I. Each of the statements below is followed by four alternative answers. Choose the one that would best
complete the statement.
1. All of the following are sense relations except .
2. is a common feature peculiar to all natural languages because the majority of words have more than one
3. The two approaches to the development of polysemy are and .
A. diachronic; synchronic
B. synchronic; syntagmatic
C. synchronic; paradigmatic
D. diachronic; syntagmatic
4. Synchronically, the basic meaning of a word is the core of word meaning; it is called the meaning.
5. The development of word meaning from monosemy to polysemy follows two courses, traditionally called
A. extension, narrowing
B. elevation, degradation
C. radiation, extension
D. radiation, concatenation
6. is the semantic process in which the meaning of a word moves gradually away from its first signification
by successive shifts of meanings until there is no connection between the sense that is finally developed and that which the term had in it at the outset.
7. are words different in meaning but either identical both in sound and spelling or identical only in
sound or spelling.
C. Perfect homonyms
8. All of the following are the sources of homonyms except .
D. change in sound and spelling
9. Words which are identical in meaning in all aspects are called .
B. absolute synonyms
C. relative synonyms
D. near- synonyms
10. The sources of English synonyms exclude .
A. extension, narrowing, elevation and degradation
B. figurative and euphemistic use of words
C. dialects and regional English
D. coincidence with idiomatic expressions
11. The differences between synonyms lie in three aspects except .
A. grammatical meaning
12. The two features of contradictory terms are and .
A. relational, interdependent
B. relative, interdependent
C. inclusive, exchangeable
D. mutually exclusive, non-gradable
13. Contrary terms are gradable antonyms, differing in degree of .