Electronic Teaching Portfolio
Unit Six: Happiness
Part I Get Started
Section A Discussion
▇Sit in groups of threes or fours and discuss the following questions.
1. Are you happy with your college life? Why or why not?
2. What was the happiest moment in your life as far as you can remember?
3. Can money alone bring happiness? Why or why not?
▇ Answers for reference:
1. I feel happy with my college life. Away from my parents, I?m learning to live independently and I enjoy a lot of freedom that I have never experienced before. My life at college is easy and carefree. The teachers are professional and my classmates are friendly and helpful. I have access to lots of modern facilities and I can take part in many interesting activities. So I regard college life as the most enjoyable period in my life.
I?m not feeling so happy, because I?m not used to the heavy work load and I feel lonely, homesick or bored with school life that has lasted for over ten years.
3. Yes. Because I think money is just like a magic wand (魔杖) that can change everything in the world today. It can bring you all you want, including happiness.
No. We cannot deny the fact that money is important. It can help keep us free from want and ensure a happy life. But happiness is based on both material and spiritual welfare. The sense of achievement and self-fulfillment sometimes brings us even greater satisfaction. Money does contribute to material welfare. Yet, material welfare alone cannot bring us happiness.
Section B Quotes
▇Study the following quotes about happiness. Which quote(s) do you like best? Why?
⊙Happiness is the meaning and the purpose of life, the whole aim and end of human existence.
—— Aristotle Interpretation:
This quotation reveals the important role of happiness in human life. It is human nature to seek and enjoy happiness. Otherwise, human existence would be aimless and meaningless.
Aristotle (384 BC-322 BC): a student of Plato and a famous ancient Greek philosopher. During his life, he wrote numerous books on logic (逻辑学), natural science, ethics (伦理学), politics, and rhetoric (修辞学), etc. His works include Physics, On the Soul (《论灵魂》),Posterior Analytics(《后分析篇》), History of
Animals (《动物志》),Politics,Rhetoric, Poetics (《诗学》), etc. Aristotle is considered to be one of the greatest thinkers of Europe and his works are still widely quoted today.
⊙We have no more right to consume happiness without producing it than to consume wealth without producing it.
—— George Bernard Shaw Interpretation:
Shaw reminds us that we have two identities both as producer and as consumer. We should produce wealth first and then enjoy it. It is also true of happiness.
George Bernard Shaw
About George Bernard Shaw:
George Bernard Shaw (1856-1950): an Irish writer famous especially for his plays, which criticize society and the moral values of the time. His best known works include the historical plays Caesar and Cleopatra (《恺撒和克娄巴特拉》) and St Joan (《圣女贞德》), and the comedy Pygmalion (《皮格马利翁》), which was later turned into the popular musical show My Fair Lady (《窈窕淑女》).
⊙Happiness lies not in the mere possession of money; it lies in the joy of achievement, in the thrill of creative effort.
—— Franklin D. Roosevelt Interpretation:
According to Roosevelt, money alone does not mean happiness. True happiness comes when one has succeeded in doing something or when one has done something that has not been done before. The sense of achievement and job satisfaction will bring you immense happiness.
Franklin D. Roosevelt
About Franklin D. Roosevelt:
Franklin D. Roosevelt (1882-1945): the thirty-second president of the US, from 1933 to 1945. He helped to end the Great Depression (经济大萧条) by starting the New Deal (新政), a program of social and economic changes. He also tried to give support to the Allies (同盟国) without getting the US involved in World War II, but when Japan attacked the US in 1941, he was forced to get the country to join the war. During his lifetime Roosevelt was elected President of the US four times.
⊙The surest way to happiness is to lose yourself in a cause greater than yourself. The secret of happiness is not in doing what one likes, but in liking what one does.
—— James M. Barrie Interpretation:
Barrie believes that we should indulge ourselves in a right cause—a cause that is greater than ourselves. Once we have chosen the right cause, we should learn to love it and pursue it resolutely. If we are dedicated to what we feel obliged to do, we will surely do it well and the resulting sense of fulfillment will bring about true
James M. Barrie
About James M. Barrie:
James M. Barrie (1860-1937): a Scottish playwright and novelist. He is best remembered for his play Peter Pan (《彼得·潘》), a supernatural fantasy about a boy who refuses to grow up.
Section C Watching and Discussion
▇Watch the following video clip “Is Culture a Factor in How We View Happiness?” and do the tasks that follow:
1. Lynn Ianni (Psychotherapist) gives expert advice on happiness in the video. Pay attention to what she says and fill in the missing words.
Eve rybody?s philosoph y is going to determine what they feel is their optimum level of happiness and what opportunity they have to actually attain it. So there are cultural factors that probably weigh in and as you independently try to figure out whether or not you are happy and what chance you have to increase your level of happiness, those cultural factors are gonna play a part. The messages that you received from your family, from your environment, from your philosophy or religious belief system or cultural belief system are all going to be relevant. And those things are things that you need to explore, understand, analyze, take apart, and modify.
2. Discuss the topic with your group members: Do you agree with the psychologist that cultural factors play
a pa rt in one’s happiness?
▇Answers for reference:
Is Culture a Factor in How We View Happiness?
I think that different cultures have different expectations about what they believe is the optimum level of happiness. And some cultures really teach, you know, survival because of where that nation is or where that culture is in those moments and in that time. So if they allow a person to really believe that happiness is within their grasp that culture has an opportunity to sort of instill that belief across the board. Some cultures really prize self sacrifice, some cultures prize altruism, some belief systems or religious theories. Everybody?s philosophy is going to determine what they feel is their optimum level of happiness and what opportunity they have to actually attain it. So there are cultural factors that probably weigh in and as you independently try to figure out whether or not you are happy and what chance you have to increase your level of happiness, those cultural factors are gonna play a part. The messages that you received from your family, from your environment, from your philosophy or religious belief system or cultural belief system are all going to be relevant. And those things are things that you need to explore, understand, analyze, take apart, and modify. Because if you want to change how you feel within and those things are factors that are creating the feelings that you actually have especially if they are your cognitive frame work. You have to change the frame work in order for the picture to be different.
Part II Listen and Respond
Section A Word Bank
commit suicide kill oneself deliberately 自杀
lottery▲ n. [C] a system in which many numbered tickets are sold, some of which are later chosen by chance and prizes given to those who bought them 抽彩给奖法
mean a. (of people or their behaviour) unworthy; unkind （指人或人的行为）卑鄙的，不善良的unfulfilled a. 未得到满足的；未完成的
Section B Task One: Focusing on the Main Ideas
Choose the best answer to complete each of the following sentences according to the information contained in the listening passage.
1)According to the speaker, happiness _____________.
A)is not easily obtained by poor people
B)is what movie stars are most eager to obtain
C)does not naturally follow wealth or success
D)necessarily results from wealth or success
2)According to the speaker, happiness lies in the following EXCEPT ___________.
A)wealth obtained through honest effort
B)wealth obtained by winning lotteries
C)your contribution to others? happiness
D)your successful work
3) Instead of being an end, happiness is a(n) ____________.
C) unattainable goal
D) business of the community
4) The passage is mainly about ____________.
A) the secret to happiness
B) the definition of happiness
C) the misunderstanding of happiness
D) the relationship between happiness and wealth
▇ Answers for Reference:
1) C 2) B 3) B 4) A
Section C Task Two: Zooming In on the Details
▇Listen to the recording again and fill in each of the blanks according to what you have heard.
1) The world is full of very rich people who are as ___________ as if they were ______________.
2) If you obtain wealth through ________ or______________, you will not be happy with it. You will think you are a mean person.
3) Long-term happiness is based on ____________, and ______________, contribution, and self-esteem.
4) If your happiness depends on ______________, you will always feel unfulfilled because there will always be something ___________.
1) The world is full of very rich people who are as miserable as if they were living in hell.
2) If you obtain wealth through luck or dishonest means, you will not be happy with it. You will think you are
a mean person.
3) Long-term happiness is based on honesty and productive work, contribution, and self-esteem.
4) If your happiness depends on external circumstances, you will always feel unfulfilled because there will always be something missing.
Many people think that when they become rich and successful, happiness will naturally follow. Let me tell you this is not true. The world is full of very rich people who are as miserable as if they were living in hell. We have read stories about movie stars who committed suicide or died from drugs. Quite clearly, money is not the only answer to all problems.
Wealth obtained through dishonest means does not bring happiness. Lottery winnings do not bring happiness. To my mind, the secret to happiness lies in your successful work, in your contribution to others? happiness and in the wealth you have earned through your own honest effort. If you obtain wealth through luck or dishonest means, you will not be happy with it. You will think you are a mean person.
Long-term happiness is based on honesty and productive work, contribution, and self-esteem.
Happiness is not an end; it is a process. It is a continuous process of honest and productive work which makes a real contribution to others and makes you feel you are a useful, worthy person. As one writer put it, “There is no way to happiness. Happiness is the way.” It?s no use saying, “Someday when I achieve these goals, when I get a car, build a house and own my own business, then I will be really happy.” Life just does not work that way. If you wait for certain things to happen and depend on external circumstances of life to make you happy, you will always feel unfulfilled. There will always be something missing.
Part III Read and Explore
Section A Discovering the Main Ideas
1. Answer the following questions with the information contained in Text A.
1) Why did the author bring the news story about Ted Turner to Morrie?
2) What problem did Morrie think Ted Turner actually had?
3) Who paid a visit to Morrie the night before? And how did he feel about it?
4) What did material things mean to Morrie?
5) According to Morrie, what are Americans brainwashed into believing? What do they expect from material
6) Does the author think that Morrie was rich? Why or why not?
7) What did Morrie suggest that we should do to find a meaningful life?
▆ Answers for Reference:
1) Because he wondered how Morrie would react to Ted Turner?s failure in “snatching up the CBS network”.
At the same time he wanted to know if Ted Turner would still lament his failure if he were stricken down by the same terminal disease as Morrie was suffering from.
2) His problem was a typical one that Americans all have: Americans tend to value the wrong things.
3) A local a cappela group came to visit him. He showed an intense interest in their musical performance and
4) They held little or no significance to him, especially at a time when he knew his days were numbered. He
seemed to know the expression “You can?t take it with you” a long time ago.
5) They are brainwashed into believing that it is good to own things. Actually, they are hungry for gentleness,
tenderness or for a sense of comradeship and, therefore, they desperately seek after material things as
6) Morrie was far from better off in material things, but he was wealthy in spiritual ways. For years, Morrie
hadn?t bought anything new— except medical equipment. And his bank account was rapidly depleting.
But he was rich in love, friendship, caring and he derived plenty of satisfaction and gratification from teaching, communication, and such simple pleasures as singing, laughing, and dancing.
7) He advised us to devote ourselves to loving others, to our community around us, and to creating something
that gives us purpose and meaning. In other words, if we want to find a meaningful life, we should be ourselves and never show off either for people at the top or for people at the bottom. Instead, we should be kind and candid and ready to offer others what we have to give.
2.Text A can be divided into four parts, with the paragraph number(s) of each part provided as follows. Write down the main idea of each part.
Paragraph(s) Main Idea
Part One 1-3 ________________________________________________
________________________________________________ Part Two 4-9 ________________________________________________
________________________________________________ Part Three 10-14 ________________________________________________
________________________________________________ Part Four 15-30 ________________________________________________
▆▆ Answers for Reference:
Paragraph(s) Main Idea
Part One 1-3 The author brought Ted Turner?s news story to Morrie for
Part Two 4-9 Morrie explained that Ted Turner?s problem was caused by
the endlessly repeated stress on the significance of material
Part Three 10-14 In order to get happiness, people are trying to substitute
material things for love or tenderness, and they fail to
distinguish what they want and what they really need in
Part Four 15-30 The way to get satisfaction is to offer with an open heart to
others what you have to give: devote yourself to loving
others, devote yourself to your community around you, and
devote yourself to creating something that gives you
purpose and meaning.
Section B In-Depth Study
On his graduation, Mitch Albom, the narrator, told his favorite professor, Morrie Schwartz, that he would keep in touch. However, Mitch didn’t resume the contact with his old professor until one night on TV when he saw Morrie being interviewed in a wheelchair. It turned out that Morrie had developed ALS (重症肌无力), a terminal disease (不治之症). Soon Mitch realized that he still had a lot to learn from his teacher. He visited Morrie every Tuesday until the fourteenth one, when Morrie passed away. On those Tuesdays he had “classes”, where Morrie gave lessons and wisdom to him. The text you are going to read is the eighth Tuesday’s class where Morrie talks about what role money or material things are supposed to play in life.
The Eighth Tuesday We Talk About Money
1 I held up the newspaper so that Morrie could see it:
2 “I DON?T WANT MY TOMBSTONE TO READ
I NEVER OWNED A NETWORK.”
3 Morrie laughed, then shook his head. The morning sun was coming through the window behind him, falling on the pink flowers of the hibiscus plant that sat on the sill. The quote was from Ted Turner, the billionaire media mogul, founder of CNN, who had been lamenting his inability to snatch up the CBS network in a corporate megadeal. I had brought the story to Morrie this morning because I wondered if Turner ever found himsel f in my old professor?s position, his breath disappearing, his body turning to stone, his days being crossed off the calendar one by one — would he really be crying over owning a network?
4 “It?s all part of the same problem, Mitch,” Morrie said. “We put o ur values in the wrong things. And it leads to very disillusioned lives. I think we should talk about that.”
5 Morrie was focused. There were good days and bad days now. He was having a good day. The night before, he had been entertained by a local a cappella group that had come to the house to perform, and he relayed the story excitedly, as if the Ink Spots themselves had dropped by for a visit.Morrie?s love for music was strong even before he got sick, but now it was so intense that it moved him to tears. He would listen to opera sometimes at night, closing his eyes, riding along with the magnificent voices as they dipped and soared.
6 “You should have heard this group last night, Mitch. Such a sound!”
7 Morrie had always been taken with simple pleasures, singing, laughing, dancing.Now, more than ever, material things held little or no significance. When people die, you always hear the expression “You can?t take it with you.” Morrie seemed to know that a long time ago.
8 “We?ve got a form of brainwashing going on in our country,” Morrie sighed. “Do you know how they brainwash people? They repeat something over and over. And that?s what we do in this country. Owning things is good. More money is good. More property is good. More commercialism is good. More is good. More is good. We repeat it — and have it repeated to us — over and over until nobody bothers to even think otherwise. The average person is so fogged up by all this that he has no perspective on what?s really important anymore.
9 “Wherever I wen t in my life, I met people wanting to gobble up something new. Gobble up a new car. Gobble up a new piece of property. Gobble up the latest toy. And then they wanted to tell you about it. …Guess what I got? Guess what I got??
10 “You know how I always interpreted that? These were people so hungry for love that they were accepting substitutes. They were embracing material things and expecting a sort of hug back. But it never works. You can?t substitute material things for love or for gentleness or for tenderness or for a sense of comradeship.
11 “Money is not a substitute for tenderness, and power is not a substitute for tenderness. I can tell you, as I?m sitting here dying, when you most need it, neither money nor power will give you the feeling you?re looki ng for, no matter how much of them you have.”
12 I glanced around Morrie?s study. It was the same today as it had been the first day I arrived. The
books held their same places on the shelves. The papers cluttered the same old desk. The outside rooms had n ot been improved or upgraded. In fact, Morrie really hadn?t bought anything new—except medical equipment — in a long, long time, maybe years. The day he learned that he was terminally ill was the day he lost interest in his purchasing power.
13 So the TV was the same old model, the car that Charlotte drove was the same old model, the dishes and the silverware and the towels — all the same. And yet the house had changed so drastically. It had filled with love and teaching and communication. It had filled with friendship and family and honesty and tears. It had filled with colleagues and students and meditation teachers and therapists and nurses and a cappella groups. It had become, in a very real way, a wealthy home, even though Morrie?s bank account was ra pidly depleting.
14 “There?s a big confusion in this country over what we want versus what we need,” Morrie said. “You need food, you want a chocolate sundae. You have to be honest with yourself. You don?t need the latest sports car, you don?t need the big gest house.
15 “The truth is, you don?t get satisfaction from those things. You know what really gives you satisfaction?” What?
16 “Offering others what you have to give.”
17 You sound like a Boy Scout.
18 “I don?t mean money, Mitch. I mean your time. Your concern. Your storytelling. It?s not so hard. There?s a senior center that opened near here. Dozens of elderly people come there every day. If you?re a young man or young woman and you have a skill, you are asked to come and teach it. Say you know computers. You come there and teach them computers. You are very welcome there. And they are very grateful. This is how you start to get respect, by offering something that you have.
19 “There are plenty of places to do this. You don?t need to have a big talent. There are lonely people in hospitals and shelters who only want some companionship. You play cards with a lonely older man and you find new respect for yourself, because you are needed.
20 “Remember what I said about finding a meaningful life? I wrote it down, but now I can recite it: Devote yourself to loving others, devote yourself to your community around you, and devote yourself to creating something that gives you purpose and meaning.
21 “You notice,” he added, grinning, “there?s nothing in there about a salary.”
22 I jotted some of the things Morrie was saying on a yellow pad. I did this mostly because I didn?t want him to see my eyes, to know what I was thinking, that I had been, for much of my life since graduation, pursuing these very things he had been railing against — bigger toys, nicer house. Because I worked among rich and famous athletes, I convinced myself that my needs were realistic, my greed trivial compared to theirs.
23 This was a smokescreen. Morrie made that obvious. “Mitch, if you?re trying to show off for people at the top, forget it. They will look down on you anyhow. And if you?re trying to show off for people at the bottom, forget it. They will only envy you. Status will get you nowhere. Only an open heart will allow you to float equally between everyone.”
24 He paused, then looked at me. “I?m dying, right?” Yes.
25 “Why do you think it?s so important for me to hear other people?s problems? Don?t I have enough pain and suffering of my own?
26 “Of course I do. But giving to other p eople is what makes me feel alive. Not my car or my house. Not what I look like in the mirror. When I give my time, when I can make someone smile after they were feeling sad, it?s as close to healthy as I ever feel.
27 “Do the kinds of things that come from the heart. When you do, you won?t be dissatisfied, you won?t be envious, you won?t be longing for somebody else?s things. On the contrary, you?ll be overwhelmed with what comes back.”
28 He coughed and reached for the small bell that lay on the chair. He had to poke a few times at it, and I finally picked it up and put it in his hand.
29 “Thank you,” he whispered. He shook it weakly, trying to get Connie?s attention.
30 “This Ted Turner guy,” Morrie said, “he couldn?t think of anything else for his tombstone?”
4 “这完全属于同一个问题，米奇，” 莫里说。“我们的价值观错了，这导致生活的幻想破灭。我想我们该探讨这个话题。”
24 他停下来，然后看看我。“我要死了，是吗？” 是的。
Good Usage (Para. 3)
a corporate megadeal
found himself in my old professor?s position
his body turning to stone
his days being crossed off the calendar one by one
Good Usage (Paras. 4-5)
It?s all part of the same problem.
put our values in the wrong things
relayed the story
dropped by for a visit
moved him to tears
dipped and soared
Good Usage (Paras. 6-7)
been taken with simple pleasures
held little or no significance
Good Usage (Paras. 8-9)
nobody bothers to even think otherwise
is so fogged up
has no perspective on
gobble up something new
Good Usage (Paras. 10-11)
(were) hungry for
substitute material things for love
a sense of comradeship
is not a substitute for tenderness
Good Usage (Para. 12)
the same today as it had been the first day I arrived
held their same places on the shelves
was terminally ill
his purchasing power
Good Usage (Para. 13)
changed so drastically
in a very real way
Good Usage (Paras. 14-17)
be honest with
Good Usage (Paras.18-19)
a senior center
Good Usage (Paras. 20-21)
Devote yourself to
creating something that gives you purpose and meaning
Good Usage (Paras.22-23)
show off for people at the top
look down on
people at the bottom
Status will get you nowhere.
Good Usage (Paras.24-27)
it?s as close to healthy as I ever feel
Do the kinds of things that come from the heart.
On the contrary, you?ll be overwhelmed with what comes back. Good Usage (Paras.28-30)
poke a few times at it
Key Words and Expressions for Text A
hold up support sth. and stop it from falling 举起；支撑
e.g. 1. He held up his hands and shouted “Don?t shoot!”
2. There are two large wooden supports that hold up the roof.
lament vt. feel or express deep sorrow for 痛惜；哀悼
e.g. 1. Let bygones be bygones. It?s no use lamenting the loss of your glory and power.
2. People lament the passing of the good old days.
snatch vt. take hold of sth. with a sudden quick often violent movement 强夺；攫取
e.g. 1. Before I knew it, the thief snatched my purse and quickly ran away.
2. She clutched her purse tightly, fearing that a thief might snatch it.
CF : grab, grasp, seize, snatch & catch
grab, grasp, seize, snatch 与catch都有“抓住”的意思。
* He grabbed her arm and pulled her out of the path of the car.
* Susan never understood what had driven her to grasp the oar at the last moment.
* Above all, we must seize every opportunity to improve our operational efficiency.
* She made a dive for the rejected clothes and began to snatch them this way and that.
* He ran fast enough to catch the thief.
cross off remove (from) by drawing a line through 划掉；删除
e.g. 1. We can cros s her name off the list, as she?s not coming.
2. He crossed off the unnecessary parts in his essay.
cry over weep because of; feel sad because of 因为……哭泣；对……感到悲伤
e.g. 1. Mary was so sentimental that she often cried over her misfortune.
2. He was no doubt a great hero so people couldn?t help but cry over his death.
relay vt. [(to)] pass (a message) from one person to another [常与to连用]传达；传递（信息）
e.g. 1. He quickly relayed the good news to the other members of the staf
2. Will you relay a message to him when you see him?
drop by pay an informal visit to a person or a place 顺便访问
e.g. 1. Sometimes I would drop by to see how he was getting on and whether he needed any help.
2. Only very close friends will just drop by unannounced.
dip vi. drop down or sink out of sight suddenly 下降；忽然消失
e.g. 1. We often go to the beach and watch the sun dip below the horizon.
2. The night before setting off, the temperature dipped and snow fell.
soar vi. rise rapidly or to a very high level 骤升；腾飞
e.g. 1. With unemployment rate soaring, some young people have decided to give up hunting for jobs and go
back to school for further education.
2. Great trees soar above to cut out most of the light.
interpret vt. [(as)] understand the likely meaning of a (statement, action, etc.) [常与as连用]把（话语、行动等）理解为；解释
e.g. 1. I interpret her silence as acceptance.
2. We interpret handshake as a sign of friendliness.
substitute vt. put (sth.) in place of another 用（某物）代替（另一物）
e.g. 1. We substituted honey for sugar in making the cake and it tasted much better.
2. If you cannot go yourself, please find someone to substitute you.
substitute as 代替为……
substitute ... for ... 用……代替……
deplete vi. fml lessen greatly in amount, contents, etc. 〖正式〗大大减少；枯竭
e.g. 1. The Earth?s natural resources are depleting, so we must take effective measures to conserve them.
2. He had been spending without restraint and his bank account was rapidly depleting.
trivial a. not important or serious不重要的；琐碎的
e.g. 1. I don?t know why he shoul d get so upset about something that is utterly trivial.
2. Who could have thought a trivial matter would cause such a stir?
show off derog behave so as to try to get attention and admiration for oneself, one?s abilities, etc.〖贬〗炫耀；卖弄
e.g. 1. Like those rich, vain ladies, Dianna likes to show off her jewelry and fine clothes.
2. Although he wants to make a hit, I think he hasn?t got much to show off.
look down on infml regard sb. with contempt; consider sb. inferior to oneself 〖非正式〗轻视；看不起
e.g. 1. Even though he?s from a rich family, he never looks down on anyone who is less fortunate.
2. I wish you wouldn?t look down on this kind of job.
envious a. [(of)] feeling or showing envy [常与of连用]嫉妒的；羡慕的
e.g. 1. Do not display your treasures, or people will become envious.
2. Tom was envious of his brother?s success in business.
on the contrary the opposite is true; not at all与此相反；正相反
e.g. 1. — I hear you are enjoying doing your new job.
— On the contrary, I find it rather dull.
2. You didn?t bother me. On the contrary, I like your company.
poke at make repeated small pushing movements at sth. 反覆轻推某物
e.g. 1. From the way he poked at the food, we co uld see the little boy wasn?t hungry.
2. Don?t poke at that poisonous spider with your finger!
Difficult Sentences for Text A
1.The night before, he had been entertained by a local a cappella group that had come to the house to perform,
and he relayed the story excitedly, as if the Ink Spots themselves had dropped by for a visit. (Para.5)
Q: What did Morrie really care about in the performance?
A: What Morrie really cared about was spiritual gratification. Even the performance of the local a cappella group, whose performance was by no means professional, could give him as much excitement and gratification as the famous Ink Spots would have.
2. He would listen to opera sometimes at night, closing his eyes, riding along with the magnificent voices as
they dipped and soared. (Para. 5)
Q: What is the implied meaning of this sentence?
A: Sometimes at night he would indulge himself in listening to opera, feeling intoxicated and gratified.
Though he was not rich in material things and was suffering from an incurable disease, he spent each day happily.
3. And then they wanted to tell you about it. …Guess what I got? Guess what I got?? (Para. 9)
Q: What does the repetition of “Guess what I got” show?
A: The repetition of “Guess what I got?” shows the speaker?s uncontrollable excitement and gratification at gobbling up something new.
4. Only an open heart will allow you to float equally between everyone. (Para. 23)
Q: Paraphrase this sentence.
A: If you want to be accepted equally and respectably by people both at the top and at the bottom, you must be open-hearted instead of showing off your social status. In other words, you must be yourself, feel free in expressing your real thoughts, opinions, and feelings, be candid and ready to offer others what you have to give.
▇ Extended questions (Paras. 1-3)
Q1: Why did Morrie first laugh and then shake his head after he read what Turner said?
A1: Morrie was amused to know that a rich man like Turner should have explicitly expressed a longing for owning a network. He shook his head because he didn?t approve of Turner?s ambition to snatch up the CBS network. For Morrie, happiness doesn?t come from owning more.
Q2: What do you think of Ted Turner according to the quote in the newspaper story?
A2: He was giving priority to greater success in the network market and higher status in his business circle. In other words, owning more had become his ultimate goal in life.
▇ Extended questions (Paras. 4-7)
Q: Why do people often hear the expression “You can?t take it with you” when somebody dies?
A: This expression tells us that material things alone do not mean happiness and that accumulating wealth should not be regarded a s the only aim in one?s life. What is more important is to enjoy spiritual gratification when you are alive. We can understand the meaning of the expression more clearly when somebody dies.
▇ Extended questions (Paras. 8-9)
Q: Can you imagine how American people are brainwashed into believing “The more, the better”?
A: The idea that gobbling up more material things is good and can work wonders is communicated through all kinds of media, such as TV, radio, the Internet, newspapers, and billboards, so much so that one cannot avoid it anytime and anywhere. When the same information is repeated numerous times, people take it for granted and act accordingly.
▇ Extended questions (Paras. 10-11)
Q: Do you agree with Morrie?s statement “You can?t substitute material things for love or for tenderness…”? A: Here are a few points for you to consider: 1) Material things symbolize success in life and they do give the owner a feeling of contentment as well as a sense of achievement. 2) Love and tenderness are more precious than material things as material things alone cannot make us happy in the long run.
▇ Extended questions (Paras. 12-13)
Q1: Morrie lived a simple life. Was it because he could not afford to improve or upgrade his material belongings?
A1: It was certainly not the case. Morrie intentionally stopped spending money on his household property years before. He must have thought about his life seriously and come to the conclusion that material things were not that important. He put his values on love, care and tenderness.
Q2: What can you infer from Paragraphs 12 and 13 about Morrie?s philosophy of life?
A2: We can infer at least three points about Morrie?s p hilosophy of life: 1) To Morrie, spiritual richness is much more precious than material wealth; 2) happiness comes from spiritual satisfaction; and 3) we can never substitute material things for love and happiness.
▇ Extended questions (Paras. 18-21)
Q: Can you name some extra-curricular activities that college students are encouraged to do for the interests of others? And what can you derive from those activities?
A: Answers vary. By helping those who are in need of our love, companionship or money, we will surely get respect, gratitude, appreciation and friendship and make our lives meaningful and purposeful.
▇ Extended questions (Paras. 22-23)
Q1: What does “an open heart” mean in the last sentence of Paragraph 23?
A1: It basically means devoting yourself to loving others, devoting yourself to your community around you, and devoting yourself to creating something that gives you purpose and meaning. In other words, you must be yourself, feel free in expressing your real thoughts, opinions, and feelings, and be candid and ready to offer others what you have to give.
Q2: Many people work hard to climb up the social ladder by trying to secure a high-ranking job. Here Morrie didn?t consider it a worthy pursuit. What?s your opinion?
A2: Answers may vary. Everyone longs for a decent job, because it will earn him or her universal recognition and high respect, and hence high social status. However, each and every job should be duly respected as long as they are done with sincerity and honesty. So in my eyes, being a cleaner or a waiter is not different from being a CEO or a lawyer, for both may give one meaning and purpose in life.
▇ Extended questions (Paras. 24-27)
Q: Can you understand why Morrie felt alive and “as close to healthy” as he ever felt when he gave his time and cheered up others?
A: Morrie was terminally ill. His health was failing and his daily life had to be aided by other people. But he could still act on his belief in the purpose and meaning of life. Knowing that he was still needed, he felt he was not just existing but living a meaningful and purposeful life just as a normal human being should.
▇ Extended questions (Paras. 28-30)
Q: After reading the text, can you gain any new insight into the question “What is happiness?”
A: Here are a few points for students to consider:
? Happiness is related not only to material wealth but also to spiritual satisfaction.
?The sense of happiness won?t be obtained by substituting material things for love, tenderness or for a sense of comradeship.
? Happiness cannot be achieved by attempting to satisfy your greed while ignoring what you really need.
? We should not confuse what we want with what we need.
? Happiness lies in leading a meaningful and purposeful life.
? To live happily, we should offer others what we have, such as our concern and sincerity.
Section C Voicing Your Views
▇Happiness lies in contentment, so one won’t be happy until one’s needs are met. This brings us to Abraham Maslow’s theory on the hierarchy of human needs as is shown in the following graph. According to the theory, we have needs that must be satisfied in order of priority, i.e. before higher ideals can be achieved, the lower needs must be met.
Now study the hierarchy, then work in groups of threes or fours and discuss the following questions.
1. Do you agree with the order of priority in the hierarchy?
2. Based on the hierarchy, do you think material comforts alone bring happiness? Why? Give an example to support your ideas.
3. In your opinion, what are the basic needs that must be met in modern society to maintain the minimum of happiness?
4. As far as you are concerned, what should you pursue in order to have the maximum happiness?
Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy of Human Needs
(Source: Introduction to Business, Joseph T. Straub and Raymond F. Attner, Boston: PWS-Kent Publishing, Co.
1) People who face death by starvation or exist near the breadline need money badly
to meet life-sustaining needs.
2) A secure house to sleep in at night and a stable job to go to in the morning can
make a person happy.
3) With physical and safety needs fulfilled, one should not sacrifice relationships in
pursuit of higher income.
4) To be happier, people eventually need a sense of being recognized.
5) The realization of one?s potential helps a person get the maximum happiness.
6) It?s a myth that money makes people happy, for ma n does not live by bread
Section A Key Words and Expressions
mode n.temporary a.short-term a.extravagant a.
spiritual a.scale n.cultivate vt.attractive a.
rewarding a.excel vi.truthful a.tax vt.
diminish http://m.wendangku.net/doc/caff3010ce2f0066f43322c0.htmlrm vt.contentment n.simple-minded a.
mode n. [(of)] fml a way of behaving, living, operating, etc. [常与of连用]〖正式〗方式，样式
e.g. 1. You?ll have to change your mode of life now that you?re unemployed.
2. He suddenly became wealthy, which changed his whole mode of life.
temporary a. lasting only for a limited time 暂时的，临时的
e.g. 1. Some students are taking part-time or temporary jobs to support themselves.
2. He afforded a temporary shelter for the needy.
short-term a. concerning a short period of time 短期的，暂时的
e.g. 1. The short-term training class has been run three times.
2. What are your short-term goals? What about in five years from now?
extravagant a. derog wasteful, esp. of money〖贬〗奢侈的；（尤指对钱财）浪费的
e.g. 1. She?s very extravagant — she spends all her money on clothes.
2. It?s very extravagant of us to buy strawberries — they are not in season now.
spiritual a. of the spirit rather than the body 精神的；心灵的
e.g. 1. Listening to Grandpa talk about his miserable life in the past is a truly spiritual experience.
2. He could not comprehend the mental or spiritual force of the island people.
scale n. [C] a set of numbers or standards for measuring or comparing; [C; U] size or level in relation to other things or to what is usual （用于计量或比较的）标准；等级，级别；规模，程度，范围
e.g. 1. The force of the wind is measured on a standard scale of 0-12.
2. The electronic industry is developing on a large scale.
cultivate vt. improve or develop (esp. the mind, a feeling, etc.) by careful attention, training, or study 陶冶，培养；修习
e.g. 1. As teachers, they aim to cultivate the minds of all the children they teach.
2. We should cultivate the good habits of diligence and frugality.
attractive a. able to attract; causing interest or pleasure 有吸引力的，引人注目的，诱惑人的
e.g. 1. Cliff is not good-looking in the conventional sense, but women find him attractive.
2. A good ad can bring about the attractive features of a product.
rewarding a. giving satisfaction, but perhaps not much money; (of an experience or action) worth doing or having 令人满意的，可喜的；（经验等）有益的；（行动等）值得做的
e.g. 1. The agricultural practice became a challenging and rewarding vocation.
2. One of the advantages of teaching is that it?s so rewarding to work with children.
excel vi. [(at, in) not in progressive forms] fml be the best or better than [常与at或in连用][不用进行式]〖正式〗优于；擅长
e.g. 1. Her son excels in music and art while her daughter is good at sports.
2. Those who are “numbers and logic smart” excel at math and science.
truthful a. (of a person) who habitually tells the truth; (of a statement, account, etc.) true （人）一向说实话的，诚实的；（讲话、记述等）真实的，如实的
e.g. 1. Lucy?s a truthful girl. I think you can believe her.
2. You can count on him for a truthful report of the accident.
tax vt. charge a tax on 对……征税，向……课税
e.g. 1. If the people are taxed much more, they?ll begin to complain.
2. The greater the tax rate, the more those who are being taxed try to avoid it.
diminish vt. cause to become or seem smaller 使减少；使变小
e.g. 1. Nothing could diminish her enthusiasm for the project.
2. The opposition is trying to diminish our achievements.
inform vt. [(of, about)] usu. fml give information or knowledge to; tell [常与of或about连用]〖一般正式〗通知；告知
e.g. 1. I informed him that I would not be able to attend the meeting.
2. I?m very pleased to inform you that your application has been accepted.
contentment n. [U] a feeling of happiness or satisfaction满意；满足
e.g. 1. The old man spent his old age in contentment.
2. He found contentment in reading novels.
simple-minded a. having little ability to think or understand, or little experience of the world 头脑简单的；愚蠢的
e.g. 1. He is simple-minded, but daring and charming in nature.
2. I t?s unwise of her to take a simple-minded approach to the problem.
incredibly ad. very; extremely; in a way that is hard to believe 非常，极其；难以置信地，不可思议地
e.g. 1. Incredibly, no one had ever thought of such a simple idea before.
2. The whole story was exceedingly remarkable, almost incredibly.
fact of life wear out
other than have nothing/sth./a lot, etc. to do with
work out (have) a clear conscience
fact of life sth. that exists and that cannot (easily) be changed 不会/不易改变的现实
e.g. 1. It?s a fact of life that success grows out of hard work.
2. We must all die some time: that?s just a fact of life.
wear out (cause to) be reduced to a useless state by long use; tire greatly （把……）用坏；穿破；使疲乏，使精疲力竭
e.g. 1. I wore out two pairs of shoes on a walking tour in the mountains.
2. She has worn out after a long hard day.
other than [usu. in negatives] except; apart from［一般用于否定句］除了
e.g. 1. The train was delayed, so there was nothing we could do other than wait.
2. I have not studied foreign languages other than English.
have nothing/sth./a lot, etc. to do with have no/some/a lot of, etc., connection with 与……没有/有些/有很大关系
e.g. 1. What he said just now has little to do with the question under discussion.
2. I am afraid we cannot entertain your claim as it has nothing to do with us.
work out infml exercise to improve physical fitness〖非正式〗锻炼，健身
e.g. 1. To prepare for the match, the boxer worked out in the gym every day.
2. If you want to keep fit you must work out every day.
(have) a clear conscience feel or a feeling that one has done nothing wrong 问心无愧
e.g. 1. I haven?t done anything wrong — I?ve got a clear conscience.
2. You have nothing to worry about as long as you have a clear conscience.
Section B Difficult Sentences
1. It is a hard fact to understand sometimes, especially in a society that strives to teach you otherwise. (Para.1) 1) Translate this sentence into Chinese.
2) Paraphrase the sentence.
This fact is sometimes difficult to understand, especially in a society where you are frequently told that
only material things bring you happiness.
2. It might mean that you have to buy material objects at a rate of perhaps one per day to sustain the temporary and short-term high of getting something new. (Para.3)
1) Translate this sentence into Chinese.
2) Paraphrase the sentence.
It might mean that you have to buy things at the speed of getting perhaps one each day to keep yourself excited and happy, since such happiness only lasts a short period of time.