Unit 3 Fashion statements

Unit 3 Fashion statements

Active Reading 1

Reading and understanding

2 Choose the best answer to the questions.

1 What happened on the fashion scene in the 1950s?

(a) Blue jeans arrived in Europe and Asia.

(This happened and they were worn in Europe and A sia “with huge enthusiasm”.)

(b) American youth started wearing jeans.

(c) The French started to manufacture jeans.

(d) American women started to wear trousers.

2 What do women want to do during an economic boom?

(a) Show less of their legs.

(b) Show more of their legs.

(Yes, it seems there is a direct correlation: as the economy booms, hemlines rise.)

(c) Buy short skirts.

(d) Sell their shares.

3 What did the tights help to promote in the 1960s?

(a) The French fashion industry.

(b) Stockings.

(c) The miniskirt.

(Yes, because without tights the tops of stockings would show since miniskirts had much higher hemlines.)

(d) The Beatles.

4 What was popular in the mid-1980s?

(a) Clean shaven faces.

(b) Long hair.

(c) Denim jeans and jackets.

(Yes, the passage says “denim remained popular ... heavy metal music fans wore ... jeans and denim jackets.)

(d) Short skirts.

5 What was fashionable in the 1990s?

(a) Designer jeans.

(b) Dyed hair and trainers.

(Yes, both of these are specifically mentioned for the 1990s.)

(c) Tight jeans and short hair.

(d) Clothes with bright colours.

6 What happened in the fall of 2007?

(a) Hemlines anticipated a global crisis.

(Yes, this is what happened, which was unusual according to the previous correlation that hemlines followed the economic situation rather than proceeding or anticipating it.)

(b) Women’s skirts got shorter.

(c) There was a crisis on the stock market.

(d) Designers began to lose touch with reality.

3 Match the photos with the sentences from the passage.

Photo 1 (a) Photo 2 (d)Photo 3 (g)

Photo 4 (b)Photo 5 (e)Photo 6 (f) Photo 7 (c)

Dealing with unfamiliar words

4 Match the words in the box with their definitions.

1 able to be seen (visible)

2 to think or guess that something is smaller, less important etc than it really is (underestimate)

3 very brave and determined (courageous)

4 an urgent, difficult or dangerous situation (crisis)

5 the most common or greatest in number or amount (predominant)

6 new and different in a way that might offend or upset some people (daring)

5 Complete the paragraph with the correct form of the words in Activity 4.

At a time of global (1) crisis, when stock markets are falling across the world, we should never

(2) underestimate the ability of fashion designers to surprise us by br inging sunshine into people’s lives, and avoiding the (3) predominant trend of gloom and pessimism. This is certainly true of the fashion industry in Brazil. In 2009, when the effects of the financial situation were (4) visible almost everywhere, top designers launched a (5) daring new collection combining high hemlines, low necklines, and lots of colour. As one commentator wrote, “You can call it a (6) courageous decision if you like, but it’s also a question of Brazilians doing what comes naturally to the m.”

6 Replace the underlined words with the correct form of the words in the box.

1 If we don’t act soon, the situation will get worse. (deteriorate)

2 I’m afraid my trousers got torn when I tried to climb over that fence. (ripped)

3 You need thick pieces of material on your knees and elbows if you go rollerblading. (pads)

4 Access to the show is limited to journalists with press passes. (restricted)

5 The Dow Jones list of stocks and shares fell another 40 points yesterday. (index)

6 That was the most wor rying piece of news I’d heard in a long time. (unsettling)

7 Answer the questions about the words and expressions.

1 (a) everywhere

2 (b) financial failure

3 (b) in no other shops apart from boutiques

4 (a) strong

5 (a) attractive

6 (b) spend money very generously

7 (b) remove its color

8 (b) a knee-length skirt

9 (a) very thin

Active reading (2)

Reading and understanding

2 Choose the best answer to the questions.

1 What happens when Gina Cowen goes looking for glass on a beach?

(b) She gets burnt.

(Yes, she says she burns her shoulders.)

2 Why is red glass special compared to other types of glass?

(b) It’s probably older.

(Yes, Cowen says there is a strong chance that it could be centuries old.)

3 What does Cowen do with most of the jewellery she makes?

(a) She sells it to private customers.

(Yes, the passage says “she works mostly to commission”.)

4 When did Cowen get interested in sea glass?

(c) While walking along a beach in South Africa.

(Yes, she found some glass there and started a collection.)

5 Where does the best sea glass come from?

(d) Beaches in England.

(Yes, Seaham Beach in Britain is her “favourite hunting ground” and her Victorian sea-glass collection from British beaches is “most stunning”, so the implication is that, for Cowen, British beaches are where the best sea glass comes from.)

6 Why will sea glass become rarer than diamonds?

(c) More and more glass is being recycled.

(Yes, this means that old glass is made into new glass instead of being dumped in the sea. As a result, sea glass will become rare.)

(d) People will be prepared to pay a lot of money for it.

7 What did a 15-year-old girl manage to do?

(c) She sold Cowen some sea glass for more than it was worth.

(Yes, the girl sold it on eBay and Cowen says she paid too much for it.

8 Why is sea glass more ecological than diamonds and gold?

(a) Getting it doesn’t damage the environment.

(Yes, the passage refers to serious ecological problems with extracting gold and mining diamonds, whereas because sea glass is waste material collecting and using it is actually clearing up the beach environment.)

Dealing with unfamiliar words

3 Match the words in the box with their definitions.

1 (revive)

2 (stunning)

3 (suspend)

4 (engagement)

5 (tide)

6 (preside)

7 (disposal)

8 (luminous)

4 Complete the sentences with the correct form of the words in Activity 3.

1 engagement

2 suspended

3 disposal

4 preside

5 luminous

6 tides

7 stunning

8 revive

5 Replace the underlined words with the correct form of the following words.

1 (stint)

2 (chuck)

3 (negligence)

4 (scoured)

5 (folly)

6 (extraction)

7 (elusive)

6 Answer the questions about the words and expressions.

1 (b) slowly and casually

2 (b) open to interpretation

3 (a) care for the environment

4 (a) possibly dishonest or morally wrong

5 (b) give them an advantage

6 (a) approve of it

7 (a) quick movement to get hold of it

Language in use

word formation: -y

1 Write the adjectives which describe:

1 (flowery)

2 (sticky)

3 (pricy)

4 (shiny)

5 (fussy)

6 (sunny)

word formation: over –

2 Replace the underlined words with verbs beginning with over- . You may need to make other changes.

1 (overestimated)

2 (overcharged)

3 (overslept)

4 (overgrown)

5 (overemphasize)

6 (overeaten)

see

3 Rewrite the sentences using see .

1 In 1987 there was a major stock market crash.

1987 saw a major stock market crash.

2 The early 1980s was a period of steady economic growth.

The early 1980s saw a period of steady economic growth.

3 Long hair made a brief return in the 1990s.

The 1990s saw a brief return to long hair.

4 On the first day of the sales there were hundreds of people queuing in the streets.

The first day of the sales saw hundreds of people queuing in the streets.

5 There was great technological change during our grandparents’ generation.

Our grandparents’ gene ration saw a great technological change.

turn out to be

4 Rewrite the sentences using turn out to be .

1 I thought the ring was made of gold, but in the end it proved to be silver.

I thought the ring was made of gold, but it turned out to be silver.

2 She looked like my cousin, but she was actually a complete stranger.

She looked like my cousin, but she turned out to be a complete stranger.

3 The house needed a lot of work doing on it, but it proved to be a good investment.

The house needed a lot of work doing on it, but it turned out to be a good investment.

4 I saw smoke rising from the building, but it was a false alarm.

I saw smoke rising from the building, but it turned out to be a false alarm.

5 I didn’t want to move to England, but in the end it prove d to be a wise decision.

I didn’t want to move to England, but it turned out to be a wise decision.

6 Translate the paragraph into Chinese.

有时候,所谓的裙摆指标甚至能事先早早就预告股市的变化。2007年9月,纽约时装展展示了2008年

春季流行风格,潮流转向了长衣、长裙,许多裙摆降至小腿中线,甚至到了脚踝。有人觉得,这表

明裙摆指标靠不住了,或者服装设计师不再左右着装的趋势了。在2008年9月的伦敦和纽约时装展

中,裙摆继续下降。果然,2008年秋天金融危机袭击美欧,波及全球,股指急跌。此时,裙摆不再

被动追随股市升跌,而是引领潮流,预示未来的经济趋势了。(?第一句原文复杂,但译成中文较

简单。最后一句译文加词,加上“被动”可起强调作用,让本句的意思更明确。)

7 Translate the paragraphs into English.

What you wear seems to dictate the kind of person you are supposed to be. Take primary school and high school students for example. One of the hard and fast rules they have to observe is that they must wear uniforms at school. There is no doubt that school uniforms would not have achieved their currency without a symbo lic correlation between the uniformity of clothes and the students’ conformity to some common code of conduct.

However, after years of school life, there is always a backlash secretly nursed in the students’ mind against the ubiquitous uniform which suppresses the expression of individuality. To compensate for this loss, students try to hunt for more casual and popular clothes and wear them on weekends. It is not until they start university, however, that they can really enjoy the freedom of dress, an anarchy associated with the cultivation of creativity and the encouragement of the free expression of ideas and talents. But this situation won’t obtain for long. After a relatively short time of liberty, they may experience again

the revived pressure of dress code as soon as they become professionals.

Translation of the passages

Active reading (1)

时装潮流50年

1960 至2010 年间的时装史存在着两个不可忽略或不可低估的不变因素:一是无处不在的牛仔裤,

二是女装裙摆的升降。

牛仔裤是用粗斜纹布做的,早在16 世纪末法国就有了这种布料。直到19 世纪中叶,李维·施

特劳斯发现在加州淘金热中劳动的矿工很需要用这种耐用布料做成的牛仔裤,他还用铆钉来加固裤子。直到1950 年代,蓝色粗斜纹布做的牛仔裤一直只是流行的工装,但是后来牛仔裤变成了青春、新思想、反叛及个性的标志。1950 年代末,李维·施特劳斯公司开始向欧亚出口蓝色牛仔裤。年轻人趋之若鹜,视其为美国活力四射的、随意的生活方式的象征。

裙摆在这一时期有着特殊的意义。人们时常会注意到,女人的裙摆和经济之间存在一种颇为精确

的关联性,且鲜有例外。股市升时裙摆也跟着上升;股市跌时裙摆就跟着下降。在经济繁荣和萧条时

期女性到底为什么要多暴露或少暴露双腿至今仍然是个迷。但总的趋势是必定是这样的:每当经济前

景不明朗时,男人和女人都倾向于穿比较保守的衣服。

1960 年代时装史上一个最重要的发展就是英国时装设计师玛丽·匡特发明的超短裙。由于匡特

在“摇摆伦敦”的中心地带工作,超短裙很快就风行全球。当法国杰出的时装设计师库雷热把超短裙

变成一件高级时装时,超短裙得到了人们更多的尊敬。但是,如果只有长筒袜而没有发明裤袜的话,

超短裙是不可能在全球流行的,因为裙摆的上升会让人看见长筒袜的袜口。

60 年代中、70 年代初的嬉皮士运动影响了牛仔裤的设计,牛仔裤的裤腿发展成了扩张的“喇叭形”。

到了70 年代中期,随着经济的恶化,裙摆降低到了小腿中部和脚踝部,而牛仔裤则不再是清一色的

蓝色了。

牛仔裤在朋克时期依然很时髦,裤腿通常有撕裂的口子,并配有铁链及打着装饰钉的皮带。这种

样式的牛仔裤延续了几年,但流行的范围越来越小,仅限于内城区的少数年轻人群体,对其他年龄段

的群体影响不大。

作为对朋克无政府主义的一种抗拒,新浪漫派是一个主要出现在英国夜总会的时装潮流。这种时

装大胆创新、魅力十足:衬衫以皱褶和奢侈为特征,牛仔裤是绝对不可以接受的。

80 年代中期兴起了几种风格各异的服装。“权威装”以雅致的套装为特色,带肩垫的上衣配及膝

短裙,受到新近得势的女士的欢迎。毫不奇怪,当经济不稳定的时候,人们不想在穿着上太冒险。男士则流行以电视剧“迈阿密风云”命名的“迈阿密风云”式样的时装,名牌短外套配时髦的T 恤,

留着有型的短胡子——长三、四天的样子。和往常一样,粗斜纹布仍然受到年轻人的欢迎。尤其是重

金属音乐迷,爱穿漂白的、撕开裂口的牛仔裤及牛仔衫。

在1987 年全球股市崩盘之前,裙摆也开始逐渐地上升起来。美国在80 年代末兴起了一种较为

保守的风格,称为“学院风”。男士穿拉尔夫·劳伦和布鲁克斯兄弟品牌的经典服装,衣领带纽扣的

衬衫、斜纹棉布裤、平底便鞋,脖子上随意系着一件毛衣。他们也穿牛仔裤,但是必须是新的,或者是干净、熨平的牛仔裤,完全不是李维·施特劳斯最初所设想的那种牛仔裤。

90 年代随着世界经济的再次复苏,年轻人的时装也变得更加大胆起来了。靴子、匡威或耐克运

动鞋都很流行,但是流行颜色变成了橄榄绿和米灰色。头发要么留得很长,要么是染成蓝色、绿色或红色的短刺头。帽衫、棒球帽及松垮型牛仔裤在街上随处可见。松垮型牛仔裤往往穿得很低,松松垮垮地挂在臀部上。

2000 年1 月纽约的科技股市崩盘。和往常一样,裙摆也下降了,正如一位评论家所说的,“循规蹈矩、一本正经的式样开始流行了,裙摆必须过膝。” 但仅仅过了一年,股市开始复苏,超短迷你裙又回来了,裙摆比多年以来的都要高。这段时间,除非在工作时,人们通常不穿正式的服装。名牌牛仔裤享有很高的知名度,用传统的粗斜纹布制作,可能还加了点莱卡。由著名服装品牌,如阿玛尼、胡戈·伯斯士及莫斯奇诺剪裁、销售。这些品牌公司以前都只做最优雅的时装。紧身牛仔裤在英国及欧洲大部分地区很流行。裙子的长度不太确定,范围从超短到“理性”——即及膝或刚刚过膝。

有时候,所谓的裙摆标志甚至能够在事情发生之前早早地预告股票牛市和熊市的更替。2007 年9

月的纽约时装展展示了2008 年春季流行式样,潮流转向了长衣、长裙,裙摆降至小腿中线,甚至到

了脚踝。有人觉得这表明裙摆标志靠不住了,要不就是服装设计师已经丧失了对时装的主宰权。2008 年9 月,在伦敦和纽约时装展中,裙摆继续下降。果然,2008 年秋天金融危机袭击美欧,波及全球,股指急剧下跌。这时,裙摆不再被动地追随股市升跌,而是引领潮流,预示未来的经济趋势了。

在整个这段时期内,时装的风格多种多样,它们的诞生往往起因于人们希望归属于某种亚文化、

与之认同的愿望。但是,这个时期不变因素是粗斜纹布和裙摆。影响力最大的当属19 世纪加利福尼

亚州的一个服装制造商以及1960 年代工作在“摇摆伦敦”的一位年轻的时装设计师。

Active reading (2)

生态珠宝:海洋玻璃

虽然海洋玻璃正在逐渐消失,珠宝设计师吉娜·考恩仍在搜寻这种难觅的珍宝。

珠宝设计师吉娜·考恩说,在海滩上搜寻海洋玻璃时,她看起来像人形螃蟹:她低头弯腰,侧

着身子随着白色浪花的起伏,完全忘记了时间的流逝。在牛津的她的工作室里,她边吃午饭,边告诉我:“我每次都希望能找到比上次更好的海洋玻璃。几小时后,我会抬起头来,这时才发现偌大的海

滩已经空无一人,我的肩膀被晒伤了。”

见过被海水打磨过的玻璃的人都明白,这种玻璃在海里呆上一段时间之后就能奇迹般地由一块普

通玻璃变成一颗耀眼的珍宝。把它们拿在手里,你会发现它们每一快都折射出不同的光泽,散发出独特的光彩。

没有什么硬性的的规定说明玻璃碎块要在海水中放多长时间才能被正式称为海洋玻璃,但可以肯

定的是,年代越久远,玻璃就越光滑、越奇特。50 岁的考恩解释说:“完美的海洋玻璃没有棱角。它

们的棱角经海水多年的拍打已经磨平了,它们也从大块玻璃变成了小巧精美的宝石。玻璃的颜色也能

道出它们的年龄,如果你发现红色或琥珀色的海洋玻璃,你找到的可能就是几百年前的玻璃——我们

已经不再生产这种玻璃了。”

要制造玻璃珠宝,考恩得先把她找到的海洋玻璃放在磨石滚筒里抛光,除掉玻璃表面的霜花。她

把其中一些抛光的玻璃镶在银器上,剩下的或串成珠链,或用金刚钻打眼后用细丝串在一起。

90 年代末,她设计的产品在伦敦的利博提百货店出售。如今,你可能在美术馆里看到她的作品,

但是她主要做订单产品,她设计的产品从脚链到订婚戒指无所不包。

在立志成为珠宝商之前,考恩从20 岁到40 岁都从事新闻报道及音乐管理工作。她在祖国南非开

普敦的砂砾海滩散步时偶然发现几颗海洋玻璃,并注意到它们在海水的塑造下呈现各种不同的形状。

她从此开始收集海洋玻璃,把它们存放在一个大玻璃柜里,放在工作室显眼的位置。尽管她的收藏包

括来自遥远的斐济和马略卡岛的珍品,但最令人惊叹的是她在英国沙滩上找到的维多利亚时期的海洋

玻璃藏品。

她最喜欢的寻宝地——也是许多收藏者的寻宝地——是英国达勒姆县的锡厄姆海滩。那儿是维多

利亚玻璃厂的所在地,该厂于1921 年关闭。有成千上万公吨的玻璃撒落到海上,并在过去的一个世

纪里被海浪打磨抛光,为考恩提供了大量的原材料。

海洋玻璃的产生是废物再生的一种形式,不仅如此,它也是大自然补救人类愚蠢行为的一个例子。

考恩说,“人的过失行为被转变成积极的东西,这真是太好了。”

虽然在19 世纪没有人思考过向大海倾倒玻璃的后果,但这件事最后演变成了一个完美的过程:

玻璃最终破碎了,变成了沙子。如今,对玻璃废料的负责任的态度是尽量重新利用废旧玻璃,这确实

有很大的好处,但却宣告了海洋玻璃时代的终结。考恩说,“这是一个机遇:海洋玻璃资源最终会枯竭,将来有一天,它们会比钻石还珍贵。”

供货的减少加上需求的增加使海洋玻璃生意非常兴隆。以前人们曾经免费向珠宝商提供自己的收

藏,现在它们在EBay 上能卖到成百上千英镑。就连年轻的收藏者也深知它们潜在的价值。最近一位

15 岁的女孩把她的收藏卖给考恩,想挣点钱参加学校组织的旅游。考恩说:“我付给她的钱比它的实

际价值高多了,她把它拍得很漂亮。”

当人们开始对珠宝的来源提出质疑时,海洋玻璃的生态优点让它们更具吸引力。黄金的提炼会给

环境带来损害,它的坏名声以及钻石业的糟糕人权记录给选择变废为宝的珠宝设计者带来了极大的

优势。

海洋玻璃的减少似乎让人觉得应该恢复(往海里)倾倒玻璃的旧习,但考恩绝不宽恕这样的做

法。“有人跟我说‘为什么不往海里倒玻璃以保证未来原材料的供应,或打磨新玻璃让它看上去像旧

玻璃?’这可不是我干的事。这样做会失去神秘感。我喜欢的是。每块海洋玻璃的背后都有一个故事,

你可以想象它曾经的样子,它走过的地方以及它的年龄。每个人都会在同一块玻璃上看到不同的故事。”

50 年后,塑料可能是被海浪冲上岸的唯一的东西了,但考恩坚信艺术家会想办法给它们派上用场。

她说,“已经有珠宝商开始使用熔化塑料了,人们会找到富有创造性的方法来利用一切现有的资源。”

同时,孩子们会继续抓取海洋战利品,不管它们是否有价值。毕竟它们都是免费的珍宝,就算在

傍晚时分你把它放回到海滩上,任海浪把它冲走,也值得去搜寻。

所以,下一次如果你想知道如何充分利用英国沙滩的话,你可以照着考恩的样子做:站在海滩上,

摆出螃蟹的姿势,去搜寻那些闪闪发光的鹅卵石,别让它们从你的眼前溜走。

Reading across cultures

扎领结

时尚配饰还是中小学男生的噩梦?历代英国的中小学男生(女生也一样)每天早上都要挣扎着打

上校服领带,领带结能打对就不错了,绝对不会想到领结跟时尚有什么关系。但是,领带显然并不像

外套或袜子那样充当服装的主角,它既不蔽体,也不保暖。

据我们所知,领带不过只有大约100 年的历史,它是从更早的一种时尚配饰演变发展而来的——

围在脖子上的丝巾(即领巾),这种领巾在18 世纪的法国风靡一时。”Cravat”是法语词”croat”(克

罗地亚人)的错别字。那时有一个团的克罗地亚士兵访问法国的路易十六国王,他们身穿高雅制服,衣领上系着色彩鲜艳的领带。他们的穿戴一下子让法国人着了迷,很快,凡自认为穿着得体的法国绅士都神气地戴上了领巾。

这种时尚很快便跨越海峡传到了英国。但随着翻领衬衣的发展,一种不同的、更长的领结诞生了。

大约到了上个世纪初,领带开始成为各类学校及体育俱乐部的标志。到了20 世纪20 年代,条纹领带变成了标准的领带,不同的条纹颜色代表了个人所属的不同的学校和俱乐部。

从那以后,领带在世界舞台上独领风骚,成了时髦人士和权威的象征。1970 年代,在嬉皮士运

动期间,印花领带很流行。另外,在男士领带的宽度和女人的裙摆的高低之间似乎也存在着某种关联。但最重要的是,领带是已确立的社会秩序的标志,出席商务会议或政治峰会不戴领带是要冒风险的。在穿了一年的开领衬衣后,在2009 年总统宣誓就职仪式上巴拉克·奥巴马打了一条漂亮的红领带。

他别无选择。只要像奥巴马这样的世界领袖在重要场合继续打领带的话,我们大家也(可以说)只好照办了。

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