Unit 1 Part I A

1. Oxford / commitment / academic record

2. oldest/ largest / reputation / research / science

3. first / Australia / 150 years / excels

4. excellence / 17.000 / location

5. largest / 1883 / situated / 26,000

6. 1636 / enrollment / 18,500/ schools

7. awards / degrees / 20,000 8. located / 135 / third


1.2,700 languages / 7,000 dialects / regional / pronunciation

2.official / language

3.One billion / 20 percent

4.Four hundred million / first / 600 million / second / foreign

5.500,000 words / Eighty percent / other

6.Eighty percent / computers

7.African country / same

8.1,000 / Africa

9.spaceship / 1977 / 55 / message / the United States

C 1 – (a) 2 – ( c) 3 – ( d) 4 – (b )

All right, class. Today we’re going to be looking at different language learning styles. You may be surprised to find that there are different ways of going about learning languages, none of which is necessarily better than the others. Researchers have identified four basic learner ―types‖–the communicative learner, the analytical learner, the authority-oriented learner and the concrete learner. Communicative learners like to learn by watching and listening to native speakers. At home, they like to learn by watching TV and videos. They like to learn new words by hearing them. In class, they like to learn by having conversations. Now, concrete learners like to lean by playing games, by looking at pictures and videos in class, talking in pairs, and by listening to cassettes at home and school. Now, authority-oriented learners, on the other hand, like the teacher to explain everything. They like to write everything down in their notebook, and they like to have a textbook. They like to learn new words by seeing them. And finally, we have analytical learners. These learners like to learn by studying grammar. At home, they like to learn by studying English books, and they like to study by themselves. They like to find their own mistakes. Now, of course, it’s unusual for a person to be exclusively one ―type‖ rather than another. Most of us are mixtures of styles. What type of learner do you think you are?

Part II A3

GCSE examinations students / higher education

student/ second year / high school / college general exam / School Certificate

sitting University Entrance Examination bachelor’s degree: 3/ 4 years

master’s degree: another year or two doctorate: a further 3-7 years

Well, in Britain, from the ages of five to about eleven you start off at a primary school, and then from eleven to sixteen you go on to a secondary school or a comprehensive school and at sixteen you take GCSE examinations. After this, some children take vocational courses or even start work. Others stay on at school for another two years to take A levels. And at the age of eighteen, after A levels, they might finish their education or go on to a course of higher education at a college or university, and that’s usually for three years.

Well, it depends on what state you’re in but most kids in the United States start school at about six when they go to elementary school and that goes from the first grade up to the sixth grade. Some

kids go to a kindergarten the year before that. Then they go on to junior high school, that’s about eleven, and that’s the seventh, eighth and ninth grades. And then they go on to senior high school around age fourteen starting in the tenth grade and finishing in the twelfth grade usually. Some students will leave school at sixteen and they’ll start work, but most of them stay on to graduate from high school at age eighteen. In the first year at high school or college students are called ―freshmen‖, in the second they’re called ―sophomores‖, in the third year we call them ―juniors‖and in the fourth year they’re called ―seniors‖. Now a lot of high school graduates then go to college or university and they do a four-year first degree course. Some of them might go to junior college which is a two-year course.

Well, in Australia, well most states anyway, children start their primary education at five after perhaps a brief time in kindergarten. They will stay at primary school until they’re about eleven, then they’ll either stay there or go to an intermediate school for a couple of years. Then they start high school usually twelve or thirteen, which you start in the third form. Now, after three years at high school you sit a general exam, some states call it School Certificate and that is a sort of general qualification and that if a sort of general qualification. After that you can leave school at sixteen or you can go on and sit your University Entrance Examination, which then gives you entrée into a university or it’s another useful qualification, and from then on you go to various sorts of higher education.

Education in Canada is a provincial responsibility, but schools are administered by local school boards.

Kindergarten is for children who are four or five years old. Children begin formal full-day schooling in Grade 1, when they are about six years old. They must stay in school at least until they are sixteen. However, most students continue to finish high school. Some go to college or university. Each year of schooling represents one grade. (The school year extends from the beginning of September to the end of June.) Elementary school includes kindergarten to about Grade 8. Secondary school (or high school) may start in Grade 8, 9, or 10 and it usually continues until Grade 12.

In Canada, students may go to university or to a community college. If they want to learn skills for specific job, they attend college for one or four years to get a diploma or certificate. For example, lab technicians, child-care workers, and hotel managers go to college. Universities offer degree programs as well as training professions, such as law, medicine, and teaching.

Universities offer three main levels of degrees. Students earn a bachelor’s degree after three or four years of study. A master’s degree can take another year or two. A doctorate may take a further three to seven years to complete.

B1 Idioms / vocabulary / French / spelling / pronunciation

B2 1. F 2. T 3. F

I – Interviewer P – Professor

I: And now we have an interview with Professor J. T. Lingo, Professor of Linguistics at Chimo University, who is here to talk to us about the growing business of teaching English. Good morning, professor Lingo.

P: Good morning.

I: I understand that teaching English is becoming ―big business‖ all around the world.

P: It seems that language schools are springing up everywhere.

I: Why is that?

P: With the move toward a global economy, English has become the most widely used language in the world. It is the language of business, aviation, science and international affairs and people find that they must learn English to compete in those fields.

I: And do people find English an easy language to learn?

P: Well, every language has something about it that other people find difficult to learn. English is such a hodgepodge of different languages – it’s essentially Germanic but a lot of its vocabulary comes from French, and technical words stem from Latin and Greek. This feature makes English fairly adaptable – which is a good thing for a world language – but it causes irregularity in spelling and pronunciation.

I: English spelling baffles me, too.

P: English also has the largest vocabulary. Often there are words for the same thing, one is Anglo-Saxon and one from the French – like ―buy‖ which is Anglo-Saxon and ―purchase‖ which is from the French. The French word often has more prestige.

I: Anglo-Saxon?

P: That’s the word for Old English. The Norman Conquest in 1066 brought the French language to Britain and helped English evolve into the English it is today.

I: Is there anything else particularly difficult about English?

P: Well, the idioms in informal English pose a problem for some students.

I: Informal English?

P: As with any language, there are different varieties: slang, colloquial. Formal, written, as well as the different dialects – British, American and Canadian English.

I: And how is Canadian English different from American and British?

P: Canadian English is closer to American in pronunciation and idiom. Some of our words and our spellings do reflect British usage, however. We wouldn’t use the British term ―lorry‖ for truck, but we have kept the ―o-u-r‖ spellings in words such as ―honour‖ and ―colour‖.

I: This has been very interesting. I’m afraid we’re out of time. It has been a pleasure talking to you.

Part III University Life A1 I. Age / Foreign student population II. 15 hrs (+2 or 3 for lab) / Discussion group: 15-20 / much smaller / informal, friendly / 2-3 hrs: 1 hr

Today I’d like to give you some idea about how life at an American university or college might be different from the way it is in your country. To be sure, the student body on a U. S. campus is a pretty diverse group of people. First of all, you will find students of all ages. Although most students start college at around the age of 18, you will see students in their 30s and 40s and even occasionally in their 60s and 70s. Students on a U.S. campus come from a wide variety of socioeconomic backgrounds. Many students work at least part-time, some of them work full-time. Many students live in dormitories on campus, some have their own apartments usually with other students, and others live at home. Some colleges and universities have a very diverse student population with many racial and ethnic minorities. Some schools have a fairly large foreign student population. So you can see that one meets all kinds of people on a U.S. college or university campus. Now that you have some general idea of differences in the student population, I’d like to talk a few minutes about what I think an average student is and then discuss with you what a typical class might be like.

Let’s begin my talking about an average student entering his or her freshman year. Of course, such a person never really exists, but still it’s convenient to talk about an ―average‖student for our

purposes. Foreign students are often surprised at how poorly prepared American students are when they enter a university. Actually, at very select schools the students are usually very well prepared, but at less selective schools, they may not be as well prepared as students in your country are. Schools in the States simply admit a lot more students than is usual in most other countries. Also, most young American university students have not traveled in other countries and are not very well-versed in international matters and do not know a lot about people from other countries. Foreign students usually find them friendly but not very well-informed about their countries or cultures.

What kind of academic experiences will this so-called ―average‖student have? The average undergraduate student takes five classes a semester and is in class for 15 hours a week. If her or she takes a class that has a laboratory, this will require tow or three more hours. Many introductory undergraduate classes are given in large lectures of 100 or more students. However, many of these classes will have small discussion groups of 15 to 20 students that meet once a week. In these smaller groups, a teaching assistant will lead a discussion to help classify points in the lectures. Other kinds of classes – for example, language classes – will be much smaller so that students can practice language. In general, American professors are informal and friendly with their students, and, as much as possible, they expect and invite participation in the form of discussion. A large amount of reading and other work is often assigned to be done outside class, and students are expected to take full responsibility for completing these assignments and asking questions in class about those areas they don’t understand. As a rule of thumb, students spend two to three hours preparing for each hour they spend in class. American professors often encourage their students to visit them during office hours, especially if the students are having problems in the class.

A2 II. Examinations / quizzes

III. Graduate school / Seminars / some area of interest / a research paper

Let’s move on now to discuss student obligations in a typical American class. These obligations are usually set down in the course syllabus. A syllabus is generally handed out to students on the first or second class meeting. A good syllabus will give students a course outline that mentions all the topics to be covered in class. It will also contain all the assignments and the dates they should be completed by. An average university course of one semester might have three examinations or two examinations and a paper. The dates of the examinations and what the examinations will cover should be on the syllabus. If a paper id required, the date it is due should also be in the syllabus. The professor may also decide that he or she will be giving quizzes during the semester, either announced or unannounced. For students coming from a system where there is one examination in each subject at the end of the year, all this testing can be a little surprising at first. By the by, maybe this would be a good place for me to mention the issue of attendance. Another real difference in our system is out attendance policies. Perhaps you come from a system where attendance is optional. Generally speaking, American professors expect regular attendance and may even grade you down if you are absent a lot. All this information should be on your syllabus, along with the professor’s office number and office hours.

I have only a couple of hours left, and I’d like to use them to talk about how graduate school is somewhat different from undergraduate school. Of course, it’s much more difficult to enter graduate school, and most students are highly qualified and high motivated. Students in graduate school are expected to do much more independent work than those in undergraduate schools, with

regularly scheduled exams, etc. some classes will be conducted as seminars. In a seminar class, there may be no exams, but students are expected to read rather widely on topics and be prepared for thorough discussion of them in class. Another possibility in graduate classes is that in addition to readings done by all students, each student may also be expected to work independently in some area of interest and later make a presentation that summarizes what her or she has learned. Usually each student then goes on to write a paper on what he or she has researched to turn in to the professor for a grade.

I hope that today’s lecture has given you some idea about student life on an American campus and that you have noticed some difference between our system and yours.

B2 to make mistakes / every new thing / the language/ Working outside the classroom

Passive / the teach / stick his neck out / more likely to be right than himself

How would you describe a good student or a bad student, sort of things they do or don’t do in the classroom?

He’s eager to experiment with every new thing that he learns, whether it be a structure of a function or a new word, he immediately starts trying to use it.

He’s interested in the mistakes he makes, he’s not afraid to make them.

He’s not simply interested in having it corrected and moving on?

He plays with language.

I’ve done this chapter I know this, without trying to experiment at all, without really testing himself.

He’s usually passive, he won’t speak up much in the classroom. He’ll rarely ask you why this …Just sort of accepts what you give him and doesn’t do anything more with it.

… and in a test he’s the one person who’s likely to suddenly realize that he wasn’t too sure about that after all.

And peep over at his neighbor’s paper.

An alternative learning strategy.

He invariably decides that the other person is more likely to be right than himself. That’s the result of this sort of unwillingness to make mistakes and stick his neck out.

That characterizes the good or bad learner?

He’ll do more off his own bat as well, he won’t rely entirely on the teacher.

He’ll work outside the classroom as well as in it.

Students who make most progress are first of all those who experiment and secondly those who read books.

Part IV University Campus A

2. the History Department

3. the Psychology Department

4. the Library

5. the Education Department

6. the Philosophy Department

7. the Geography Department

8. the Sports Ground

9. the Foreign Languages Department 10. the Chinese Department 11. the Physics Department 12. the Mathematics Department 13. the Chemistry Department 14. the Clinic 15. the Auditorium 16. the Administration Building

Look at the map. At the bottom of the page, fine the gate (1). Now locate 16. It is between the river and the lake, close to the Main Road. The building behind the Administration is 15. Where is 4? It’s on the right-hand side of the Main Road, close to the river. Across the Main road from the Library, the building by the river is 5. The first building on the left-hand side of the Main Road is 7. 6 is between the Education and the Geography. The building at the end of the Main Road is 12.

on its left is 11 and on its right, near the lake, is 13. Another building behind the like is 14. 10 is facing the lake, across the Main Road. The building between the Chinese Department and the river is 9. 2 is the first building on the right of the Main Road. Next to the History Department is 3. And last, 8 is behind the Education, Philosophy and Geography Departments.

B Robert Martin / biology / next fall / six years in a public school in the hometown; two years in a military school, high school in the hometown / science (biology in particular), sports

So I had to earn a little money to help pay my way.

It sounds as if you’re a pretty responsible fellow. I see that you attended two grade schools.

I don’t find a transcript among your papers.

But it’s hard to keep up with both sports and studies.

I’ll hold your application until we get the transcript.

What did your guidance counselor tell you?

He told me I had a real knack for scientific things. I have been fascinated with science since I was a child. An interest of that kind really signifies something.

Unit 2 Colorful lands, colorful people

16,998,000 / 64,186,300/ 840,000 / 1,000,000 / 3,320,000 / 143,244 / 32,483 / 2,966,000 / 5,105,700 / 29,028 / -1,312 / 5,315 / 36,198 / 4,145 /

The biggest continent in the world is Asia. It covers 16,998,000 square miles.

The Pacific Ocean is the largest ocean with 64,186,300 square miles.

Which is the biggest island? It’s Greenland. It occupies an area of 840,000 square miles.

The Arabia Peninsula is the largest peninsula and has an area of 1, 000,000 square miles.

Do you know which is the largest desert? Yes, it’s the Sahara Desert in North Africa. It covers 3,320,000 square miles.

The biggest saltwater lake is the Caspian Sea, which is 143,244 square miles large.

Lake Superior is the biggest fresh water lake and it covers a total area of 32,483 square miles. The smallest continent is Oceania, with an area of 2,966,000 square miles, and the smallest ocean is the Arctic Ocean with 5,105,700 square miles.

You all know the world’s highest peak, don’t you? Mt. Qomolangma (or Mt. Everest) is 29,028 feet above sea level. In contrast, the lowest altitude in the world is the Dead Sea, 1,312 feet below sea level, or you can say -1,312 feet.

The deepest lake is Baykal in Russia. The depth is 5,315 feet.

Mariana Trench near the Philippines is the deepest oceanic trench, with a depth of 36, 198 feet. The longest river in the world is the Nile in Africa. It is 4, 145 miles long.


1,243,738,000 / 955,220,000 / 267,901,000 / 199,867,000 / 159,884,000 / 147,105,000 / 138,150,000 / 125,638,000 / 122,013,000 / 118,369,000 / 96,400,000 / 82,071,000

1.The country with the largest population in the world is China. According to the 1997 census,

the total population was 1,243,738,000.

2.The second largest in population is India. It listed a population of 955,220,000 in 1997.

3.And the third largest is the United States, with its estimated population of 267,901,000 in


4.Which country is the fourth largest in population? It’s Indonesia. About 199,867,000 people

live there.

5.Brazil ranks the fifth in its population. There the population was 159,884,000.

6.Next comes the Russian Federation, with a population of 147,105,000.

7.The seventh in line is Pakistan, with an estimated population of 138,150,000.

8.Japan is the country with the eighth largest population. Its population estimated in 1997

reached 125,638,000.

9.The next larges country in population is Bangladesh. The estimated population was

122,013,000 in 1997.

10.Nigeria in Africa ranks the tenth in its population. There are about 118,369,000 people living


11.The eleventh? Mexico. According to statistics, its population was 96, 400, 000 in 1997.

12.And last, the twelfth larges is Germany. Its 1997 census showed it had a population of



Chinese 1,300 million / Spanish 332 million /English 322 million / 189 million / 182 million / 170 million / Russian 170 million / Japanese 125 million / German 98 million / 75.5 million / Korean 75 million / French 72 million / Vietnamese 67 million / 66 million / 64 million / 63 million / Turkish 59 million / 58 million / 44 million / Polish 44 million / Arabic 42.5 million / 41 million

Do you know which languages are spoken by more than 40 million people?

Chinese has the largest number of speakers, more than 1,300 million. Next, Spanish is spoken by 332 million people. The next on the line is English, which has more than 322 million speakers. Number 4, Bengali is spoken by 189 million people. Next comes Hindi, the language spoken chiefly in India, which has 182 million speakers. Portuguese and Russian are next on the line and they are both spoken by 170 million people. Number 8, Japanese is spoken by 125 million. Next, German has 98 million speakers, while Javanese has 75.5 million. We have Korean on the list with 75 million, and it is followed by French, which is spoken by 72 million. Number 13, Vietnamese is spoken by 67 million and Telugu is spoken by 66 million. Next, we have Marathi on the list and it has 64 million speakers. Marathi is followed by Tamil, with 63 million speakers. Next comes Turkish, the language spoken in Turkey, and it has 59 million speakers. Number 18, Urdu is spoken by 58 million people. Gujarati has 44 million speakers, and Polish is also spoken by 44 million people. Number 21, which 42.5 million people speak, is Arabic and last, the number of people who speak Ukrainian is 41 million.

Part II

1. A baby boy ecological/ populations

3.longer/ healthier

A baby boy born in Bosnia-Herzegovina overnight has officially been named the world’s six billionth inhabitant.

Although several other babies are likely to have been born at the same time elsewhere in the world, the United Nations had declared that the first child to be delivered at the Kosovo Hospital in Sarajevo today would symbolize the passing of the mark.

The U Secretary General is visiting the mother and her son as a UN attempt to draw attention to the social and ecological problems of rapidly expanding populations

The boy who came into the world a short time ago in Bosnia to such international acclaim will be sharing a birthday with a few hundred thousand people and in the next year another eighty million will be joining him on the planet. The earth’s population has doubled since 1960 and with more than a billion young people just entering their productive years. The population growth has plenty of momentum. But birth control programs are beginning to have an impact. Demographers predict that by the middle of the new century the global count will level off at something under ten billion. The UN population agency has presented today’s achievement as a success for humanity, pointing out that people are living longer and healthier lives than any generation in the history.

B b c a

The boy will be sharing a birthday with a few hundred thousand people and in the next year, another eighty million will be joining him on the planet.

The earth’s population has doubled since 1960 and with more than a billion young people just entering their productive years.

Demographers predict that by the middle of the new century, the global count will level off at something under ten billion.

Part III A

water/ 70% red or brown/ plant cover snow/ continents islands arms of the ocean connecting a channel valleys plains

B 12 million / 2/ 10 million/ 10/ 3/ 6/ 4/16 million/ 18 million

1. Mexico City

2. Sao Paulo

3. Rio de Janeiro

4. Bombay

5. Delhi

6. Shanghia

7. Seoul

I-Interview E-Expert

I: In Britain we are often told that people are leaving the big cities to live in the countryside but is this the case worldwide?

E: Not at all. If you look at the biggest cities in 1950, seven out of the top ten were in the developed countries but by the year 2000, the developing countries will have eight out of the top ten. New York, which in 1950 was number one with a population of around 12 million, will only be the sixth largest city in the world but with an extra 2 million.

I: And London?

E: London, which was number two, won’t even be in the top ten. Its population in 1950, by the way, was about 10 million.

I: And why is this happening? Why are people moving to the big cities from the country in the developing countries?

E: The reasons are complex but many are moving to look for work. And the problems this creates are enormous. It’s estimated that 26 million people will be living in Mexico City by the year 2000, with Sao Paulo in Brazil not far behind.

I: I t’s difficult to believe.

E: I know. Rio de Janeiro will have a population of a mere 13 million. Well, just imagine the kinds of difficulties this is going to cause in terms of health, transport and education.

I: Yes. What about the cities of Asia? Will they be experiencing a similar sort of growth?

E: In some cases, yes. Calcutta in India which was No. 10 in the league in 1950 is expected to be the fourth biggest city in the world with a population of 16 million- quadrupling its size in just 50 years. Bombay and Delhi too are expected to be in the top ten.

I: What about Japan?

E: Ah! Well, Tokyo was number three in 1950 and that’s where it’ll be at the beginning of the next century, although its population will have trebled to about 18 million. Looking at the other major cities in Asia, Shanghai and Seoul will be in the top ten as well but, perhaps surprisingly, not Beijing or Hong Kong.

I: Now, if we could turn our attention to home, what about the trend of people moving out of the cities…

Part IV skills /the main idea/what/recognize/central / important/direction/ purpose/inform/compare/answer/stated/a topic sentence/ first/ details/ difficult/ persuade/ end/ implied/ hinted at/a whole

Unit 3 Traveling from Place to Place PartⅠA

BA912/11:20/17 BA877/11:20/14 BA292/11:25/19 TW695/11:30/16 4 EA831/11:35/24 BA838/9 IB290/11:35/15 LH039/11:40/9 BA666/11:40/18 AI141/6 BA560/22 Last call for British airways flight BA912 for Tokyo. BA912 for Tokyo due to depart at 11:20 boarding at gate 17.

British airways flight BA877 to Boston. British airways flight BA877 to Boston duo to depart at 11:20 boarding now at gate 14.

British airways flight BA292 for Frankfurt, Athens and Karachi. Flight BA292 for Frankfurt, Athens and Karachi duo to depart at 11:25 now board at gate 19.

TWA flight, TW695to New York. TWA flight TW695 to New York departing at 11:30 boarding at gate 16.

B Tea, soft drinks, coffee, Egg and tomato, ham and tomato, egg and chips, roast chicken, cheeseburgers

Tape script:

Chief Steward: may I have your attention please, ladies and gentlemen? This is the chief steward speaking. We would like to inform all passengers that the buffet car is now open. The buffet car is situated towards the middle of the train. On sale are tea, coffee and soft drinks, a selection of fresh and toasted sandwiches including egg and tomato, ham and tomato, egg and cress, roast chicken and toasted cheese; cheeseburgers, beef burgers and sausages and a licensed bar. The buffet car is situated towards the middle of the train. Thank you.


9:15/10:30 10:30/13:30

Quick/beautiful view /frequent service (hourly)/modern/comfortable/lovely view from dining car Have to get Gatwick airport/ expensive quite crowded/quite expensive

A-Annabel C-Charles D-Douglas

D: Ah! That’s much better!

C: Ah! That’s yours, I think…er…Doug.

D: Thank you very much, Charles.

C: Right. You have a good journey then, Douglas?

D: Yes I did, I did. I must say the plane was marvelous, marvelous.

C: Very quick, then?

D: Er…the plane journey was terrifically quick…er…I mean, you…er…what…you met me about 9…er…what…er…10…10:45.

C: About 10:30.

D: Yes, the plane got in at…er…10:30 and we left at 9:15.

C: What time didi you have to start though in the morning?

D: Well, that…er…that wa a different story, because I had to get to Victoria…um…at…you know, to get to Gatwick and it’s…er…from…er…Victoria to Gatwick three quarters of an hour. Then

I had to leave home at 7:30 and get up at 6:30.

C: Oh, gracious me!

D: So I’m not sure if you save much really.

C: Jet travel, my goodness me! It was worth the experience, though?

D: Oh, I mean, you know, I’ve never flown across the south of England and it really looked absolutely fantastic, especially as we approach…approached Plymouth, you know, with this sunshine and it looked really marvelous…marvelous.

C: Well, when you come up next time, would you be coming the same way?

D: Oh, t don’t think so. I don’t…to be honest…hallo, isn’t that…Annabel!

C: Oh it is. It’s Annabel!

D: Over here, over here!

A: Hallo!

C: Nice to see you, my dear.

A: Hallo there, how are you?

C: Want a drink, my dear?

A: Yes, please.

C: Right, I’…fix them. You had a good journey?

A: Yes, I had a lovely time, I came by train…er…it was…er…

C: What time did you start then?

A: Oh, about 10:30 I think. Got here about 1:30. so it’s only…what …three hours. Very quick. C: Very good. Douglas came up by plane!

A: Oh, how fancy! Well, this was …er…this was a nice train, you know, very modern and comfortable. And of course loads of trans-about every hour I think.

C: Oh, great. Did you get something to eat on the train?

A: Yes thanks, yes. Had a nice lunch. Oh, it’s wonderful, you can sit there drinking your soup and watching the view go by. I like it…

D: I bet it’s a …it’s a hell of a lot of cheaper than the plane.

A: Well, actually, I thought it was quite expensive…um…unless you’ve got, you know, a student card or something.

D: Oh, those days are long gone!

A: But it was quite…quite…crowded. I was…I was glad I’d booked a seat, you know.

D: Yes, yes

PartⅢ A


2double and 1single/1double and 1 big bedroom with 2single beds and a sofa 3/1full bathroom 3 (kitchen, dining room, sitting-room)/2kitchen, living-sitting room √/×

√(six days a week)/×£80 for a fiesta/ £98 for a fiesta √/√£570/£270

B b. terrace/ sea view d. swimming-pool

Conversation 1

T- Travel agent C1-customer 1 (Telephone ringing)

T: Hello, villa rentals, can t help you?

C1: Oh, hello. I do hope so. You see my husband and I are looking for a holiday villa and we’ve heard that you have some nice places in Italy, Iniscia.

T: Oh yes, madam. We’ve got several villas on offer in Iniscia. How many people would there be in your party?

C1: Well, it’s just the family. You know, my husband and …the three children.

T: A party of five then, yes. And er…when would you want to be there?

C1: When? Erm… oh well, it would have to be in September.

T: In September. Uh-huh.and for how many weeks?

C1: For two actually, the first two in September.

T: The first two in September. Oh, well, we’ve only got one place free then, madam. Oh, but it’s

a very beautiful one, the villa Delmonti. C1: And it’s nice, is it?

T: Oh, it’s an absolute dream, madam. It’s set on a hilltop with a big garden and beautiful view out over the sea towards Naples. C1: It sounds as if you’ve been there.

T: Yes, for a couple of days last October on an inspection tour. And I fell in love with it at first sight. C1: Er, how many rooms has it got?

T: Well, on the ground floor there are two double bedrooms, both of them beautifully decorated,

a single bedroom and all three have their own bathroom and toilet facilities. Then still on the

ground floor there’s a large kitchen, a large dining room and a very big outside terrace. And then upstairs it’s got a very large sitting-room with windows all around and a back garden with a big swimming pool.

C1: Mm, it dose sound nice, yes. There is a maid or cleaner or something, is there?

T: Oh, yes, madam, six days a week.

C1: Oh, well, I dare say we can manage for the seventh. Em… what about distances? Is it far from the town and all that? Do you think we’d need a car?

T: Actually we do normally advise people to hire a car.

C1: And how much would a smallish car cost?

T: Oh well for a …

C1: You know, for a metro or a Renault five or a ford fiesta, nothing grand.

T: Ah, for a fiesta, it would be about £80 a week.

C1: And for the house for those two weeks?

T: For the period of September 4th till the 17th inclusive, it would cost, mm, you’re five people, let me see, um, £570 per person for the two weeks, including the return airfare.

C1: Mm, well, it would be worse. Yes well, I’d really like to see some photographs of this place or something. Can you arrange that?

T: Oh, of course, madam. We’ve got a video of it, so any time you care to come in, you could see it.

C1: Oh, right. I’ll be in this afternoon. Thank you for your help.

T: Don’t mention it, Madam. I’ll look forward to seeing you.

C1: Good-bye. T: Bye.

Conversation 2

T- Travel agent C2-customer 2

(Telephone ringing)

T: Hello, villa rentals. Can I help you?

C2: Oh, hello. Em…I…I…I’m just calling because I’ve, er…I’ve just seen your advert about apartments and villas for rent. And erm…what …could you tell me more about them please?

T: Of course, madam. But could you tell me something about what you’re looking for?

And…where’d you like to go? How many bedrooms you would need and so on ?

C2: Ah, yes, well, erm. There’ll be the five of us. I mean, er, my husband and I and the two kids and my mother because she lost dad last year and it’s her first year without.

T: Fine, I see. And would you want a house or an apartment?

C2: Well, we’d like a house of course, if we can afford one, but I…

T: And whereabouts? Did you have any particular place in mind?

C2: Well, we wanted the Mediterranean, like Spain. Actually we thought of Minorca.

T: Well, we’ve got some lovely places in Minorca, madam. C2: Oh!

T: For five you said? C2: Uh-huh.

T: And when would you want to be there?

C2: Well, it would have to be in august because we are both off work then and it’s the school holidays, too. T: Well, how about this?

C2: Uh-huh? T: Minorca, adia. Oh, that’s a beautiful place. C2: Oh.

T: A little fishing village. A house for five for two weeks in august from august 5th to august 18th inclusive (uh-huh) per person, £270 including return flight from Gatwick.

C2: Oh! Well, that’s not bad. Ho…how many rooms has it got?

T: One double bedroom, then a big bedroom with two single beds and a sofa, you know, a convertible divan downstairs, full bathroom, kitchen and a large living-sitting room, and a beautiful terrace with a sea view.

C2: Oh! Have you got any photographs of it?

T: Yes! Actually we’ve got a video of it. So if you’d like to come into the agency…

C2: Yes, I would. In fact I’ll drop in this afternoon. Mm, when are you open until?

T: We close at eight tonight, madam.

C2: Right. I’ll be in about six, I expect. Oh, um, just one more thing. To hire a car on the island, how much would it cost, you know, for…for a smallish one?

T: Well, for a fiesta. It would cost you£98 a week.

C2: Phew! Well, it’s probably worth it if you’re five. Well, I’ll…I’ll be in this afternoon then. Er, see you then. Er, bye-bye. Oh, and er, thanks.

T: Not at all, madam. Bye.

Unit 4 Approaching Culture

Part I Section A

1. Argentina

Woman: This is interesting. Did you know that in Argentina you should never give clothing unless you know the person really well?

Man: Don't give clothing? Why not?

Woman: Clothing ---- even things like ties ----- are too personal. Only good friends give them. Man: Huh? I never thought of a tie as being personal ... Just uncomfortable. What should you bring?

Woman: I don't know. Maybe something for the house.

2. Switzerland

Man: We're meeting Mr Mertz and his wife for dinner. Maybe I should bring flowers or something. ... Yeah, I'll pick up some red roses.

Woman: You don't want to bring roses. In Switzerland, they could be a symbol of love and romance.

Man: Oh, I didn't know that.

Woman: I think candy or chocolate might be better.

3. Italy

Woman: I'd like some flowers. Uh ... Those. About ten, I guess.

Man: Ma'am, I don't think you should give ten flowers. In Italy, even numbers ---- 2, 4, 6, and so on ---- are bad luck.

4. Japan

Woman: May I help you?

Man: I'm going to stay with a family in Japan. I need to get something for them.

Woman: Pen sets are always a good gift.

Man: Oh, that's a good idea. Let's see ... There are sets with a pen and pencil ... And bigger sets with four pens.

Woman: Don't give a set of four pens ---- in fact, don't give four of anything. It's bad luck. The Japanese word for "four" sounds like the word for "death".

Man: Thanks for telling me. I'll take the pen and pencil set.

Woman: Good choice. These sets make very good gifts. After all, pens write in any language. Man: Uh ... Yeah. Right.

Part I Section B

1. A bow Around the world, there are many different ways to greet people. Bowing is the traditional way of greeting in Northeast Asian countries like Korea and Japan. This picture, for example, shows how Japanese women bow. In Japan, when you bow, you don't look directly at the other person's eyes. But in Korea, it's important to see the other person's face when you bow. In both countries, people bow to show respect.

2. A hug When good friends meet in Russia, they often hug each other. This is true for both women and men. Russia isn't the only place where friends hug. In Brazil, for example, friends also hug each other in greeting. In Brazil, the hug is called an abraco.

3. A strong, short handshake You know how to shake hands. This is common in many countries. But it isn't always done the same way. In the United States and Canada, for example, people usually give a strong, short handshake. It's short but rather firm.

4. A softer, longer handshake In many other countries, people also shake hands. But they do it differently from in the U.S. and Canada. In Mexico and in Egypt, for example, many people ---- especially men ---- shake hands. Mexican and Egyptian handshakes usually last a little longer. The handshake is softer ---- not as strong.

Part I Section C

The word "holiday" comes from the words "holy" and "day". Originally holidays were holy or religious days. Nowadays holidays include national, seasonal and historical days of celebration. Here are some traditional holidays in some countries.

●February 14 is Valentine's Day. It is observed in some European and North American

countries. People send cars or gifts expressing love and affection sometimes anonymously to their sweethearts or friends.

● Feast of Dolls in Japan falls on March 2. It is observed there in honor of girls.

● Feast of Banners in Japan is on May 5. It is observed in honor of boys.

●May 5 is Dragon Boat Festival in China and is held according to the Chinese Lunar Calendar. People eat rice cakes and hold dragon boat races to commemorate the ancient scholar ---- statesman Qu Yuan.

●August 15 is Mid-Autumn Festival in China. It is held according to the Chinese Lunar Calendar. People eat moon cakes while looking at the bright full moon.

● April Fools’ Day is on April 1. In some European countries and in North America, people play practical jokes or tricks on each other and those unsuspecting victims are called April fools.

● July 14 is Bastille Day. It is an annual holiday in France to commemorate the fall of the Bastille.

● December 26 is Boxing Day in Britain, Canada, and the U. S. It is observed as a holiday from the custom of giving Christmas boxes to the tradesmen and staff on this day.

●May Day, known as International Labor Day, is a public holiday in many European countries, the Canal Zone, Philippine islands, and the Latin American countries. It falls on May 1, and is celebrated especially by the working people.

● November 25 is Saint Catherine's Day. The French celebrate this playful holiday in honor of Saint Catherine, the patroness of spinsters, or unmarried women. The day is observed mainly by the Parisian sewing girls who are over 25 and unmarried. It is a day for fun, parades, dances, and receptions.

● March 17 is Saint Patrick's Day. This is Ireland's greatest national holiday. The date marks the anniversary of the death of the missionary who became the patron saint of Ireland. Green is the color of the day.

● Mother's Day is a movable holiday. It falls on the 2nd Sunday in May. Mother's Day was founded by missing Anna M. Jarvis of Philadelphia. It is now observed in countries all around the world, including England, France, Sweden, Denmark, India, china, and Mexico.

Part II Section A A1 1. changed/ few / bored / rainy 2. museum directors / what they are seeing 3. Provide fun / feel at home

A2 electricity / pass / body 17th century instruments / music

put on costumes / Stockholm Opera bone-by-bone reproduction / stegosaurus

A3 I. new audiences / the young / the less educated members

II. rebuilt / modern / lighting, color and sound / fewer objects

III. guided / touch, listen, operate, and experiment /scientific principles IV. film / dance Museums have changed. They are no longer places for the privileged few or for bored vacationers to visit on rainy days.

At a science museum in Ontario, Canada, you can feel your hair stand on end as harmless electricity passes through your body. At the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City, you can look at 17th century instruments while listening to their music. At the Modern Museum in Sweden, you can put on costumes provided by the Stockholm Opera. At New York's American Museum of natural History recently, you can have helped make a bone-by-bone reproduction of the museum's stegosaurus, a beast that lived 200 million years ago.

As these examples show, museums are reaching out to new audiences, particularly the young,

the poor, and the less educated members of the population. As a result, attendance is interesting.

Many museums have changed in appearance. Some of the old, gray museums have been rebuilt, and the newer ones are open and modern in their architecture. Inside, there is modern lighting, color, and sound. Instead of displaying everything they own, museum directors show fewer objects and leave open spaces where visitor can gather and sit down. They also bring together in one display a group of objects drawn from various parts of the museum in an effort to represent the whole lifestyle of region or a historical period. In one room, for instance, you may find materials, clothing, tools, cooking pots, furniture, and art works of a particular place and time.

More and more museum directors are realizing that people learn best when they can somehow become part of what they are seeing. In many science museums, for example, there are no guided tours. The visitor is encouraged to touch, listen, operate, and experiment so as to discover scientific principles for himself. He can have the experience of operating a spaceship or a computer. He can experiment with glass blowing and papermaking. The purpose is not only to provide fun but also to help people feel at home in the world of science. The theory is that people who do not understand science will probably fear it, and those who fear science will not use it to the best advantage.

Many museums now provide educational services and children's department. In addition to the usual displays, they also offer film showings and dance programs. Instead of being places that one "should" visit, they are places to enjoy.

Part II Section B

● Well, i had quite an amusing time in Greece on one holiday because i confused the words for "Good morning", which is "Kalimera", and "squid", which is "Kalamari". So for several days I was going around smiling broadly at people, saying "squid" to them, and I couldn't understand why they looked at me as if I was totally crazy until someone pointed it out.

● I was in France on holiday, staying in a friend's cottage and one day we decided to go for a trip on the river. So we went along to a place on the river where you could hire canoes. And a friend, who prided himself on being rather good at speaking French, went in to hire the canoes; we decided we needed three, so he asked for "trois canneurs" which he thought was the French for "three canoes". We got our canoes; we spent the afternoon on the river; we came back. And Stephen went in to return the canoes and collect the deposit he's paid on them. And as he walked in the door, they said " Ah, hello Mr Troiscanneurs ... "

Part II Section C C1 vendors / fortune / eating / street performers / portrait painting

C2 1. a. special powders / attract men b. objects for snake bites

2. shells / on a cloth / the way they land

3. round cakes / bean flour / hot spices / fried

4. a. folk singers / guitars b. classical musicians c. actors

5. practice drawing and painting

F -- friend C -- Cathy

F: Hi, Cathy! Welcome back. How was your trip to Brazil?

C: Oh, I loved every minute of it! Brazil is so different from any place I've ever been to, and there's so much to see there.

F: Yeah? Well, how's it different?

C: Well, you can find all sorts of street vendors in the cities. I went to some street markets where they sold really unusual things, like special powders that attract men ... Or objects to cure snake bites. F: Wow!

C: And in one city I went to, I got my fortune told on the street. F: Oh, yeah?

C: Yeah! The fortune-tellers use shells to tell your fortune. They throw the shells on a cloth, and the way they land tells about your future. F: Huh! I've never heard of that before.

C: Mmm, but my favorite street activity was eating! In Bahia, you can buy these round cakes made of bean flour and filled with hot spices. They're fried ad they're delicious. They're a specialty there.

F: Well, that sounds great. You know, I remember that when I went to France two years ago, I saw some pretty unusual things on the city streets, too. C: Really? Like what?

F: Well, in Paris, you could watch all kinds of street performers. There were folk singers with guitars, classical musicians ... Sometimes you could even see actors performing in plays.

C: That sounds like a lot of fun.

F: Oh, it is. You really see all sorts of things on the streets of Paris. In fact, you can even have your portrait painted right on the street. Yeah, the art students do them to practice drawing and painting. C: Did you have your portrait done there? F: Yeah, I did. In fact, i had it done twice. Part III Section A

A2 1. much busier / Monday / Saturday 2. humid and hot 4. much colder / -30°C

5. much flatter / beautiful

6. mountainous

7. higher / rocky

8. more crowded

9. smaller 10. taller

J -- John E -- Etsuko

J: I found that living in Japan, people were busier. They seem to work the whole day.

E: Yes, that's right. We work from Monday through Saturday, even in summer. You know, summer in Japan is just horrible. It's very, very humid and hot, and you need to take showers three times a day.

J: So you find it cooler in England? E: Yes, that's right.

J: Where I was living in Japan, in the north, it was cooler than England, especially in winter ---- minus thirty degrees centigrade. Does the winter in Osaka last longer than the winter in England? E: No, I don't think so. December, January, February, March ...

J: Yes. It's a little bit shorter if anything.

E: Ever since I came here, I noticed that the countryside here in England is really beautiful.

J: It's much flatter than in Japan.

E: Yes, Japan is a mountainous country and our cities are full of people. There are lots of people in a limited flat area.

J: Yes, I found Japan much more mountainous than Britain, especially in the north. The mountains are much higher and much more rocky. I fount it more beautiful than Britain, I think.

E: Yes, if you like mountains.

J: And so therefore the towns and villages tend to be more crowded. E: Yes, that's right. J: Yes. So because the cities are more crowded, the houses tend to be smaller, don't they?

E: Yes, they are very compact, and we don't have a lot of space. In bit cities you have a lot of taller buildings now.

J: Is this a problem because there are more earthquakes in Japan? E: Yes, that's right, and ... er ... Part III Section B

1 France / Latin American

2 Kenya / Tunisia / Greece

3 Lebanon / Tonga

4 Italy / Europe and Latin America

5 Mexico, Costa Rica, and Japan / Bolivia, Honduras and Lebanon

6 Barbados / Bangladesh

7 Greece, Iran and Italy

Did you know that ... you can give the "V for Victory" sign in the U.S., but the same gesture elsewhere would be obscene?

● passing objects or gesturing with your left hand is an offense in many countries?

● you are expected to smack and suck loudly at dinner in some culture>

● you'd not talk with your hand in your pockets?

● pointing with your index finger is impolite in most cultures?

These and many other small but important facts are contained in the nonverbal world of gestures. Let's start with gestures of approval and disapproval.

Gestures of approval

The OK sign (an "O" or circle formed by the fingers of one hand) means strong approval or goodness in North American culture. However, as mentioned earlier it is obscene or rude in many parts of Latin America, Europe, Asia, and elsewhere. To the French, the OK gesture means "zero" or "worthless", not "fine" or "OK".

Many cultures, including France and a number of Latin American countries, show approval by the thumb-up gesture. But in Bangladesh, the same sign means rejection, not approval! Two thumbs are better than one in Kenya, where this double sign means approval. The thumb and all fingertips pulled together ("the hand purse"), while waving toward the body, means "good" in Tunisia. Unfortunately, the same sign can also mean "Wait!"

In many parts of the world, people often use hand clapping to show thanks or positive feelings. Greeks indicate approval or "yes" by tilting their heads to either side. Downward nodding can mean approval in Lebanon and Iran. In Tonga, raising the eyebrows indicates agreement or liking.

An Italian gesture of praise or happiness is he "", in which the person pokes his or her index finger into the cheek and twists it. Kissing one's own fingertips is a sign of happiness, joy, and utter approval of something or someone especially in Europe and Latin America.

Gesture of Disapproval

Gestures of disapproval, dislike, or "no" are just as varied. Mexico and Costa Rica use the gesture of shaking the whole hand from side to side with the index finger extended and the palm outward. A similar gesture is used all the way in Japan.

In Bolivia and Hunduras, people wave the index finger as a negative sign. In labanon, negativity can also be expressed by shaking the index finger from side to side.

Folks in Barbados express disgust by puckering their lips and making a sound (chupse). In Bangladesh, the thumbs-up sign is used to show disapproval or rejection, not approval. In Greece, Iran, and Italy, a slight upward not (the head toss) shows "no".

In many countries around the globe, a common sigh for saying "Go away" is brushing the fingers or the hand toward the irritating person or thing. No wonder it is called the "brush-off". Part IV

China is the biggest market in the world, and many countries such as Germany, the USA, the UK and Russia do a lot of business there. Let's have a look at some important tips to help you be successful with these nationalities.

Firstly, you must be punctual with Germans. Even 5 minutes late makes a bad impression. Being punctual is also very important in the USA. In the UK, it's important to be punctual for business meetings, but nobody expects you to be on time for a social event. Half past seven really

means quarter to eight, or even eight o'clock! With Russians, always be on time, but don't be surprised if your Russian contact is very late! It is not unusual for them to be one or even two hours late!

In all four countries, it is best to dress formally and use dark colors. In Russia, designer clothes are very common. Don't be surprised if you go to an office in the UK on a Friday and find everyone wearing jeans. Many companies have "dress down Friday", when people wear casual clothes.

In Germany, first names are only used with family members and close friends, so be prepared to use titles and last names. In the USA you will usually be invited to use first names almost immediately. The British are quite informal and using first names in business is more and more common, especially among younger people. In Russia, however, nobody uses first names, so use titles and last names.

In conversation, the British and the Americans value humor, and both like to talk about sport. The weather is also a good topic of conversation with the British. The Germans, however, prefer to get strait down to business!

Finally, when doing business in all countries make sure you have a lot of business cards. Remember that in Germany, once a deal has been agreed, you can’t change it! In the USA, money is more important than relationships, whereas in Russia it’s important to get to know your contact well. Finally, don’t be surprised if a British meeting seems like chaos, with everybody participating and giving opinions!

So, use these tips, and you will be on your way to s successful international business career!

Unit 12

Item one

Different people have different ways of learning. We call this your ―learning style‖, and it’s based on your senses. To learn, you need to use your different senses – hearing, seeing, touching, etc., to bring information to your brain. Now, most people use one of their senses more than the others.

Some people learn best by listening. They are called hearing learners. And others learn best by reading or looking at pictures. They are called visual learners. And some learn best by touching and doing things. They are called tactile learners. Now scientists don’t know why people use one sense more than the others. Maybe the sense they use most just works best for them.

Item two

Today, we tell about one of the most famous national parks in the United States. It is one of the most beautiful places in the country. Yosemite National Park is a place of extremes. It has high mountains. It has valleys formed by ancient ice that cut deep into the earth millions of years ago. Water from high in the mountains falls in many places to the green valley far below. There are thirteen beautiful waterfalls in Yosemite Valley. One of these waterfalls, Yosemite Falls, is the fifth highest on Earth. Yosemite has a beautiful slow-moving river and large grassy areas where you can see wild animals.

Item three

America’s national road system makes it possible to drive coast to coast. From the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west is a distance of more than 4,000 kilometers. Or you could drive more than two thousand kilometers and go from the Canadian border south to the Mexican border. The highway system has made it possible for people to work in a city and live outside it. And it has made it possible for people to travel easily and quickly from one part of the country to another.

Item four

The way you look at someone conveys important cultural messages. Without your even knowing it, your gaze speaks volumes. ―T he eyes are the window of the soul,‖ according to the old sayings. Staring is acceptable in some cultures but not in others. A wink can mean a compliment or an insult, depending on the cultures. A direct gaze can be a sign of honesty or an indication of disrespect and rudeness, according to the culture that surrounds the gazer. The way a person gazes thus expresses a strong message-but this message can be easily misunderstood if cultural norms are not shared.

Item five

This time of the year Americans spend lots of time shopping for holiday gifts for their family members and friends. Many people visit a lot of stores in large shopping centers to buy their gifts. Others order goods by telephone from catalogues, the magazines that offer company’s products. And many are doing their holiday shopping on the Internet. Industry experts say American business should have about 184,000 million dollars in sales during November and December. 63%