语言学

Language is suah an integral part of our life and humanity that too much about it has been taken for granted

1,children learn their native language swiftly, efficiently and without instruction.

2,language operates by rules

3,all languages have three major components: a sound system, a system of lexicogrammar and a system of semantics.

4,everyone speaks a dialect

5,language slowly changes

6,speakers of all language employ a range of styles and a set of jargons

7,languages are intimately related to the societies and individuals who use them 8,writing is ative of speech

What is language

1(a)a human speech;

(b)the ability to communicate by this means;

(c) a system of vocal sounds and combinations of such sounds to which meaning is attributed, used for the ecpression or communicationof thoughts and feelings (d)the written representation of such a system.

2(a)any means of expressing or communicating, as gesture, signs, or animal sounds (b)a special set of symbols, letters, numerals, rules etc. used for the transmission of information, as in a computer

Language is a systematic arbitrary symbols using for communication

Design features of language语言特征

1 arbitrariness(随意性)

a,arbitrary relationship between the sound of a morpheme and its meaning

b,arbitrariness at the syntactic level(句法层面)

c,arbitrariness and convention(惯例)

arbitrariness means there is no natural relationship between the form and the meaning of language

2 Duality双重性

“B y duality” is meant the property of having two levels of structures, such that units of the primary level(sound) are composed of element of the secondary level(meaning) and each of has its own principles of organization

3 Creativity

4 Displacement(取代性)

Displacement means that human languages enable their users to symbolize objects, events and concepts which are not present

Origin of language

1 from the god

2 do some labour

3 from the native

Functions of language

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