卡星

98.cephalosporin IV

IV代头孢菌素

99.cefepime

头孢吡肟

100. piperacillin-tazobactam

哌拉西林-他唑巴坦

101.β-Lactamases

β内酰胺酶

102.most important mediators of resistanceto these drugs inGNB

(β内酰胺酶)是GNB耐药的主要机制

103. Decreased permeability

渗透性下降

104.active efflux ofβ-lactam agents

β内酰胺类药物主动泵出

105.incombination withβ-lactamase-mediated resistance

与β内酰胺酶介导的耐药同时存在

106. Broadspectrumβ-lactamases

广谱β内酰胺酶

107.penicillinsand cephalosporins I

青霉素及头孢I代

108.entericGNB

肠道G-菌

109.clavulanate

克拉维酸盐(棒酸盐)

110. Extended-spectrum

β-lactamases(ESBLs)

超广谱β内酰胺酶

111.cephalosporins III and IV

头孢III代及IV代

112.aztreonam

氨曲南

113.acquired ESBL-encoding genesvia transferable plasmids

通过质粒传播的获得性ESBL基因

114.most prevalent

最普遍

115.Klebsiella pneumoniae

肺炎克雷伯菌

116. K. oxytoca

产酸克雷伯菌

117.underrecognized

被低估

118.Enterobacter

肠杆菌119.Citrobacter

柠檬酸细菌属

120. Proteus

变形杆菌属

121.Serratia

沙雷氏菌属

122.the regional prevalence

ofESBL-producingGNB declines in rank orderas follows: Latin America > WesternPacific > Europe > United States and Canada

产ESBLG-菌的发生率降序排列为:拉丁美洲>西太平洋>欧洲>美国和加拿大

123. Hospitaloutbreaks due

toESBL-producing strains

医院产ESBL菌株感染爆发

124.extensive use of cephalosporins III

头孢III代广泛运用

125.ceftazidime

头孢他定

126.most reliably active β-lactamagents against ESBL-expressing strains(carbapenems)对产ESBL表达菌株最有效的β内酰胺酶制

剂是(碳青霉烯)

127.porin mutations

外膜蛋白基因突变

128. decreased uptakeof cephalosporins and

β-lactam/β-lactamase inhibitor combinations (细菌)对头孢菌素、β内酰胺酶/β内酰

胺酶抑制剂的摄取降低

129.Thus, ESBL-producing isolates should be consideredresistant to all penicillins, cephalosporins, and aztreonam

因此,分离菌产ESBL意味着对所有青霉

素类、头孢类抗菌药物及氨曲南耐药

130.Ceftobiprole

头孢托罗酯

131. first-in-class

一类药物中的第一个原研药

132.methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus Aureus(MRSA)

耐甲氧西林的金黄色葡萄球菌

133.Enterobacteriaceae

肠杆菌科

134.AmpC β –lactamasesconfer resistance to the same substratesas ESBLs plus thecephamycins

AmpCβ内酰胺酶可导致耐药,和ESBL有同样的底物,同时还有对头霉素类耐药

135.cefoxitin

头孢西丁

136.cefotetan

头孢替坦

137.AmpC enzymes resist inhibition

byβ-lactamase inhibitors

AmpC酶可不被β内酰胺酶抑制剂所抑制

138.constitutive chromosomal AmpC

β-lactamases

染色体编码AmpCβ内酰胺酶的基因

139. Proteus vulgaris

普通变形杆菌

140. Providencia

普罗威登斯菌属

141.Morganella

摩根(氏)菌属142.aminopenicillins

氨基青霉素

143.cefazolin

头孢唑林

144.acquired plasmids containing

AmpCβ-lactamase genes

质粒介导的AmpCβ内酰胺酶基因转导

145.cefepime is stable to AmpC β-lactamases 头孢吡肟对AmpCβ内酰胺酶稳定

146.Carbapenemases

碳青霉烯酶

147. Automated susceptibility systems

自动化药敏检测系统

148. unreliable for detection ofcarbapenemases

对碳青霉烯酶的检测不可信

149.imipenem

亚胺培南

150.meropenem

美罗培南

151.ertapenem

厄他培南

152.Resistance to ertapenem is the mostsensitivemarker for carbapenem resistance inautomated systems

在自动药敏检测系统中,厄他培南耐药即意味着碳青霉烯酶耐药,是最敏感的指标

153.modified Hodge test

改良Hodge试验

154.Tigecycline

替加环素

155.polymyxins

多粘菌素类

156.tigecycline reaches onlylow concentrations in serum and urine, acharacteristic that warrantsconcern about itsuse in the treatment of bacteremia andurinary tract infection (UTI)

替加环素血药浓度、尿药浓度低,因此对其治疗菌血症和尿路感染的可靠性有所质疑

157. Resistance to fluoroquinolones usually is due to alterationsof the target site (DNA gyrase and/or topoisomeraseIV), with orwithout decreased permeability, active efflux,or protection of the target site.

氟喹诺酮耐药主要由于靶点改变(DNA回旋酶和/或拓扑异构酶IV),伴随或不伴随渗透率降低,主动泵出以及靶点的保护作用

159. MDR GNB

多重耐药G-菌

158.pending susceptibility results

根据药敏结果

160.assess the clinical responseto treatment 评价治疗的反应

161.resistance may evolve during therapy

治疗过程中可出现耐药

162.drainage of abscesses

脓肿引流

163.removal of infected foreignbodies

感染灶切除

164.polymicrobial infections

多重感染

165. prudentto design an antimicrobialregimen active against all of the GNB

设计针对所有G-的抗菌药治疗方案需要慎重

166.superinfection

超级细菌感染

167.Clostridium difficilecolitis

难辨梭菌结肠炎

168.Diligent adherence to

hand-hygieneprotocols

坚持执行手卫生原则

169.avoidance of inappropriate antimicrobial use

避免不合理抗菌药物应用

170.avoidance of the use of indwellingdevices(e.g., urinary and intravascularcatheters, endotracheal tubes)

避免体内留置设备(尿路、静脉导管、气管内置管)

171.placement

放置

172. Positioning (e.g., head of bed at ≥30°) 适当的体位(床头抬高≥30°)

173.good oral hygiene

注意口腔卫生

174.decrease the incidence of pneumonia inventilated patients

降低通气患者肺炎的发生率

http://m.wendangku.net/doc/c5336df2a300a6c30d229f4f.htmlmensal strains

共生的菌株

176.normal facultative intestinal flora

正常的兼性肠道菌群

177.confer benefits to the host (e.g.,resistance

to colonization withpathogenic organisms)

为宿主提供好处(如,防止病原微生物定植)

http://m.wendangku.net/doc/c5336df2a300a6c30d229f4f.htmlck the specializedvirulence traits

缺乏特殊的致病特点

179.a foreign body (e.g., a urinary catheter)

异物(尿管)

180.hostcompromise (e.g., local anatomic or functional abnormalities suchas urinary or biliary tract obstruction or systemicimmunocompromise)

宿主免疫抑制(局部解剖或功能异常,例如尿道、胆道梗阻或系统免疫功能异常)

181.inoculum

(接种)菌群

182.fecal contamination of the peritoneal cavity

腹腔粪便污染

183.phylogenetic background

系统发育背景

184.surgical wound infection

手术伤口感染

185.osteomyelitis

骨髓炎

186.myositis

肌炎

187.intestinal pathogenicE. coli

肠道致病大肠埃希菌

188.gastroenteritis

胃肠炎

189.ExPEC strains

肠外致病菌190. Urinary tract infection (UTI)

尿路感染

191.ambulatory patients

门诊患者

192.uncomplicatedcystitis

无症状膀胱炎

193.pyelonephritis

肾盂肾炎

194. catheter-associated UTIs

导管相关尿路感染

195.specific hosts (e.g., premenopausal women, compromised hosts

特殊的患者(绝经前女性,免疫抑制患者)

196.frequent recurrences

反复复发

197.dysuria

排尿困难

198.urinary frequency

尿频

199.suprapubicpain

耻骨上疼痛

200. Fever and/or back pain suggestsprogression to pyelonephritis.

发热及后背疼痛意味着疼痛进展至肾盂肾

201.fevermay take 5–7 days to resolve completely

发热需5-7天完全恢复

202. Persistently elevated orincreasing fever and neutrophil counts

持续发热及中性粒细胞升高

203.prompt evaluationfor intrarenal or perinephric abscess and/or obstruction

迅速评估是否存在肾内、肾周的脓肿或梗阻

204. Renalparenchymal damage and loss of renal function

肾实质和肾功能损伤

205. Pregnantwomen

孕妇

206.adversely affect the outcome ofpregnancy 影响孕程

207.prenatal screening

产前检查

208.asymptomatic bacteriuria

无症状性细菌尿

209. Prostatic infection

前列腺感染

210.potential complication of UTI

尿路感染可能的并发症

211.tailored to the individual host

个体化治疗

212. Abdominal and pelvic infection

腹腔和盆腔感染

213.acute peritonitis secondary to fecal contamination,

粪便感染激发急性腹膜炎

214. spontaneousbacterial peritonitis

自发性细菌性腹膜炎

215. dialysis-associated peritonitis

透析相关性腹膜炎

216.diverticulitis

憩室炎217.appendicitis

阑尾炎

218.intraperitoneal or visceral

abscesses(hepatic,pancreatic, splenic)

腹腔或内脏脓肿(肝脏、胰腺、肾脓肿)

219.infected pancreatic pseudocysts

胰腺假性囊肿

220.septiccholangitis

化脓性胆管炎

221.septic cholecystitis

化脓性胆囊炎

222.facultative and/or anaerobic members ofthe intestinal flora

肠道菌群中的兼性厌氧和厌氧菌

223. community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) 社区获得性肺炎

224. hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP)

医院获得性感染肺炎

225.postoperative and ICU patients

术后及ICU患者

226. ventilator-associatedpneumonia

呼吸机相关肺炎

227. small-volumeaspiration

小容量吸气

228.hematogenous spread

血性感染

229. multifocal nodular infiltrates

多灶性浸润

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