考试科目：大学英语IV 试卷类型： A（闭卷）
Part I. Listening Comprehension (30 points)
Section A (10points, 1 point for each)
Directions: In this section, you will hear 5 short conversations and 1 long conversation. At the end of the conversation one or more questions will be asked about what was said. Both the conversation and the questions will be spoken only once. After each question there will be a pause, you must read the four choices marked A), B), C), and D), and choose the best answer. Then mark the corresponding letter on ANSWER SHEET 1. 注意：此部分答案填在答题卡1上
1. A. The woman doesn’t understand the meaning of Chaplin’s films.
B. The man appreciates Charlie Chaplin’s films.
C. Movie stars of Chaplin’s time compared themselves to Chaplin.
D. Charlie Chaplin was original in that he surprised people.
2. A. Mother and son.
B. Father and daughter.
C. Husband and wife.
D. Brother and sister.
3. A. Cultures and places far away.
B. The woman’s first year of studies.
C. Things the woman is doing now.
D. The foreign roommates of the woman.
4. A. The effect of the Internet
B. Remote cities of Asia
C. Changes to the world
D. Travel plan to Asia
5. A. The woman should lose her job.
B. The woman won’t get cut by manageme nt.
C. The woman can easily find something new.
D. The woman shouldn’t be depressed.
Question 6-10 are based on the conversation you have just heard.
6. A. The value of friends. B. Important friends.
C. The woman’s friends.
D. The man’s family.
7. A. Friends are really very important.
B. He is important in his family.
C. Friends aren’t very necessary.
D. Questions about friends are strange.
8. A. The woman loves her friends.
B. The woman doesn’t ha ve a big family.
C. The man doesn’t have any friends.
D. The man and woman have been friends for life.
9. A. One can lose his temper with a friend.
B. Friends are for life.
C. One can argue with a friend.
D. Friends think the same thing.
10. A. In a club.
B. In an office.
C. In a library.
D. In a classroom.
Section B Understanding Passages (10 points, 1 point for each)
Directions: In this section, you will hear 2 passages. At the end of each passage, you will hear some questions. Both the passage and the questions will be spoken only once. After you hear a question, you must choose the best answer from the four choices marked A), B), C), and D). Then mark the corresponding letter on ANSWER SHEET1. 注意：此部分答案填在答题卡1上
Question 11-15 are based on the passage you have just heard.
11. A. Goals can help you realize what you want in life.
B. Goals can let life happen to you.
C. Goals aren’t difficult to set
D. Goals aren’t difficult to reach.
12. A. Successful people have goals in life and make plans to carry them out.
B. Successful people set goals that are difficult to achieve.
C. Unsuccessful people make unreasonable demands of themselves.
D. Unsuccessful people set goals and try to get other people to help them.
13.A.Trying to be realistic about one’s capabilities.
B. Having a clear understanding of what one wants in life.
C. Analyzing problems that may be involved.
D. Dreaming of a very beautiful future.
14. A. They should sign an agreement with other people involved.
B. They should be aware of the difficulties they are faced with.
C. They should write down their goals.
D. They should discuss with other people about their goals.
15. A. Goals enable people to achieve everything they desire in life.
B. Winners of any competition should never be satisfied with themselves.
C. Goals must be realistic and feasible.
D. Success is possible only when a person has clearly set his or her goal.
Question 16-20 are based on the passage you have just heard.
16. A. Change may cause depression to most people.
B. Change may cause excitement to most people.
C. People try harder to get rid of something they are familiar with.
D. It takes courage and determination to adapt to changes.
17. A. Technology has nothing to do with the economy.
B. Technology promotes the development of the new economy.
C. Technology is the result of the new economy
D. Technology prevents changes in the new economy.
18. A. Net income.
B. The changes taking place throughout the economy.
C. Final results.
D. Basic fact.
19. A. Communication skills.
B. Ability to work within a team.
C. Language skills.
D. Leadership abilities.
20. A. Necessity of adjusting oneself to the changing economy.
B. Rapid changes brought about by technology.
C. Impact of technology on our life.
D. Relationship between technology and change.
Section C (10 points, 0.5 point for each missing word, 2 points for each missing information)
Directions: In this section, you will hear a passage three times. When the passage is read for the first time, you should listen carefully for its general idea. When the passage is read for the second time, you are required to fill in the blanks numbered from 21 to 28 with the exact words you have just heard. For blanks numbered from 29 to 31 you are required to fill in the missing information. For these blanks, you can either use the exact words you have just heard or write down the main points in your own words. Finally when the passage is read for the third time, you should check what you have written. Please write them on ANSWER SHEET2. 注意：此部分答案填在答题卡2上
There needs to be a lawyer who can act as a (21)_________for the rights of welfare clients, because the system so easily lends itself to (22) _______ by the welfare givers as well as by the clients. Welfare sent Suzanne to look around in my apartment the other day because the（23）_______ said I was using a larger than usual amount of (24)________ supplies. I was, indeed: The hole that has been surgically cut to drain urine had changed size and the (25)_______ to my urine bag was (26)_________.
While she was taking notes, my phone rang and Suzanne answered it. The (27)_________ was a state senator, which (28) ________ Suzanne a little. Would I sit on the governor’s committee and try to do something about the thousands of welfare clients who, like me, (29)_______________________________________if they were allowed to do so, one step at a time.
Hell，yes, I would! (30) ______________________________________
that will encourage them, not seek to convict them of cheating.(31) _________
_____________________________ without guilt or fear— or just hold a good, steady job.
Part II Reading Comprehension （35 points10 points, 1 point for each)Section A (Skimming and Scanning ）
Directions: In this part, you will have 15 minutes to go over the passage quickly and answer the questions on ANSWER SHEET. For questions 32-38 choose the best answer from the four choices marked A),B), C), and D).注意：此部分答案填在答题卡1上。For questions 39-41complete the sentences with the information given in the passage.注意：此部分答案填在答题卡2上。
The History of Ice Cream
In 400 BC, Persians invented a special chilled pudding-like dish. It was served to the royal leaders of Persia during the hot summers. By then, the Persians had already mastered the technique of storing ice inside giant, naturally-cooled refrigerators. These refrigerators kept ice brought in from the winter, or from nearby mountains, well into the summer. The storages worked by using tall wing-catchers that kept the cold storage space at low temperatures. The ice was then mixed with fruits and various other flavors. The treat, widely made today in Iran, is made from wheat and spun in a machine which produces threads or drops of batter, which are boiled in water. The mix is then frozen, and mixed with rosewater and lemons, before serving. Arabia
Ice cream was the favorite dessert for the Caliphs (哈里发，伊斯兰国家领袖) of Baghdad. The Arabs were the first to add sugar to ice cream, and were also the first to make ice cream commercially available, as there were ice cream factories in the 10th century. It was sold in markets of all Arab cities in the past. It was made of chilled milk with fruits and sometimes nuts. Arabs introduced this to the West through Sicily. There are many kinds of Arabian ice creams that we can find in the market. They have the advantages of being healthy and fresh, as they are made of fresh milk. Rome
While it was not yet ice cream exactly, some examples of early pre-planned ice dishes involve the Roman emperor Nero (37-68) who is said to have ordered ice to be brought from mountains and combined with fruits. People living directly alongside snow and ice have probably always put sweet things like honey and fruit juice in frozen water for variety, as some still do this day. Snow dishes, made from balls of crushed ice topped with sweet liquid served in paper cup, are consumed in many parts of the world.
There are several popular legends concerning the discovery of ice cream. One is as follows. There was a material used for the production of gunpowder in China. And the Chinese discovered that when they mixed it with water, it absorbed heat in the
water, thus creating ice in summer. The Chinese put sugar in the ice and sold it as food during the summer. It is believed that during the Song Dynasty, people began putting fruit juice in the water to create the ice. Milk might have been used for ice cream in the Yuan Dynasty. However, there is no enough evidence to know whether this is true.
Popular tradition asserts that Marco Polo, the Italian traveler famous for his writings about China, saw ice cream being made on his trip to China. Stories claim he took the recipe of ice cream home to Italy with him on his return. However, Marco Polo in his writings never claimed to have introduced ice cream to the West.
Catherine de Medici’s Italian cooks are said to have brought recipes for flavored ices to France when Catherine went there in 1533 to marry the Duc d’Orleans. One hundred years later, Charles I of England was supposedly so impressed by the “frozen snow” that he offered his own ice cream maker a lifetime pension in return for keeping the formula secret, so that ice cream could be the food for the very rich and powerful. There is, however, no historical evidence to support these legends, which first appeared during the 19th century. Food historians are still searching for more information on the early spread of ice cream.
Modern Ice Cream
Contemporary Western-style ice cream, however, was probably developed in the 1600s, and was introduced to the United States by people from Europe who brought their ice cream recipes with them. Salesmen, many of whom were Frenchmen, sold ice cream at their shops in New York and other cities during the colonial era. Ben Franklin, George Washington, and Thomas Jefferson were among the people who regularly ate and served ice cream. Dolley Madison is also closely associated with the early history of ice cream in the United States. In 1843 Nancy Johnson became the first American to develop a special ice cream maker that could be operated by using one’s hands. This was followed by the invention of the ice cream soda, a drink that contained ice cream. It was probably invented by Robert Green in 1874, although there is no conclusive evidence to prove his claim. The ice cream sundae, a popular ice cream dish, was invented in the late 19th century. Several men claimed to have created the first sundae, but there is no solid evidence to back up any of their stories. Some versions say that the sundae was invented to get around the Blue Laws, which forbade serving sodas on Sunday. The banana split, an ice cream dish served with banana, was popularized in the first year of the 20th century.
Development of Ice Cream in the 20th Century
The history of ice cream in the 20th century is one of great change and increase in availability and popularity. In the United States in the early 20th century, the ice cream soda was a popular treat at the soda shop, the soda fountain, and the ice cream parlor. During Prohibition, the time in American history when the production and sale of alcohol was not allowed, the soda fountain was promoted as an alternative to the bar, which once served alcohol.
Ice cream became extremely popular throughout the world in the second half of the 20th century after cheap refrigeration became common and wages became high
enough to allow for such minor luxuries. Soon there was an explosion of ice cream stores and of flavors and types. Sellers often competed on the basis of variety.
Howard Johnson’s restaurants advertised “a world of 28 flavors”. Baskin-Robbins made its 31 flavors (“one for every day of the month”) the basis of its marketing strategy; the company now boasts that it has developed over 1000 varieties.
One important development in the 20th century was the introduction of soft ice cream. A chemical research team in Britain (of which a young Margaret Thatcher was
a member) discovered a method of doubling the amount of air in ice cream. This
allowed manufacturers to use less of the actual ingredients, thereby saving money.
This ice cream was also very popular amongst consumers who preferred the light texture, and most major ice cream brands now use this manufacturing process.
The 1980s saw a return of the older and thicker ice cream being sold as “top”
32. The naturally- cooled refrigerators the Persians used worked ________ to
keep the cold storage space at low temperatures.
A) by mixing ice with fruits B) by using tall wind-catchers
C)with rosewater and lemons D) with drops of batter
33. The Arabs were the first to ________________________________.
A)make ice cream commercially available
B)mix ice cream with frozen rosewater
C)bring ice cream from the nearby mountains
D)boil water and lemons for ice cream
34. One legend says that the Chinese made ice cream in the summer by mixing
water and ___________________________.
A)ice cream B)fruit juice
C) gunpowder D) milk
35.Recipes for flavored ice are said to be brought to France by _____________.
A)Marco Polo B) Catherine de Medici’s Italian cooks
B)Duc d’Orleans D) Charles I of England
36. A special hand-operated ice cream maker was developed ________________.
A)in the 1600s B) in the year 1843
C)in the year 1874 D) before the 19th century
37. It is said that the ice cream sundae was _______________________.
A)invented by Nancy Johnson
B)an ice cream dish served with banana
C)an ice cream dish created in the early 19th century
D)invented to replace sodas on Sunday
38. What was promoted as an alternative during Prohibition in America?
A)The ice cream parlor. B) The soda shop.
C) The bar. D) The soda fountain
39. The introduction of ________________ was one important development
in the 20th century .
40. A chemical research team in Britain discovered a method of ____________
Questions 52 to 56 are based on the following passage.
Film making at the beginning of the twentieth century was in its infancy. The techniques at that time could only show people and objects as they were, with an occasional photographic trick. So to imagine people gathering together in a theater to see a movie that was entirely silent is a bit incredulous to us now. But that was the reality of the early twentieth century.
Films with sound did not appear until 1928. After all, radio had just made its commercial debut on November 2, 1920. The previous century produced many greats in the arts. Charlie Chaplin was among the greatest, and probably the greatest of all. Few people would argue this.
For those who have no interest in what is perceived as outdated, silent film has little attraction. This is unfortunate, as it was the product of a day when true ability could not be faked. There were no computer graphics to shock the audiences. The photography was not nearly as good as today and the films were in black and white. Sound had yet to be added. There was just the playing of an organ by an employee of the theater. More amazingly, Chaplin wrote his own scripts as well as produced and directed his own work. He often did his own editing. It was all up to him, and no sound or visual phenomenon could help.
There was more. Chaplin proved, when sound came to films, to be productive composer. Some of his music has gained widespread recognition, such as “Smile”, from Modern Times and “This is my Song” from one of his lesser known films, A Countess from Hong Kong.But the most beautiful is “Eternally”, the opening theme of Limelight. It became so widely known as one of the great Chaplin compositions that it was played at many of his professional appearances, including his Academy Award acceptance of 1972.
52. Films at the beginning of the 20th century_________________________.
A) were not entirely silent
B) were very complicated
C) showed things in their original forms
D) were without photographic techniques
53.It can be inferred from the passage that__________________________.
A) films was not at all interesting at the beginning of the 20th century
B) films with sound came into being before the 1920s
C) few people regarded Charlie Chaplin as the greatest artist in the 20th century
D)at the beginning of the 20th century silent films appealed to people
54. Which of the following statements is NOT true about the reason why
silent films become outdated?
A) People saw films in total silence.
B) Films were in black and white.
C) Photographic techniques were poor.
D) There were no computer tricks.
55. As a music composer, Charlie Chaplin did all of the following except______.
A) play an organ to accompany the silent film
B) compose “Eternally”
C) win widespread appeal
D) produce and direct his own work
56. The best title of this passage might be__________________________.
A) Great Art--- Silent Films
B) Great Genius--- Charlie Chaplin
C) Great Comedian--- Charlie Chaplin
D) Versatile Artist---Charlie Chaplin
Questions 57 to 61 are based on the following passage.
Genetically-modified (GM) foodstuffs are here to stay. That’s not to say that food produced by conventional agriculture will disappear, but simply that food-buying patterns will polarize(分化): there will be a niche market for conventional foodstuffs just as there is for organic food. It may even be that GM food will become the food of preference because consumers come to appreciate the health benefits of reduced pesticide (农药) use.
Currently there are some 20,000 chemicals in use, but the scientists only have detailed information on around 1,000 of them. To see the advantages of GM food you have only to consider the recent press revelation that the average lettuce receives eleven pesticide applications before it reaches the supermarket shelf. I’m sure chemicals and their role in disease will become a big issue in the 21st century as the population of the developed world worries increasingly about its health.
The reason GM food will not go away is that we need a three-fold increase in food production by the year 2050 to keep pace with the world’s predicted population growth to ten or eleven billion. It’s not just a question of more mouths to feed either.
What is often forgotten is that all these extra people will take up space, reducing the overall land available for agriculture.
The world has 800 million hungry people. Until now, food supplies have been increased by improved varieties, pesticides and artificial fertilizer: the green revolution. Now we’re on the edge of a new one: a genetic revolution.
It may well be that in the long term it is the developing world that benefits most from GM food. It’s true that for the next ten years or so GM crops may be too expensive.
57. How many chemicals are still less familiar to the scientists?
A) 20,000 B) 19,000 C) 1,000 D) 21,000
58. According to the passage, food supplies have been increased by all the
A) pesticides B) artificial fertilizers
C) transportation D) improved varieties
59. Why will people prefer GM food in the future?
A) Because it uses less pesticides.
B) Because it is much cheaper.
C) Because the production is increased.
D) Because it is organic food.
60. Which of the following is NOT true?
A) By 2050, the world population will grow to ten or eleven billion.
B) More and more people will reduce the overall land available for farming.
C) More and more people will consume more food and occupy more space.
D) In the 21st century, GM food will take the place of conventional food.
61. The author’s attitude towards GM food is _____________________.
A) positive B) negative C) critical D) uncertain
Part III Cloze （10 points, 0.5point for each）.
Directions: There are 20 blanks in the following passage. For each blank there are four choices marked A), B), C)，and D). You can choose the ONE that best fits into
the passage. Mark the corresponding letter on ANSWER SHEET 1 with a single line through the center. 注意：此部分答案填在答题卡1上
We are living in the age of telecommunications revolution. In order to keep from getting 62 , many developing countries are making an intensive effort to strengthen their telecommunications infrastructure. This will help them 63
the developed countries. It was, after all, advanced telecommunications 64 gave some countries an economic advantage 65 others during the 20th century. There is one place that the developing nations are 66 improve upon. That is enabling their citizens and businesses to get 67 to the Web. They are installing advanced optical fibers. These fibers, a millimeter in 68 , can bring the information superhighway to their door. The 69 investments that countries like Vietnam are making may seem too great because they still lack basic 70 , like electricity and water. However, government officials say that these moves are 71 . They are also confident that their countries will 72
the benefits. They will benefit from having more 73 and up-to-date telecommunications equipment and gaining more 74 . One Vietnamese leader said, “It is understandable that people want to 75 their immediate problem first. Still, our entire future is 76 . People don’t always understa nd the 77 of the problem, though.” He continued, “There are problems with using the antique communications equipment. And if we continue to use such old equipment, the 78 between us and the developed world will continue to widen. 79 have to be made now so that our children will have a country with opportunities equal 80 those they see in the developed world.” It will not be far 81 they can cruise alongside Americans and Western Europeans on the information superhighway.
62. A. left out B. left alone C. left behind D. left off
63. A. make up for B. stand up to C. get involved in D. catch up with
64. A. that B. what C. where D. which
65. A. above B. over C. than D. with
66. A. looking up B. looking to C. looking for D. looking into
67. A. assistance B. approval C. access D. asset
68. A. circle B. length C. round D. diameter
69. A. partial B. initial C. potential D. influential
70. A. appliances B. standards C. utilities D. conveniences
71. A. temporary B. magic C. logic D. strategic
72. A. reap B. sustain C. derive D. assign
73. A. available B. comparable C. reliable D. considerable
74. A. inputs B. revenues C. arrangements D. payments
75. A. accomplish B. complete C. master D. tackle
76. A. at odds B. by accident C. at stake D. for certain
77. A. length B. strength C. volume D. breadth
78. A. hole B. gap C. space D. extent
79. A. Sacrifices B. Costs C. Prices D. Attributions
80. A. in B. with C. to D. on
81. A. while B. since C. when D. where
Part I. Listening Comprehension (30 points)
Section A (10points, 1 point for each)
1---5 B C D A D 6---10 A C B C D
Section B Understanding Passages (10 points, 1 point for each)
11---15 A A B C D 16---20 D B B C A
Section C (10 points, 0.5 point for each missing word, 2 points for each missing information)
21. champion 22. abuse 23. chemist 24. medical
25. connection 26. leaking 27. caller 28. scared
29. could earn part or all of their own livings
30. Someday people like me will thrive under a new system
31. They will be free to develop their talents
Part II Reading Comprehension （35 points）
Section A (Skimming and Scanning 10 points, 1 point for each)
32 . B 33. A 34.C 35. B 36.B 37. D 38. D
39. soft ice cream
40. doubling the amount of air
41. the lighter texture
Section B (Reading in Depth : 5 points, 0.5 point for each)
42. (M) collection 43. (E) extensive 44.(F) discounted 45.(H) remarkably
46. (K) basis 47. (C) racially 48.(G) labored 49.(L) features
50.( B) routes 51. (J) migrated
Section C (20 points, 2 for each)
52---56 C D A A B 57---61 B C A D A
Part III Cloze （10 points, 0.5point for each）
62---66 C D A B B 67--- 71 C D B C D
72---76 A C B D C 77---81 D B A C C
Part IV Translation（10 points, 2 points for each）
82. they needn’t have gone at all
83. nothing is more attractive to me than reading
84. You might as well go there to see whether there is the information you need.
85. nothing less than a miracle
86. take the sleep quality into consideration
Part V.Writing （15 points）
Diligence Is Essential to Success
B) A genetics laboratory.
C) A boardroom.
D) A classroom.
Questions 6 to 10 are based on the conversation you have just heard.
6. A) To ask for help finding a job.
B) To ask him to give her some advice.
C) To invite him to go shopping with her later.
D) To find out what he’s doing during the summer.
7. A) Because she might get a good job later.
B) Because she could stay at a hotel at a discount.
C) Because she might be able to get course credits for her work.
D) Because it would give her a chance to make a lot of money immediately.
8. A) Its strictness about punctuality.
B) Its long-hour work.
C) Its expensive rent.
D) Its lower pay.
9. A) The discount.
B) The convenience.
C) The flexibility of time.
D) The short distance
10. A) Visit the hotel.
B) Work in the clothing store.
C) Continue her job search for a while.
D) Make extra money while taking classes.
Section B (10 points)
Directions:In this section, you will hear two short passages. At the end of each passage, you will hear some questions. Both the passage and the questions will be spoken only once. After you hear a question, you must choose the best answer from the four choices marked A), B), C) and D). Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 1 with a single line through the center.
Questions 11 to 15 are based on the passage you have just heard.
11. A) College living.
B) Rooming houses.
C) Negatives to living alone.
12. A) To save money.
B) No choice.
C) More positives.
13. A) Rooming house.
B) Big room with several beds.
C) Scholarship hall.
D) Fraternity and sorority.
14. A) Hostels.
B) Army residence buildings.
C) Scholarship halls.
D) Military jails.
15. A) Soldiers get less privacy typically.
B) More storage is available in or near the bed.
C) Dorms are personal spaces.
D) A dormitory is usually called a “dorm”.
Questions 16 to 20 are based on the passage you have just heard.
16. A) Information that will help.
B) A method for reaching an agreement.
C) Other people’s point of view.
D) Ways to encourage people.
17. A) Agreeing soon after listening can cause trouble.
B) Having preconceived notions is the right way.
C) Compromising i s a person’s first step.
D) Encouraging others is the best way.
18. A) Lateral thinking.
B) One’s own goals.
C) Already formed ideas.
D) The person’s point of view.
19. A) A plan that incorporates the best of both ideas.
B) One person being completely right.
C) Two ideas that are side by side.
D) Additional ideas being made.
20. A) Two good ideas.
B) Two reasonable people.
C) A compromise.
D) More ideas.
Section C (10points)
Directions:In this section, you will hear a passage three times. When the passage is read for the first time, you should listen carefully for its general idea. When the passage is read for the second time, you are required to fill in the blanks numbered from 21 to 28 with the exact words you have just heard. For blanks numbered from 29 to 31 you are required to fill in the missing information. For these blanks, you can either use the exact words you have just heard or write down the main points in your own words.
Finally, when the passage is read for the third time, you should check what you have written. Write your answers in Answer Sheet 2
Charlie Chaplin was born in a poor area of South London. He wore his mother’s old red stockings cut down for ankle socks. His mother was 21_ _ declared mad. He quit Britain for good in 1913 when he journeyed to America with a group of performers to do his 22__ act on the stage, where talent scouts 23__ _ him to work for Mack Sennett, the king of Hollywood comedy films..
Sad to say, many English people in the 1920s and 1930s though t Chaplin’s tramp
a bit, well, 24_ ___. Certainly middle-class audiences did; the working-class
audiences were more likely to 25__ __ for a character who 26 ___ against authority, using his wicked little cane to trip it up, or aiming the 27 ___of his boot for a well-placed kick at its broad rear. But for over half of his screen career, Chaplin had no screen voice to confirm his Britain 28_ ___.
Charlie Chaplin was an immensely talented man, 29 . His huge fame gave him the freedom－and, more importantly, the money－to be his own master. He already 30 as he went along. Lifeless objects especially helped Chaplin make “contact” with himself as an artist. He turned them into other kinds of objects. Thus, a broken alarm clock in the movie The Pawnbroker became a sick patient undergoing surgery. This physical transformation,31 is surely the secret of Chaplin’s great comedy.
Part II Reading Comprehension (35points)
Section A (Fast Reading). (10points)
Directions:In this section, you will have to go over the passage quickly and answer the questions. For questions 32-38, choose the best answer from the four choices marked
A) B), C) and D) and write your answers on Answer Sheet 1. For questions 39-41,
complete the sentences with the information given in the passage and write your answers on Answer Sheet 2.
You Are What You Think
What are you? Are you a pessimist, who thinks negatively about the world and the future? Or are you an optimist, who thinks things are getting better and better?
These questions are important to you and how you live your life. They are also important to scientists who do research in psychology. In this article, I will introduce the findings of these researchers. I will also point out some things that you can do in order to change your life for the better.