Unit 3 Fashion statements

Unit 3 Fashion statements

Active Reading 1

Reading and understanding

2 Choose the best answer to the questions.

1 What happened on the fashion scene in the 1950s?

(a) Blue jeans arrived in Europe and Asia.

(This happened and they were worn in Europe and A sia “with huge enthusiasm”.)

(b) American youth started wearing jeans.

(c) The French started to manufacture jeans.

(d) American women started to wear trousers.

2 What do women want to do during an economic boom?

(a) Show less of their legs.

(b) Show more of their legs.

(Yes, it seems there is a direct correlation: as the economy booms, hemlines rise.)

(c) Buy short skirts.

(d) Sell their shares.

3 What did the tights help to promote in the 1960s?

(a) The French fashion industry.

(b) Stockings.

(c) The miniskirt.

(Yes, because without tights the tops of stockings would show since miniskirts had much higher hemlines.)

(d) The Beatles.

4 What was popular in the mid-1980s?

(a) Clean shaven faces.

(b) Long hair.

(c) Denim jeans and jackets.

(Yes, the passage says “denim remained popular ... heavy metal music fans wore ... jeans and denim jackets.)

(d) Short skirts.

5 What was fashionable in the 1990s?

(a) Designer jeans.

(b) Dyed hair and trainers.

(Yes, both of these are specifically mentioned for the 1990s.)

(c) Tight jeans and short hair.

(d) Clothes with bright colours.

6 What happened in the fall of 2007?

(a) Hemlines anticipated a global crisis.

(Yes, this is what happened, which was unusual according to the previous correlation that hemlines followed the economic situation rather than proceeding or anticipating it.)

(b) Women’s skirts got shorter.

(c) There was a crisis on the stock market.

(d) Designers began to lose touch with reality.

3 Match the photos with the sentences from the passage.

Photo 1 (a) Photo 2 (d)Photo 3 (g)

Photo 4 (b)Photo 5 (e)Photo 6 (f) Photo 7 (c)

Dealing with unfamiliar words

4 Match the words in the box with their definitions.

1 able to be seen (visible)

2 to think or guess that something is smaller, less important etc than it really is (underestimate)

3 very brave and determined (courageous)

4 an urgent, difficult or dangerous situation (crisis)

5 the most common or greatest in number or amount (predominant)

6 new and different in a way that might offend or upset some people (daring)

5 Complete the paragraph with the correct form of the words in Activity 4.

At a time of global (1) crisis, when stock markets are falling across the world, we should never

(2) underestimate the ability of fashion designers to surprise us by br inging sunshine into people’s lives, and avoiding the (3) predominant trend of gloom and pessimism. This is certainly true of the fashion industry in Brazil. In 2009, when the effects of the financial situation were (4) visible almost everywhere, top designers launched a (5) daring new collection combining high hemlines, low necklines, and lots of colour. As one commentator wrote, “You can call it a (6) courageous decision if you like, but it’s also a question of Brazilians doing what comes naturally to the m.”

6 Replace the underlined words with the correct form of the words in the box.

1 If we don’t act soon, the situation will get worse. (deteriorate)

2 I’m afraid my trousers got torn when I tried to climb over that fence. (ripped)

3 You need thick pieces of material on your knees and elbows if you go rollerblading. (pads)

4 Access to the show is limited to journalists with press passes. (restricted)

5 The Dow Jones list of stocks and shares fell another 40 points yesterday. (index)

6 That was the most wor rying piece of news I’d heard in a long time. (unsettling)

7 Answer the questions about the words and expressions.

1 (a) everywhere

2 (b) financial failure

3 (b) in no other shops apart from boutiques

4 (a) strong

5 (a) attractive

6 (b) spend money very generously

7 (b) remove its color

8 (b) a knee-length skirt

9 (a) very thin

Active reading (2)

Reading and understanding

2 Choose the best answer to the questions.

1 What happens when Gina Cowen goes looking for glass on a beach?

(b) She gets burnt.

(Yes, she says she burns her shoulders.)

2 Why is red glass special compared to other types of glass?

(b) It’s probably older.

(Yes, Cowen says there is a strong chance that it could be centuries old.)

3 What does Cowen do with most of the jewellery she makes?

(a) She sells it to private customers.

(Yes, the passage says “she works mostly to commission”.)

4 When did Cowen get interested in sea glass?

(c) While walking along a beach in South Africa.

(Yes, she found some glass there and started a collection.)

5 Where does the best sea glass come from?

(d) Beaches in England.

(Yes, Seaham Beach in Britain is her “favourite hunting ground” and her Victorian sea-glass collection from British beaches is “most stunning”, so the implication is that, for Cowen, British beaches are where the best sea glass comes from.)

6 Why will sea glass become rarer than diamonds?

(c) More and more glass is being recycled.

(Yes, this means that old glass is made into new glass instead of being dumped in the sea. As a result, sea glass will become rare.)

(d) People will be prepared to pay a lot of money for it.

7 What did a 15-year-old girl manage to do?

(c) She sold Cowen some sea glass for more than it was worth.

(Yes, the girl sold it on eBay and Cowen says she paid too much for it.

8 Why is sea glass more ecological than diamonds and gold?

(a) Getting it doesn’t damage the environment.

(Yes, the passage refers to serious ecological problems with extracting gold and mining diamonds, whereas because sea glass is waste material collecting and using it is actually clearing up the beach environment.)

Dealing with unfamiliar words

3 Match the words in the box with their definitions.

1 (revive)

2 (stunning)

3 (suspend)

4 (engagement)

5 (tide)

6 (preside)

7 (disposal)

8 (luminous)

4 Complete the sentences with the correct form of the words in Activity 3.

1 engagement

2 suspended

3 disposal

4 preside

5 luminous

6 tides

7 stunning

8 revive

5 Replace the underlined words with the correct form of the following words.

1 (stint)

2 (chuck)

3 (negligence)

4 (scoured)

5 (folly)

6 (extraction)

7 (elusive)

6 Answer the questions about the words and expressions.

1 (b) slowly and casually

2 (b) open to interpretation

3 (a) care for the environment

4 (a) possibly dishonest or morally wrong

5 (b) give them an advantage

6 (a) approve of it

7 (a) quick movement to get hold of it

Language in use

word formation: -y

1 Write the adjectives which describe:

1 (flowery)

2 (sticky)

3 (pricy)

4 (shiny)

5 (fussy)

6 (sunny)

word formation: over –

2 Replace the underlined words with verbs beginning with over- . You may need to make other changes.

1 (overestimated)

2 (overcharged)

3 (overslept)

4 (overgrown)

5 (overemphasize)

6 (overeaten)


3 Rewrite the sentences using see .

1 In 1987 there was a major stock market crash.

1987 saw a major stock market crash.

2 The early 1980s was a period of steady economic growth.

The early 1980s saw a period of steady economic growth.

3 Long hair made a brief return in the 1990s.

The 1990s saw a brief return to long hair.

4 On the first day of the sales there were hundreds of people queuing in the streets.

The first day of the sales saw hundreds of people queuing in the streets.

5 There was great technological change during our grandparents’ generation.

Our grandparents’ gene ration saw a great technological change.

turn out to be

4 Rewrite the sentences using turn out to be .

1 I thought the ring was made of gold, but in the end it proved to be silver.

I thought the ring was made of gold, but it turned out to be silver.

2 She looked like my cousin, but she was actually a complete stranger.

She looked like my cousin, but she turned out to be a complete stranger.

3 The house needed a lot of work doing on it, but it proved to be a good investment.

The house needed a lot of work doing on it, but it turned out to be a good investment.

4 I saw smoke rising from the building, but it was a false alarm.

I saw smoke rising from the building, but it turned out to be a false alarm.

5 I didn’t want to move to England, but in the end it prove d to be a wise decision.

I didn’t want to move to England, but it turned out to be a wise decision.

6 Translate the paragraph into Chinese.







7 Translate the paragraphs into English.

What you wear seems to dictate the kind of person you are supposed to be. Take primary school and high school students for example. One of the hard and fast rules they have to observe is that they must wear uniforms at school. There is no doubt that school uniforms would not have achieved their currency without a symbo lic correlation between the uniformity of clothes and the students’ conformity to some common code of conduct.

However, after years of school life, there is always a backlash secretly nursed in the students’ mind against the ubiquitous uniform which suppresses the expression of individuality. To compensate for this loss, students try to hunt for more casual and popular clothes and wear them on weekends. It is not until they start university, however, that they can really enjoy the freedom of dress, an anarchy associated with the cultivation of creativity and the encouragement of the free expression of ideas and talents. But this situation won’t obtain for long. After a relatively short time of liberty, they may experience again

the revived pressure of dress code as soon as they become professionals.

Translation of the passages

Active reading (1)


1960 至2010 年间的时装史存在着两个不可忽略或不可低估的不变因素:一是无处不在的牛仔裤,


牛仔裤是用粗斜纹布做的,早在16 世纪末法国就有了这种布料。直到19 世纪中叶,李维·施

特劳斯发现在加州淘金热中劳动的矿工很需要用这种耐用布料做成的牛仔裤,他还用铆钉来加固裤子。直到1950 年代,蓝色粗斜纹布做的牛仔裤一直只是流行的工装,但是后来牛仔裤变成了青春、新思想、反叛及个性的标志。1950 年代末,李维·施特劳斯公司开始向欧亚出口蓝色牛仔裤。年轻人趋之若鹜,视其为美国活力四射的、随意的生活方式的象征。





1960 年代时装史上一个最重要的发展就是英国时装设计师玛丽·匡特发明的超短裙。由于匡特




60 年代中、70 年代初的嬉皮士运动影响了牛仔裤的设计,牛仔裤的裤腿发展成了扩张的“喇叭形”。

到了70 年代中期,随着经济的恶化,裙摆降低到了小腿中部和脚踝部,而牛仔裤则不再是清一色的







80 年代中期兴起了几种风格各异的服装。“权威装”以雅致的套装为特色,带肩垫的上衣配及膝

短裙,受到新近得势的女士的欢迎。毫不奇怪,当经济不稳定的时候,人们不想在穿着上太冒险。男士则流行以电视剧“迈阿密风云”命名的“迈阿密风云”式样的时装,名牌短外套配时髦的T 恤,



在1987 年全球股市崩盘之前,裙摆也开始逐渐地上升起来。美国在80 年代末兴起了一种较为



90 年代随着世界经济的再次复苏,年轻人的时装也变得更加大胆起来了。靴子、匡威或耐克运


2000 年1 月纽约的科技股市崩盘。和往常一样,裙摆也下降了,正如一位评论家所说的,“循规蹈矩、一本正经的式样开始流行了,裙摆必须过膝。” 但仅仅过了一年,股市开始复苏,超短迷你裙又回来了,裙摆比多年以来的都要高。这段时间,除非在工作时,人们通常不穿正式的服装。名牌牛仔裤享有很高的知名度,用传统的粗斜纹布制作,可能还加了点莱卡。由著名服装品牌,如阿玛尼、胡戈·伯斯士及莫斯奇诺剪裁、销售。这些品牌公司以前都只做最优雅的时装。紧身牛仔裤在英国及欧洲大部分地区很流行。裙子的长度不太确定,范围从超短到“理性”——即及膝或刚刚过膝。

有时候,所谓的裙摆标志甚至能够在事情发生之前早早地预告股票牛市和熊市的更替。2007 年9

月的纽约时装展展示了2008 年春季流行式样,潮流转向了长衣、长裙,裙摆降至小腿中线,甚至到

了脚踝。有人觉得这表明裙摆标志靠不住了,要不就是服装设计师已经丧失了对时装的主宰权。2008 年9 月,在伦敦和纽约时装展中,裙摆继续下降。果然,2008 年秋天金融危机袭击美欧,波及全球,股指急剧下跌。这时,裙摆不再被动地追随股市升跌,而是引领潮流,预示未来的经济趋势了。


与之认同的愿望。但是,这个时期不变因素是粗斜纹布和裙摆。影响力最大的当属19 世纪加利福尼

亚州的一个服装制造商以及1960 年代工作在“摇摆伦敦”的一位年轻的时装设计师。

Active reading (2)









定的是,年代越久远,玻璃就越光滑、越奇特。50 岁的考恩解释说:“完美的海洋玻璃没有棱角。它






90 年代末,她设计的产品在伦敦的利博提百货店出售。如今,你可能在美术馆里看到她的作品,


在立志成为珠宝商之前,考恩从20 岁到40 岁都从事新闻报道及音乐管理工作。她在祖国南非开






利亚玻璃厂的所在地,该厂于1921 年关闭。有成千上万公吨的玻璃撒落到海上,并在过去的一个世




虽然在19 世纪没有人思考过向大海倾倒玻璃的后果,但这件事最后演变成了一个完美的过程:




藏,现在它们在EBay 上能卖到成百上千英镑。就连年轻的收藏者也深知它们潜在的价值。最近一位

15 岁的女孩把她的收藏卖给考恩,想挣点钱参加学校组织的旅游。考恩说:“我付给她的钱比它的实









50 年后,塑料可能是被海浪冲上岸的唯一的东西了,但考恩坚信艺术家会想办法给它们派上用场。






Reading across cultures





据我们所知,领带不过只有大约100 年的历史,它是从更早的一种时尚配饰演变发展而来的——

围在脖子上的丝巾(即领巾),这种领巾在18 世纪的法国风靡一时。”Cravat”是法语词”croat”(克



大约到了上个世纪初,领带开始成为各类学校及体育俱乐部的标志。到了20 世纪20 年代,条纹领带变成了标准的领带,不同的条纹颜色代表了个人所属的不同的学校和俱乐部。

从那以后,领带在世界舞台上独领风骚,成了时髦人士和权威的象征。1970 年代,在嬉皮士运

动期间,印花领带很流行。另外,在男士领带的宽度和女人的裙摆的高低之间似乎也存在着某种关联。但最重要的是,领带是已确立的社会秩序的标志,出席商务会议或政治峰会不戴领带是要冒风险的。在穿了一年的开领衬衣后,在2009 年总统宣誓就职仪式上巴拉克·奥巴马打了一条漂亮的红领带。