PART Ⅰ DICTATION
1、Listen to the following passage. Altogether the passage will be read to you four times. During the first reading, which will be done at normal speed, listen and try to understand the meaning. For the second and third readings, the passage, except the first sentence, will be read sentence by sentence, or phrase by phrase, with intervals of 15 seconds. The last reading will be done at normal speed again and during this time you should check your work. You will then be given ONE minute to check through your work once more. Write on ANSWER SHEET ONE. The first sentence of the passage is already provided.
We often use slang expressions when we talk, because they are so vivid and colorful.
PART Ⅱ LISTENING COMPREHENSION
SECTION A TALK
In this section you will hear a talk. You will hear the talk ONCE ONLY. While listening, you may look at the task on ANSWER SHEET ONE and write NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS for each gap. Make sure what you fill in is both grammatically and semantically acceptable. You may use the blank sheet for note-taking. You have THIRTY seconds to preview the gap-filling task.
Now listen to the talk. When it is over, you will be given TWO minutes to check your work.
Revision of Essay Drafts
The initial revision should focus on the essay as a whole.
The first step: 2
●the rough draft
—containing too little or too much material
—discussing things unrelated to 3
●how to revise
—provide 4 to convince your readers
—eliminate unrelated material
The second step: revise for organization
●group similar ideas in the proper order
●produce an outline from the draft to Check 5
The third step: revise for length
●mind the stated length
●stick to 6
Revise for 7 of the essay
● 8 by breaking up some longer sentences
●use short sentences to make important points
●use long sentences to 9
●eliminate 10 expressions
●use fresh and interesting descriptions
●write with 11 as much as possible
●write in the active voice
SECTION B CONVERSATIONS
In this section you will hear two conversations. At the end of each
conversation, five questions will be asked about what was said. Both the conversations and the questions will be spoken ONCE ONLY. After each question there will be a ten-second pause. During the pause, you should read the four choices of A, B, C and D, and mark the best answer to each question on ANSWER SHEET TWO.
You have THIRTY seconds to preview the choices.
Now, listen to the conversations.
Questions 1 to 5 are based on Conversation One.
12、 A. Writer. B. Wells. C. Writer Wells. D. Susan Writer Wells.
13、 A. She was a career woman. B. She was then a feminist.
C. She didn't like her maiden name.
D. She took her husband's surname.
14、 A. She named herself after her profession. B. She named herself after her home town.
C. She named herself after a day of the week.
D. She named herself after the sculptor.
15、 A. It gives women greater equality. B. It is a good solution to an old problem.
C. The problem troubling feminists still remains.
D. The surname problem has partly been solved.
16、 A. History of surnames in America.
B. Feminist movement in the 1960s.
C. Traditional surnames in Europe.
D. Reasons for inventing surnames.
Questions 6 to 10 are based on Conversation Two.
17、 A. A reporter from a weekly program. B. An executive director from
C. A guest on a weekly program.
D. A magazine editor from San Diego.
18、 A. To let your boss know that you want a pay rise. B. To prepare a list of things that you have done.
C. To let everybody know your achievement.
D. To shamelessly promote yourself to your boss.
19、 A. Because others may lose trust in you. B. Because it is unprofessional to do so.
C. Because you will be given more work to do.
D. Because the boss has the data on your work.
20、 A. We could earn praise from our boss. B. We may forget the good things we've done.
C. Things change quickly in work situations.
D. The boss will review our performance data.
21、 A. Websites. B. Radio programs.
C. Research reports.
D. Government documents.
PART Ⅲ LANGUAGE USAGE
There are twenty sentences in this section. Beneath each sentence there are four options marked A, B, C and D. Choose the one that best completes the sentence or answers the question.
22、 Moving from beginning to end by order of time, narration relies on a more natural pattern of organization than ______.
A. do other types of writing
B. other types of writing
C. on other types of writing
D. will other types of writing
23、 ______ the attempted rescue mission, the hostages might still be alive.
A. If it not had been for
B. If had it not been for
C. Had it not been for
D. Had not it been for
24、 Members of the Parliament were poised ______ ahead with a bill to approve construction of the oil pipeline.
A. to move
C. to moving
D. at moving
25、 Writers often coupled narration with other techniques to develop ideas and support opinions that otherwise ______ abstract, unclear, or unconvincing.
A. may remain
B. could remain
C. must have remained
D. might have remained
26、 Protocol was ______ enabled him to make difficult decisions without ever looking back.
27、 The woman had persuaded him to do ______ he was hired never to do—reveal the combination for the lock on the entrance.
A. one thing
B. such one thing
C. any one thing
D. the one thing
28、 The bad news was that he could be a very dangerous person ______ he choose to be.
29、 "If not us, who? If not now, when?" These two questions are used as a ______.
A. sign of anger
B. call for action
C. refusal of change
D. denial of commitment
30、 What is the function of the present progressive in "They are always calling me by the wrong name"?
A. To express unfavorable feelings.
B. To alleviate unnecessary hostility.
C. To indicate uncertainty.
D. To dramatize a fact.
31、 "Harry was compelled to resign and to come down to London, where he set up as an army coach." The relative clause in the sentence serves to ______.
A. supply additional information about London
B. describe the antecedent "London"
C. narrate a sequential action taken by Harry
D. put restrictions on the identity of Harry
32、 A group ______ casinos has urged officials not to grant a license to a facility in the city.
A. opposed to
B. objected to
C. posed against
D. protested against
33、 After the war, he worked on an island in the Pacific, helping the natives and medical ______ understand each other's behavior and cultures.
34、 The subject of manners is complex. If it were not, there would not be so many ______ feelings and so much misunderstanding in international
35、 To illustrate the limits of First Amendment free speech, many have noted that the Constitution does not give you the right to falsely ______ "Fire!" in a crowded theater.
36、 The company announced that it has achieved its mission to create a local food economy that is ______ to any environment.
37、 Although Patterson acknowledges the disappointing season he had with the Vikings, he has no second ______ about how he went about his business.
38、 Electronic cigarettes should be subject ______ the same taxes and limitations on public use as traditional tobacco products.
39、 FC Barcelona, ______ the most iconic club in world soccer, beat Manchester United 2-0 to claim the UEFA Champions League title.
40、 The store sells liquid vitamins ______ designed for children under 3.
41、 The three law ______ officers on the plane came to the rescue of a fellow passenger who was allegedly trying to kill herself.
D. reinforcement PART Ⅳ CLOZE
Decide which of the words given in the box below would best complete the passage if inserted in the corresponding blank. The words can be used ONCE ONLY. Marie the letter for each word on ANSWER SHEET TWO.
To some thinkers, it is machines and their development that drive economic and cultural change. This idea is referred to as technological determinism. Certainly there can be no doubt that machines contributed to the Protestant Reformation and the decline of the Catholic Church's power in Europe
or 42 television has changed the way family members interact. Those who believe in technological determinism would argue that these changes in the cultural landscape were the 43 result of new technology.
But others see technology as more neutral and claim that the way people use technology is what gives it significance. This 44 accepts technology as one of many factors that shape economic and cultural change; technology's influence is 45 determined by how much power it is given by the people and cultures that use it.
This 46 about the power of technology is at the heart of the controversy surrounding the new communication technologies. Are we more or less powerless in the 47 of advances such as the Internet, the World Wide Web, and instant global audio and visual communication? If we are at the mercy of technology, the culture that surrounds us will not be of our 48 , and the best we can hope to do is make our way reasonably well in a world outside our own control. But if these technologies are indeed neutral and their power 49 in how we choose to use them, we can utilize them responsibly and 50 to construct and maintain whatever kind of culture we want. As film director and technophile Steve Spielberg explained, "Technology can be our best friend, and technology can also be the biggest party pooper of our lives. It interrupts our own story, interrupts our ability to have a thought or 51 , to imagine something wonderful."
PART Ⅴ READING COMPREHENSION
SECTION A MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS
In this section there are three passages followed by ten multiple choice questions. For each multiple choice question, there are four suggested answers marked A, B, C and D. Choose the one that you think is the best answer and mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET TWO.
52Life can be tough for immigrants in America. As a Romanian bank clerk in Atlanta puts it, to find a good job "you have to be like a wolf in the forest—able to smell out the best meat." And if you can't find work, don't expect the taxpayer to bail you out. Unlike in some European countries, it is extremely hard for an able-bodied immigrant to live off the state. A law passed in 1996 explicitly bars most immigrants, even those with legal status, from receiving almost any federal benefits.
53That is one reason why America absorbs immigrants better than many other rich countries, according to a new study by the University of California. The researchers sought to measure the effect of immigration on the native-born in 20 rich countries, taking into account differences in skills between immigrants and natives, imperfect labor markets and the size of the welfare state in each country.
54Their results offer ammunition for fans of more open borders In 19 out of 20 countries, the authors calculated that shutting the doors entirely to foreign workers would make the native-born worse off. Never mind what it would do to the immigrants themselves, who benefit far more than anyone else from being allowed to cross borders to find work.
55The study also suggests that most countries could handle more immigration than they currently allow. In America, a one-percentage point increase in the proportion of immigrants in the population made the native-born 0.05% better off. The opposite was true in some countries with generous or ill-designed welfare states, however. A one-point rise in immigration made the native-born slightly worse off in Austria, Belgium, Germany, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Sweden and Switzerland. In Belgium, immigrants who lose jobs can receive almost two-thirds of their most recent wage in state benefits, which must make the
hunt for a new job less urgent.
56None of these effects was large, but the study undermines the claim that immigrants steal jobs from natives or drag down their wages. Many immigrants take jobs that Americans do not want, the study finds. This "smooths" the labor market and ultimately creates more jobs for locals. Native-owned grocery stores do better business because there are immigrants to pick the fruit they sell. Indian computer scientists help American software firms expand. A previous study found that because immigrants typically earn less than locals with similar skills, they boost corporate profits, prompting companies to grow and hire more locals.
52There was something in the elderly woman's behavior that caught my eye. Although slow and unsure of step, the woman moved with deliberation, and there was no hesitation in her gestures. She was as good as anyone else, her movements suggested. And she had a job to do.
53It was a few years ago, and I had taken a part-time holiday-season job in a video store at the local shopping mall. From inside the store, I'd begun to see the people rushing by outside in the mall's concourse as a river of humanity.
54The elderly woman had walked into the store along with a younger woman who I guessed was her daughter. The daughter was displaying a serious case of impatience, rolling her eyes, huffing and sighing, checking her watch every few seconds. If she had possessed a leash, her mother would have been fastened to it as a means of tugging her along to keep step with the rush of other shoppers.
55The older woman detached from the younger one and began to tick through the DVDs on the nearest shelf. After the slightest hesitation, I walked over and asked if I could help her find something. The woman smiled up at me and showed me a title scrawled on a crumpled piece of paper. The title was unusual and a bit obscure. Clearly a person looking for it knew a little about movies, about quality.
56Rather than rushing off to locate the DVD for the woman, I asked her to walk with me so I could show her where she could find it. Looking back, I think I wanted to enjoy her company for a moment. Something about her deliberate movements reminded me of my own mother, who'd passed away the previous Christmas. 62As we walked along the back of the store, I narrated its floor plan: old television shows, action movies, cartoons, science fiction. The woman seemed glad of the unrushed company and casual conversation.
63We found the movie, and I complimented her on her choice. She smiled and told me it was one she'd enjoyed when she was her son's age and that she hoped he would enjoy it as much as she had. Maybe, she said with a hint of wistfulness, he could enjoy it with his own young children. Then, reluctantly, I had to return the elderly woman to her keeper, who was still tapping her foot at the front of the store.
64I escorted the older woman to the queue at the cash register and then stepped back and lingered near the younger woman. When the older woman's turn in line came, she paid in cash, counting out the dollars and coins with the same sureness she'd displayed earlier.
65As the cashier tucked the DVD into a plastic bag, I walked over to the younger woman.
66"Is that your morn?" I asked.
67I halfway expected her to tell me it was none of my business. But possibly believing me to be tolerant of her impatience, she rolled her eyes and said, "Yeah." There was exasperation in her reply, half sigh and half groan.
68Still watching the mother, I said, "Mind some advice?"
69"Sure," said the daughter.
70I smiled to show her I wasn't criticizing. "Cherish her," I said. And then I answered her curious expression by saying, "When she's gone, it's the little moments that'll come back to you. Moments like this. I know."
71It was true. I missed my mom still and remembered with melancholy clarity the moments when I'd used my impatience to make her life miserable.
72The elderly woman moved with her deliberate slowness back to her daughter's custody. Together they made their way toward the store's exit. They stood there for a moment, side by side, watching the rush of the holiday current and for their place in it. Then the daughter glanced over and momentarily regarded her mother. And slowly, almost reluctantly, she placed her arm with apparently unaccustomed affection around her mother's shoulders and gently guided her back into the crowds.
52Reading award-winning literature may boost your ability to read other people, a new study suggests. Researchers at the New School for Social Research, in New York City, found that when they had volunteers read works of acclaimed "literary fiction", it seemed to temporarily improve their ability to interpret other people's emotions. The same was not true of nonfiction or "popular" fiction, the mystery, romance and science-fiction books that often dominate bestseller lists.
53Experts said the findings, reported online in Science, suggest that literature might help people to be more perceptive and engaged in their lives. 54"Reading literary fiction isn't just for passing the time It's not just an escape" said Keith Oatley, a professor emeritus of cognitive psychology at the University of Toronto. "It also enables us to better understand others, and then take that into our daily lives."
55Oatley was not involved in the new research, but worked on some of the first studies to suggest that reading literature can boost people's empathy for others. His team has found that those who read a lot of fiction tend to show greater empathy on standard tests, but the same is not true of avid nonfiction fans.
56But, the study by Oatley and his team cannot prove that literature boosts empathy—empathetic folks may just be drawn to reading fiction, whereas the new study does offer some "cause-and-effect" evidence, Oatley said. For the study, researchers set up a series of five experiments in which participants read either literary fiction, popular fiction, nonfiction or nothing at all before taking some standard tests. One of the tests is known as "Reading the Mind in the Eyes". People have to look at photos of actors' eyes, and then guess what emotion is being expressed in each. The test is considered a measure of empathy. Overall, study participants fared better on the test after reading literary fiction, versus the other three conditions.
62It was a small improvement, according to the principal researcher David Comer Kidd, "It's not like taking people from a (grade) 'C' to an 'A'," he said. But, Kidd added, the effect was seen after only about 10 minutes' reading, and it was a statistically strong finding, meaning it's unlikely to have been due to chance.
63"Literary" fiction has no hard-and-fast definition. So Kidd and his colleagues chose contemporary works that have won or been finalists for outstanding literary awards. They included "The Round House", by Louise Erdrich, "Salvage the Bones", by Jesmyn Ward and the short story "Corrie" by Alice Munro. And "popular" fiction included best-sellers like "Gone Girl" by Gillian Flynn, and Danielle Steel's "The Sins of the Mother".
64What's so special about literary fiction? "For one, it's usually more focused on characters than on plot," Kidd noted. But beyond that, he said, there is usually no single "authoritative narrator" who takes us through the story. "It demands that the reader almost become a writer and fill in the
gaps. You really have to think about the characters," Kidd said.
65Oatley agreed. "Alice Munro doesn't tell you what to think," he said. "You, yourself, have to make inferences about characters. And that's often what we're doing in our real-life conversations." Or at least that's what people could do.
66Reading literary fiction could also offer a way to "practice" your social skills and use them more in real life, according to another researcher not involved in the study. "It's like how pilots train in a flight simulator," said Raymond Mar, an associate professor of psychology at York University, in Toronto, who has collaborated with Oatley. "This is a great study," Mar said of the new study. But he added that the overall research in this area is "still in its infancy" and one key question is whether literary fiction really is better than other fiction.
67Mar and his colleagues recently found that fans of romance novels tended to do best on tests of empathy. Unlike the current study, Mar's study did not test people after having them read different types of fiction. So it's possible that there is something else about romance-novel readers that makes them more understanding of others.
68Still, according to Mar, it's too early to tell people to trade in their Danielle Steel for Alice Munro, at least if the goal is boosting empathy. 69It's also possible that plays, movies or even TV shows could build your empathy muscles, according to Kidd. But reading may be special, he said, because it provides no Visuals and you have to engage your imagination more.
70Everyone agreed that the findings suggest literature is important beyond entertainment or improving vocabulary. "There's a common belief that reading literature is frivolous, or not practical," Mar said. "But there's a growing body of evidence that it's important in skills that we need in our lives."
52、 Increase in immigration in Austria fails to improve locals' life mainly because of ______. (PASSAGE ONE.
A. inadequate skills of immigrants
B. imperfect labor markets
C. low wages for locals
D. the design of the welfare system
53、 Who will favor the study results by researchers from the University of California? (PASSAGE ONE. ______
A. People who have legal status.
B. People who run businesses.
C. People who receive state benefits.
D. People who are willing to earn less.
54、 It can be inferred from the passage that the author's attitude is ______ towards immigration. (PASSAGE ONE.
A. cautiously favorable
B. slightly negative
C. strongly negative
D. quite ambiguous
55、 What does "she had a job to do" (Para.1) mean according to the context? (PASSAGE TWO) ______
A. She had a regular job in the store.
B. She wanted to ask for help.
C. She wanted to buy a DV
D. She was thinking of what to buy.
56、 What does the title of the DVD reveal according to the shop assistant? (PASSAGE TWO) ______
A. The elderly woman had some knowledge about movies.
B. The elderly woman liked movies for young children.
C. The elderly woman preferred movies her son liked.
D. The elderly woman liked both old and new movies.
57、 In the passage the elderly woman's daughter is described as being ______. (PASSAGE TWO)
58、 While looking for the DVD with the old woman, the shop assistant was ______. (PASSAGE TWO)
59、 According to the new study, what kinds of books are likely to help people better understand others' feelings? (PASSAGE THREE. ______
A. Science fiction.
B. Romance novels.
C. Literary fiction.
60、 Which of the following statements is CORRECT according to the passage? (PASSAGE THREE. ______
A. Oatley and his colleagues were involved in the new study.
B. Mar and his team also tested people after reading fiction.
C. Kidd and his team had people read prestigious fiction.
D. Kidd and his team were uncertain about their study results.
61、 Which of the following is NOT a special feature of literary fiction? (PASSAGE THREE. ______
A. Presence of an authoritative narrator.
B. More focus on character description.
C. Demand on readers' ability to infer.
D. Presence of readers' empathetic feelings.
62、 SECTION B SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS
In this section there are five short answer questions based on the passages in Section A. Answer the questions with NO MORE THAN TEN WORDS in the space provided on ANSWER SHEET TWO.
What does the statement "..., don't expect the taxpayer to bail you out." mean? (PASSAGE ONE.
63、 Why did the shop assistant lead the elderly woman to find the DVD instead of finding it for her? (PASSAGE TWO)
64、 What does the last sentence in Para. 16 imply about the daughter's attitude towards her mother? (PASSAGE TWO)
65、 What are the two main advantages of reading literary fiction according to the passage? (PASSAGE THREE.
66、 Why is reading special when compared with plays and movies? (PASSAGE THREE.
PART Ⅵ WRITING
67、Read carefully the following excerpt, and then write your response in NO LESS THAN 200 WORDS, in which you should:
1)summarize the main message of the excerpt, and then
2)comment on Brewer's view that parents should join in with their kids rather than limit their media consumption.
You can support yourself with information from the excerpt.
Marks will be awarded for content relevance, content sufficiency, organization and language quality. Failure to follow the above instructions
concept of "digital nutrition", likens media
diets to what's on our plates: rather than counting calories
(or screen time), think about what you're
"It's not just about whether you consume any potential digital junk foods, but also your relationship
to technology and the role it plays in your family life," says
For young children, the most important thing is whether parents
and kids are playing, watching or
A study of 20,000 parents published late last year by the
Oxford Internet Institute and Cardiff
University determined that there was no correlation between
limiting device use and children's well-being.
The study's lead author Dr Andrew Pryzbylski said: "Our findings
suggest the broader family context,
how parents set rules about digital screen time, and if they're
actively engaged in exploring the digital
world together, are more important than the raw screen time."
"The consensus is that screen time, in and of itself, is not harmful—and reasonable restrictions
vary greatly, depending on a child's behavior and personality.
There is little point in worrying about how
many minutes a day your kids are spending with screens," says
Brewer. "Instead, parents should be
doing what they can to ensure that what they're watching, playing
and reading is high-quality, age-appropriate
and safe—and joining in wherever possible."
PART Ⅰ DICTATION
We often use slang expressions when we talk, because they are so vivid and colorful. However, they are usually out of place in formal writing/because of a number of drawbacks. /They go out of date quickly/and become tiresome if used too much. /And they may communicate clearly to some readers, but not to others. /In general, we should avoid the use of slang in our writing./
[解析] 听写话题与俚语相关：俚语丰富多彩、鲜活生动，人们经常使用，但是不适合正式的写作，且容易过时，不是所有人都能听懂俚语。因此在写作中我们最好不用俚语。难词：drawbacks缺点；tiresome令人厌倦的。需要注意一些连读的地方，如out of place和out of date。
PART Ⅱ LISTENING COMPREHENSION
SECTION A TALK
2、revise for content
Revision of Essay Drafts
Good morning, everyone. In today's lecture, I'm going talk about how to revise essay drafts and give you some tips as well. The initial revision should, of course, focus on the essay as a whole. You ask yourself "do I reach my writing objective? Does my essay directly answer the question? Is my main idea clear?" In order to answer these questions, what you need to do fast is to revise for content. The typical rough draft may have too little and too much content, all at the same time. It will have touched the surfaces of some portions of the essay, without providing adequate explanation or convincing detail. At the same time, it may have discussed things that do not contribute significantly to your major points.
So, what is a good essay then? A good essay eliminates irrelevant material while including all the information necessary to your main point. Your reader needs sufficient evidence to accept what you are saying, so you have to make sure you have adequately developed and supported your main idea. Content that is unrelated to the main idea should be eliminated.
Then, what is the second step in revision? That is, revise for organization.
A well-organized essay will group similar ideas together and put them in a proper order. If you find it easy to produce an outline from your draft, this means that there is a clear logic to the flow of the content, and you can be reasonably certain that you have a well-ordered essay. Otherwise, reorder your content.
The third step you are advised to take is to revise for length. Is your essay approximately the right length? If it is substantially longer than the stated limit, you have to consider reducing the supporting material. But even if there is not stated limit, or you are allowed to write as long as you like, please adhere to a self-imposed limit.And, unless addressing a topic that needs lengthy explanation, stick to it.
The steps I have mentioned so far actually refer to revision of an essay as a whole. The next step is to revise for components of the essay, including the paragraphs, sentences, and individual words.
You may ask "how am I going to revise paragraphs?" Well, I say a paragraph, it's not arbitrarily formed. It should revolve around an idea, a theme. Let me tell you one way to revise paragraphs. Isolate a paragraph at a time and make sure it runs smoothly and is not merely a hunch of unrelated statements put together.
As for revision of sentences and words, most essay writers pile on one long sentence after another. Well, I suggest you avoid this by breaking up some of the longer sentences to provide http://m.wendangku.net/doc/ce7deb2148649b6648d7c1c708a1284ac95005b8.htmle short sentences to make important points and long sentences to explain complex ideas.Also, try to use a variety of sentence structures to maintain reader interest. Eliminate sentences that sound awkward when read aloud.
For diction, a very important tip is to eliminate imprecise or wordy language. For example, use "although" instead of "despite the fact that". Try to add vigor to your writing by removing clicheacutes and use fresh and interesting descriptions. Try to write as much as possible with nouns and verbs, rather than primarily with adjectives that slow the pace and reduce impact. Similarly, write in the active not the passive voice.
Now, let me just repeat what I have said today. Revision is important. When you revise your drafts as a whole, pay attention to content, organization and length, but don't forget to revise your essay in detail Revision of sentences and words can also make the essay more interesting to readers.
[解析] 空格的前面是The first step，而题目后面的The second step和The third step 之后都有revise for...这个表达，可以先在本空填revise for。演讲者明确说到，你首先需要
做的(what you need to do first)，就是revise for content“修改内容”。故本题填revise for content。
[解析] 本空是关于粗略马虎的草稿(rough draft)的特点。演讲者说到典型rough draft的内容要不就是太简略，要不就是太冗余(have too little and too much content)，并且会包含对论述文章要点没作用的内容(discussed things that do not contribute significantly to your major points)。故填major points。
[解析] 演讲者在讨论第二步做法(修改结构)时说到，假如你能很容易从草稿中归纳出文章大纲，那么这意味着草稿的内容是逻辑清晰的。空格所在句意为“从草稿中归纳出大纲以检查……”，是转述了演讲者的说法，可见这里应该填入“逻辑”，即the logic。
6、a self-imposed limit
[解析] 演讲者在讨论第三步做法(修改篇幅)时说到，如果没有篇幅限制，你可以写多少就写多少的话，请自己设定文章的篇幅(please adhere to a self-imposed limit)，题目的stick to 与演讲者说的adhere to为同义。故填a self-imposed limit。
[解析] 演讲者归纳说她提到的三步做法是针对文章的整体的，接下来是讨论如何修改文章的各个部分(The next step is to revise for components of the essay)，故本空填components。
[解析] 演讲者在讨论如何修改句子和词语时建议不要一直堆砌长句，而是要把一些长句断开，改为短句，以求长短结合，让句子更有多样性(breaking up some of the longer sentences to provide variety)。因此填provide variety。
9、 explain complex ideas
[解析] 演讲者明确说到，要用短句指出要点，用长句来解释难以理解的观点。因此填explain complex ideas。
10、imprecise or wordy
[解析] 演讲者说到在文章措辞(diction)方面，一个重要的技巧是去除不精确或啰嗦的表达。因此这里填imprecise or wordy。
11、nouns and verbs
[解析] 演讲者说到要尽可能多地使用名词和动词，而不要使用太多形容词。因此这里填nouns and verbs。
SECTION B CONVERSATIONS
M: Hello, and welcome to today's programme. I'm James.
W: And I'm Susan.
M: Today, we're going to talk about family names. Susan, I've often wondered, why you've got a double-barrelled surname, I mean you're American, and I thought it was only us Brits who went for things like that. Susan Writer Wells, it sounds almost invented, doesn't it?
W: Well, you're actually not far off the mark. You know my mom was a feminist, don't you?
M: Really? I never knew that. Well go on then.
W: Yeah, well her maiden name was Morse, and at that time, I'm talking
about the late 1960s, women like my morn were really trying to liberate themselves from male bondage, as they called it. So some. of them began rejecting their father's surname and decided to invent their own surname instead, and because my morn was a journalist she decided to call herself Cindy Writer.
M: Cindy Writer. Well, who would have guessed!
W: Actually other feminists named themselves after the town where they were born, like the sculptor Judy Boston. Some even called themselves after a day of the week.
M: Oh, yes. Wasn't there someone called Victoria Friday? Or maybe she's got nothing to do with it. But your morn wasn't so much of a feminist that she didn't get married, was she?
W: No. But the problem then was what to call herself or rather her children. Anyway a lot of people of her generation simply decided to add their husband's name to their own. My dad's called Paul Wells, so I'm Susan Writer Wells. M: So what would happen if you, Susan Writer Wells, meet some guy who's called Peter Painter Jones, do you then become Susan Writer Wells Painter Jones, bit of a mouthful, isn't it?
W: No comment. I think the most sensible thing to do is to do what they do in countries like Italy.
M: What do you mean?
W: Well, over there the woman keeps her maiden name pretty much for all purposes, like bank accounts, identity cards; and the man obviously keeps his name.
M: What about the children then?
W: Well they keep their father's name.
M: So we're back to the old problem, aren't we, the men win out again?
W: Yeah, but one solution could be for the sons to keep their father's name and the daughter their mother's.
M: Well, that might be a good idea.
W: Ok, that's the end of today's programme. Don't forget to join us again soon.
What is the woman's family name?
[解析] 本题问女士的姓氏是什么。录音一开始男士说他不明白为什么女士的姓是由两个部分组成的(double-barrelled surname)，所以就此可先排除A项和B项。再者，男士提到女士叫Susan Writer Wells，因此D项是女士的全名而不只是姓氏。故本题应选C项。
Why did her mother reject her maiden name?
[解析] 本题问为什么女士的母亲拒绝使用她的娘家姓。女士提到她的母亲在20世纪60年代的时候是女权主义者(a feminist)。那时女权主义者为了从男性的束缚中解放出来，会拒绝使用父亲的姓氏，故B项“她那时候是女权主义者”为答案。A项“她是职业女性”是利用女士母亲从事记者这一职业设置的干扰项，但这与女士的母亲拒绝使用其父亲的姓氏无关。C项“她不喜欢娘家姓”录音未提及。D项“她随她丈夫的姓”，是后来发生的事情，也与女士的母亲拒绝使用娘家姓无关。
How did her mother invent a new surname?
[解析] 本题问女士的母亲创造姓氏的方式。女士明确提到她的母亲是一个记者，所以决定给自己取名为Cindy Writer。A项中的her profession“她的职业”与录音对应，故为答案。B项的“以家乡”和C项的“以一周中的某一天”是其他女权主义者给自己创造姓氏的方法，与女士的母亲无关，故
What does the man think of the practice in Italy?
[解析] 本题问男士如何看待意大利人的取名方法。录音中在女士解释意大利人的取名方法后，男士给出了自己的看法：老问题依然存在(we're back to the old problem)，在取名这个问题上，男人还是占上风(the men win out again)。因此与这个说法相悖的A项“他妇女享有更多的平等待遇”、B项“是一个解决老问题的好办法”和D项“姓氏问题在一定程度上已得到解决”都不正确，故C 项“因扰女权主义者的问题依然存在”为答案。
What is the programme mainly about?
[解析] 本题问这个节目主要探讨了什么内容。对话一开始男士说这期节目主要是探讨姓氏问题(talk about family names)，然后从女士的姓氏说起，谈到了女士母亲那个年代的女性给自己创造姓氏的原因和方法，最后又谈到意大利人取姓氏的方法。D项“创造姓氏的原因”最紧扣本对话的大意，故为答案。A项“美国姓氏的历史”、B项“20世纪60年代女权主义运动”和C项“欧洲的传统姓氏”至多体现对话的一些细节，若用来概括，显得偏移了对话的主题，故均排除。CONVERSATION TWO
W: Welcome to our weekly program. Well, if you want to get a raise at work, but you just don't know how to ask, our next guest has some helpful tips on how to raise your pay by helping you negotiate with the boss. Here is Janet Smith, senior director from DOS Executive search firm in San Diego. Hi Janet, how do we get a raise? W: Well, we found in our report that there are really four things that you could do. The first step was making sure your boss knew what you are up to. He can't see everything and you have to make sure he knows you're here contributing to the bottom line.
M: Well, that could be bragging though. So you have to shamelessly promote yourself then.
W: Maybe not shame-free. You don't want to be rude, but every now and again if you did something that's really noteworthy, let them know, or to get praised from somebody else.
M: So should you just put together a list of things you've done and hand it to your boss?
W: It doesn't work because the boss generally has the data to check up on you. So the second point is, don't overstate because if you lie, you are really going to lose a lot of credibility on the things that you actually did do well.
M: Right, definitely.
W: OK, so what you want to do is to point out some of the things that you've done, but be honest about it, and only take credit where credit's due.
M: That's correct.
W: And third you may think ahead.
M: What do you mean by that?
W: A lot of people forget the things that they've done that are good,so one of the things that we found was that it was really helpful if you kept a diary of the things that you've done that work extraordinary. And then come with review time, you're prepared and you really should be preparing about, you know, three months in advance to win your performance tributes.
M: That's a good idea. Alright, then what's the last point?
W: The last point is to go online. You can research competitive wages for your, eh, particular job at
either http://m.wendangku.net/doc/ce7deb2148649b6648d7c1c708a1284ac95005b8.html, http://m.wendangku.net/doc/ce7deb2148649b6648d7c1c708a1284ac95005b8.html or http://m.wendangku.net/doc/ce7deb2148649b6648d7c1c708a1284ac95005b8.html, so that's some of my advice and hopefully people will check it out.
M: Yeah! I think I want to go see my boss.
W: Yes, you can. But get prepared.
M: OK. Janet, thank you for joining us. We appreciate it.
W: Thank you very much.
Who is Janet Smith?
[解析] 本题问Janet Smith的身份。男士的开场白Welcome to our weekly program说明对话场景是一个“周播节目”。再根据男士对Janet Smith的介绍：our next guest，可知Janet Smith 是weekly program的嘉宾(guest)，故答案为C项。A项的reporter“记者”以及D项中的magazine editor“杂志编辑”对话均未提及，故排除。Janet Smith是DOS高管猎头公司的资深总监(senior director)，而非执行董事(executive director)，故B项也排除。
What is the first tip from Janet?
[解析]本题间Janet Smith的第一个小建议。Janet的第一个建议是“确保老板知道你正在做什么(what you are up to)”。男士将此解读为“就得不要脸地推销自己(have to shamelessly promote yourself)”。女士便补充说“或许这不能算是不要脸的(Maybe not shame-free)，人人都不想言行粗鲁，可是要是你真的做了突出的贡献，就让老板知道”。据此可知，女士实际上是认同promote yourself这一做法。故D项为答案，且D项紧扣住了Janet建议中的目标对象(boss)。A项“让老板知道你想加薪”不对，应该是让老板知道你“正在做的事”以及“为公司创收”(bottom line指“盈亏总额，账本底线”)。B项“列一份你所做事情的清单”是男士的意见，Janet对此作了否定。C项“让所有人都知道你的成就”，Janet说的是让boss知道，而不是让everybody知道，C项排除。
Why is it a bad idea to overstate what you have done?
[解析] 本题问为什么夸大自己所做的事情不是一个好主意。对话中，Janet首先否定了男士提到的“列一张所做事情的清单交给老板”的做法，而后指出老板通常有数据可查证你的情况(generally has the data to check up on you)，因此不要夸大事实(So the second point is, don't overstate)。可见D项为答案。Janet说如果你说谎，你做得好的事情的可信度会大幅降低(lose a lot of credibility on the things...)，此处讲的是“事情”的可信度，且是在说谎的前提下，与“夸大”有一定区别，故A项“别人可能会对你失去信任”应排除。B项“这样做不专业”和C项“你将有更多的工作要做”对话未提及。
Why should we think ahead according to Janet?
[解析] 本题问为什么Janet认为我们应早做考虑。Janet明确提到第三个小建议是think ahead，原因是她随后提到的“很多人会忘记他们做得好的事情(A lot of people forget the things that they've done that are good)”。B项“我们可能会忘记自己做得好的事情”为答案。21、A
Where can we check competitive wages?
[解析] 本题问我们在哪里可以查找到有竞争力的工资。Janet给的建议是go online“上网”，在诸如http://m.wendangku.net/doc/ce7deb2148649b6648d7c1c708a1284ac95005b8.html、http://m.wendangku.net/doc/ce7deb2148649b6648d7c1c708a1284ac95005b8.html、http://m.wendangku.net/doc/ce7deb2148649b6648d7c1c708a1284ac95005b8.html等网站研究有竞争力的工资。A项“网站”是对
PART Ⅲ LANGUAGE USAGE
[解析] 本题考查比较状语从句，四个选项都有other types of writing“其他文体”，故比较的对象应是主语narration“记叙文”和“其他文体”，比较这两者在relies on...pattern的程度。故than后比较状语从句应为other types of writing rely on...pattern，与主句相同的部分可省略，故应填上other types of writing do(do替代rely on...)，do也可省略，故答案为B项。比较状语从句也可用倒装结构(than) do other types of writing，A项在语法上是可以接受的，但这种倒装的用法一般是为了强调从句主语，或在从句主语过长时使用。但本句的从句主语other types of writing并不长，也不需要作强调，相比之下，B项更合适。由于比较的对象不是(on) a...of organization和other types of writing，故C项不对。D项错在will与主句的现在时relies不符。
[解析] 本句考查虚拟条件句。在虚拟条件句中，如果从句中含有were、had或should等助动词时，可将if省去，并把were、had或should等提到主语之前，引起倒装。If it had not been for...省略if时，只需把had提前，否定词not不用提前。故答案为C项Had it not been for。
[解析] 本题考查be poised to do sth. 这一固定搭配，该搭配表示“做好做某事的准备”。因此选A项。
[解析] 本题考查虚拟语气。本句的otherwise“否则的话”表示一种虚拟情况。主句谓语coupled 为过去时，因此定语从句中的内容是与过去事实相反的假设，其谓语应为：
[解析] 本题考查虚拟条件句的倒装用法。题干为主从复合句，其中表语从句中还含有条件状语从句。根据空格的位置、句意及选项可知，该句为部分倒装句。还原后应为虚拟语气if he should choose...。虚拟条件句中，如果从句中含有were、had或should等词时，可将if省去，并把were、had或should等提到主语之前，引起倒装。本题选C项。should在此处有“万一，假如”的意思。
[解析] 本题考查词义辨析。纵观各备选项可知，填入空格的内容与其后的casinos构成主语A group 的后置定语。A项opposed to填入空格中，表示“反对赌场的”，相当于定语从句that is opposed to casinos，语义及语法均正确，故为答案。B项、和D项都有“反对”之意，但B项和D项填入空格中应用主动语态，即改为objecting to和protesting against。C项的pose意为“造成，产生，引起”，作及物动词，不与against构成搭配，故排除。
[解析] 本题考查词义辨析。空白处应填入可修饰feelings的形容词，首先排除C项的现在分词injuring和D项名词injury“受伤，伤害”。A项表示“造成伤害的，有害的”，填入空格中表示“有害的情感”，不符合此处的语义逻辑，故也排除。B项表示“(使人或感情)受到伤害的”，常见的表达有the injured party“受害人，受害方”，故选B项。
[解析] 本题考查固定搭配。本题要求填入一个可与空格后的to构成be...to sth. 结构的形容词。D项be adaptable to表示“同……相适应”，符合语义及语法要求。A项adoptable“可采用的”、B 项amendable“可修正的”和C项alterable“可改变的”均不能与空格前后的be和to构成符合此处语义逻辑的搭配。
[解析] 本题考查固定搭配。have no second thoughts意为“未有过别的想法”。B项“意见，想法”、C项“关切的事，忧虑”和D项“原因”均无此用法。
[解析] 本题考查subject作形容词时的固定搭配。be subject to a tax表示“须缴纳税款”。类似的用法还有be subject to rule/law/penalty，表示“须遵守规则/须遵守法令/须缴纳罚款”。
[解析] 本题考查词义辨析。空格所在部分为主语FC Barcelona的同位语。B项表示“可论证地，可以说”，常用于形容词比较级或最高级前。空格后的同位语出现了最高级the most iconic club，B项为答案。A项表示“颇有争议地”；C项“有疑问地，有争议地”与A项意思相近；D项表示“最后，最终”。
[解析] 本题考查词义辨析。D项specifically意为“特定地；专门地”，强调“专门针对某一类人或某一类事物”，比如：advertising that specifically targets children专门针对儿童的广告。故D项为答案。A项explicitly意为“明确地，清楚明白地”，强调“明确，不含糊”。B 项specially意为“专门地，特意”，也常与designed构成搭配，但常指专为某种目的而设，比如：The room was specially designed to be used as a library.“这个房间是专门设计来做图书馆的。”而specifically含“仅限于，只属于”的意味，在句中含有“只为3岁以下使用”意味，specially没有这层意味，故D项比B项更合适。C项意为“投机地，臆测地”，语义与句意不符。
[解析] 本题考查固定搭配。执法人员为law enforcement officer。enforcement表示“(强制)执行(规章或法律)”。A项imposition表示“(规章、惩罚、税种等的)实施”；B项coercion表示“强迫、胁迫”；D项reinforcement表示“巩固、加强、强化”。
PART Ⅳ CLOZE
[解析] 空格前的连词or提示空格前后包含并列的成分，空格前为that引导的同位语从句，作名词doubt的同位语，而空格后为完整句子，故推测空格处应填入作从句引导词的连词。there can be no doubt...“毫无疑问……”表示肯定语气，因此应选表“肯定”且不在从句中充当成分的that，故选K项。本题需要排除D项，if作为连词时在从句中也不充当成分，但if表示“是否”时，为疑问语气，与there can be no doubt...相矛盾，故排除。
[解析] 空格前为指示代词This，而空格后为谓语动词accepts，因此空格处应填入名词或动名词作主语。This提示空格处的名词应回指上文，由上一句的see...as...“将……视为……”和claim that...“声称……”，可见此处应选表示“观点，视角”的名词，词库名词中的perspective“观点”符合语境，故选I项。注意排除L项thinking，它同样也可以表示“想法，看法”，但thinking强调“头脑中的想法”，与上一句的claim that...“声称……”矛盾，故此处不宜选thinking，应排除L 项。
[解析] 空格前为定冠词the，空格后为介词of短语，推测空格处填入名词或动名词。此处的名词应能用于in the...of结构中。词库名词中符合该词组用法且填入后与前后文语义相符的只有wake，词组in the wake of...意为“紧随……而来”，此处指我们的无力感紧随互联网、万维网和全球即时音视频等技术而来，故选O项。
[解析] 空格前的形容词性物主代词our提示，空格处应填入名词或动名词。空格前提到“如果我们任凭技术摆布”，再结合下文“而我们有望做得最好的事情莫过于在自己无法掌控的世界中理性地前进”，可推测在这种文化中我们不会处于主导地位，词库名词中的making代人，be of our making 意为“由我们造成”，此处指“我们就不能塑造我们身边的文化”，语义上符合要求，故选H项。
[解析] 此处应填入不及物动词作their power的谓语动词。空格前提到technologies are indeed neutral，这一观点出现在第2段。再结合空格后出现了use them，发现第2段最后一句也出现了use it，与此处语义极为相似。第2段最后一句提到“技术的影响力……取决于技术使用者和文化”，故此处应填入跟determined“取决于”词义相近的词，词库动词中的resides代入，resides in在此表示“在于”，符合要求，故选J项。注意排除G项lays，该词表示“摆放；下蛋”，为及物动词，后面不可以跟介词in连用，可从用法上予以排除。G项是出题人利用lie的易混词lay 制造干扰，若选项为lies，也正确，lies in同样表示“在于”。
[解析] 空格处填入的词应跟名词thought“想法”并列，因此空格处应填入意思与之相近的名词。再结合下文的to imagine...wonderful“想象美妙东西”，词库名词中的daydream“幻想，白日梦”符合要求，故选A项。
PART Ⅴ READING COMPREHENSION