1.First settlers crossed the Bering Strait in the Arctic to America.These people are now known as Native Americans.

2.Spanish soldiers arrived in South America.

3.California became part of Mexico.

4.The US declared war on Mexico.

5.Gold was discovered in California.

6.California became the31st state of the US.



in the early16th century





in the late19th century




beginning of the20th century

from about the1970s


from about the1970s

in more recent decades

from about the1970s

P4Ex.1(learning about language)

Adjective major Italian hard Korean racial

Pakistani distinct Danish

Noun majority Italy hardship Korea race

Pakistan distinction Denmark





Arctic,Strait,crossing,by means of,rail,making a life,aircraft












1.He started in northern California,and he has been travelling south.

2.The facts that not everybody is rich,not everybody lives on the coast, and the desert in California is not like the rest of the climate of California, surprised him.

3.He had watched too many American movies.

4.Many people from different countries moved to California.They brought their own customs,culture and food.They kept them up and so produced the large variety of food,music,customs,art and cultural activities.


southeastern California American movies beach/coast cotton, vegetables,nuts southeast desert races festival,music


1Wednesday(Angel Island)2Monday(Fisherman’s Wharf)3Tuesday (Chinatown)4Tuesday(blue and white road sighs)5Wednesday(Golden Gate Bridge)6Monday(cable car)


1He invented the cable car system because the horse-drawn trams used before were unsafe.

2He ate at Fisherman’s Wharf.

3It was convenient for him to tour around the city.It was cheaper to hire a car with other people because they could share the coast.Also he probably enjoyed being in the company of other tourists.

4Eat in Chinese restaurants,go to markets,visit temples and museums.

5It was famous as a place for immigrants to be checked before they could enter California.


1Traveller’s Tales2Tom Price3Mandy Long4New Orleans





2.hot and humid

3.1812Louisiana became a state of the USA.

1857The first Mardi Gras celebration was held.



a great many,applying for,nephew,ferry,Immigration,Apparently, bakeries,occur,thankful,fascinating


1take in2reform3had marked out4team up with5back to back



1.When he arrived at the hotel,the first thing he wanted to do was to leave his luggage/baggage,have a shower and shave,and then walk around.

2.My grandpa was a socialist who believed in socialism all his life.

3.Many illegal immigrants felt that their stay in America was like a punishment because only a few of them got justice and were allowed to live there.

4.The civil authorities tried to reduce the noise made by seagulls but failed.

5.Many English farmers mourned their cattle which had to be killed because of“mad cow disease”.

6.My house is nowhere near the center of the city,but it has no air pollution or traffic jams./Although my house is nowhere near the center

of the city,it has no air pollution or traffic jams.


1how(OC)2What(SC)3whether(OC)4what/which(OC)5what (SC)6That(SC)7Why(SC)8why(OC)9When(SC)10as if (PC)11where(/why(PC)12How(SC)13why(PC)14that (PC)15whether(OC)


1.it is used as the subject,object,predicative or appositive in a sentence

2.it is used as an attribute modifying a noun,a pronoun or a sentence



2.the coffin was taken to the graveyard to be buried.


4.after the body has been buried and the people are leaving the graveyard

5.begins singing and dancing

6.celebrate the life of the person who has just died




Learned to play drums and trumpet at age12;

Got a job in best band in town at age16;

Started making records at age23;

Became a huge star and remained popular for almost50years; Acted in over50movies;

Became a goodwill ambassador for the USA;

Took part in the civil rights movement.

Good qualities:

Even though he was poor,he never turned to crime to make a living; He was a great musician;

He loved entertaining people;

He could communicate with people from all sorts of backgrounds; He cared about civil rights issues;

He lived a simple life despite his rights and fame;

He continued to work all his life.



1.The first use is to produce commercial quantities of plants.The second is to research on new plants specials and do medical research on animals.

2.Cloning plants is straightforward,but the cloning of animals is very complicated.

3.The first clone from an adult animal was Dolly the sheep.She died in 2003.

4.Cloning is controversial in some countries for moral and religious reasons.


Problems or dangers of cloning

Evil leaders may want to clone themselves.

Animal clones may develop the illnesses of older animals.

Animal clones may die younger than the donor animals.

There are moral objections to cloning human being.

Advantages of cloning

Medical cloning could produce cures for serious illness in humans. Cloning plants can be useful for research on new plant species.

Cloning plants can produce plants of similar quality for sale.

Cloning can help save endangered animals.


I think the writer is impartial because he/she does not state any personal opinion about cloning.


1differ2cast3accumulate4exact5altogether6objections7un dertake8moral


1straightforward2arbitrary3commercial4made an objection

to5obtain6will forbid


1attain2complicated3fate4carrier5cast6reform7accumulate P14Ex2




1.that she would come next week for a short visit

2.that a woman trapped under the ruins for six days was rescued

3.that he failed in the test

4.that she had dreamed of for years

5.that he must have safety training

6.that the interview went well

7.that the people in the earthquake-hit areas had rebuilt their homes

8.that everyone in class did well in the performance


1.There will not be enough genetic variation in the group to be able to resist new illnesses.

2.It is not a good idea to clone an animal that would live in a zoo because it is not a suitable habitat to develop and increase its numbers.The zoo is not a natural environment for a wild animal.








1.Clare thinks people will want to buy cloned babies if they cannot have babies of their own.

2.People have not thought that there may be dishonest laboratories who will produce and sell cloned babies like a baby factory.



procedure,assumption,be bound to,resist,from time to time,restoring, shortly,claws,brought back


1in time2in danger3in vain4in black pen5in favor of6In the meantime


1.I adore homemade rectangular loaves made with brown flour and nuts.

2.He is very conservative,and is even in favor of a constitution that gives few rights to immigrant voters.

3.When the leader of the chorus retired from the opera,they held a dinner party for him.

4.The media plays an important role in influencing public opinion.

5.Don’t bother about taking down those decorations yet.The Christmas celebrations aren’t over yet.

6.The regulations for cloning animals are very strict,and he is unable to continue his experiments.

7.Don’t bother yourself about cloning my pet cat.I won’t expect to bring it back to life.

8.The people in flooded areas owed a great deal to the PLA soldiers for their rescue work.




1.that they should buy a new car

2.that they wanted the most expensive one

3.that they would save for six months

4.that Sue’s uncle had died unexpectedly

5.that she must follow when she inherited money

6.that she should save all her money in the bank

7.that she was doing the right thing to use the money

Appositive clauses:1、3、4


1.the explorer,

2.how he got his job.

3.that mountain climbing was so popular in his hometown inFlorida,

4.that he both could take risks and earn a living

5.that he would study earth sciences at university

6. That he spoke many languages

7.why he did not make it his career

8. that he is retiring this year



1.He wants to make his mother happy by keeping her pet dog alive forever,and also wants to take the chance to America for holiday when the dog is being cloned there.

2.Frank doesn’t agree with cloning because he thinks cloning is very expensive and it has many moral problems.

3.Billy’s mother is in favor of cloning.She is saving money to go

to America to have her pet dog cloned just before it dies.





BILLY:1.the cloning procedure; 2.the experiments in America FRANK:1.your mother to love her dog,so she will want to clone it when it gets old. 2.take advantage of that to have a good holiday





1.The mother was upset because a family of snakes had made their home near the house.

2.The writer was happy because it gave her an opportunity to help her mother and invent something

to catch the snakes without hurting them at the same time.

3.These are the three creative steps the writer took to trap the snakes by cooling them and making

them sleepy so could catch them.

Step1:She bought a stainless steel ice cream maker and froze the bowl. She added ice cubes to the top

of the bowl to keep it cold.She placed it over the snakes’habitat during the day so that the snakes

would become sleepy and could be easily caught.

Step2:As above she did the same but placed the bowls over the snakes’habits in evening.

Step3:As above but added a net to catch the snake.

4.Snakes do not have a way of keeping warm in their bodies.They get warmth from the sun and

become more active at this time.When the sun goes down at night they cool down and become less

active.So extra cooling to the snake would make them even less active and easier to catch.


1._cube_cubic base___basic

mercy_merciful fancy___fanciful

stain stainless_care___careless

caution cautious poison___poisonous







1.The greengrocer at the corner is probably the most_convenient_to reach.

2.If you want to apply for a credit card,you must

provide valid identification.

3.You need to approach that animal with caution_as it may bite.

4.She is passive_during meetings and does not contribute to discussions at all.

5.I found his phone number in the directory and tried

to_call_/_ring_up last night,but there was no reply.

6.I don’t think of my hometown very much,only now_and_then.

7.Luckily the rainfall stopped abruptly before I left.

8.In a courtroom it is sometimes difficult to distinguish who is innocent and who is guilty.


criteria abruptly file valid perfume seize set about product P24Ex.2




designed developed rejected welcomed tested improved ad opted


1the play performed2the car started3her paintings displayed4your bedroom tidied5myself thrown6my time taken up7sausage burnt8some guests invited


1.His saying means that it is important to be experimental.By being curious exploring around a subject you may by chance come up with some new and original ways of solving a problem.

2.His curiosity and exploring spirit led to his success as an inventor of the telephone.

3.Bell invented the telephone and the tetrahedron shape by chance.Both of these are extremely useful and still used today.

4.He will always be known as the inventor of the telephone because it was

a very popular invention and the patent made the most money ever.


washing machine drum carpet cleaner court






1.Ruth wants to buy the mobile that turns itself on when it receives important calls.She missed three yesterday when her mobile was switched /turned off.

2.Mobiles can videotape and act as a computer now.

3.They will be able to plan holidays,book air tickets,hotel and an appropriate place to stay.They will authorize paying for them too.

4.Ruth is worried because it might spend her money.

5.The advantages are that they help people who are busy at work to order goods at the cheapest price or book holidays,air tickets,ect.

6.The mobile may spend money unwisely or spend more than a person can afford.You may forget the spending and not include it in your accounts of your personal income.


1set aside2set out3set down4set off5set up6set about7set off P64Ex.2

tap dots wire practical invaluable competence personnel dynamic stable


extension Hang on ring/call up out of order get through call back ring off


1.The eyewitness-a greengrocer proved in court that the driver was innocent of the terrible accident,which caused a traffic jam that lasted for several hours.

2.I could not bear to live in a city with so much rainfall even though it is good for my skin.

3.Helicopters and jeeps are widely used in current wars.

4.My associate checked the telephone directory and found the number to dial the after-sales service department when his refrigerator broke down.

5.The little girl bumped her head on a corner of the desk and it left a mark like a triangle on her forehead.

6.The identification of the correct route was difficult as it was so foggy early in the morning.

7.Even though he couldn’t swim,he dived into the river to save the little


8.In summer,farmers like to wear straw hats while working in the fields. P65Ex.1

disappointing disappointed amusing amused confusing confused surprised surprising inspired inspiring shocking shocked


1confused confusing2shocked shocking3surprised surprising

4amusing amused5disappointing Disappointed6inspiring inspired P67Ex.1

1.Leonardo lived at a time of great instability,when paintings did not always provide a steady income.

2.His designs were different because he took things apart and then improved them.So his designs were accurate and could be built and used.

3.Painting helped him with his inventions because while painting he had learned to observe things closely and draw accurately.

4.This question has no correct answer.It encourages Ss to give an opinion of their own and requires them to give a reason for their choice.


I think Leonardo designed an early car because the picture seems to show

a vehicle that can move backwards and forwards,has four wheels and can take people for a ride.It does not have beds or room for beds,so it cannot be a caravan It is made of mental,so it cannot be a tent.It does not go round and round,so it cannot be a roundabout.




1.Henry Higgins.

2.She thinks he is a policeman in disguise.

3.He has been living in India and has studied many Indian dialects.

4.He is anxious to meet Colonel Pickering because he is researching in the same academic field as Pickering.

5.Her ambition is to be a shop assistant.She decides to take lessons from Professor Higgins to achieve her aim.

6.Eliza is from the lower class.She is respectful to people of the higher class.She calls gentleman“sir”and“cap”in”(or captain)which is a compliment.Henry Higgins is from the middle class.He is rude to the lower class and polite to the same or upper class.He calls Eliza“your silly girl”and Pickering“my dear man”(an equal and friend).Colonel Pickering is from the upper class.He is generally confident and polite,but ignores Eliza.He is prepared to begin a conversation with Henry,whom he does not know and generous with praise to him.



1respects his professional work as a phonetician;calls him sir and my dear man.

2watches her;notes her reactions;talks about her in front of her;calls her silly girl


1appreciates his expertise;praises him;asks his opinion;happy to be friends

2ignores her;does not stop Henry when he talks about Eliza in front of her(which is very rude)


1anxious;eager not to do the wrong thing;ambitious to improve herself; respectful and curious about Henry’s expertise

2feels upset not being included in the conversation when talked about


Henry Higgins


Colonel Pickering





http://m.wendangku.net/doc/eecf8edf284ac850ad024283.htmle over here,captain,and buy some flowers from a poor girl.

2.I haven’t done anything wrong by speaking to that gentleman.

3.I thought that maybe you were a policeman in disguise.

4.How do I know whether you wrote down what I said accurately?

5.A shop assistant?Now that’s something I would like to be!





mistaken status betrayed classify pass upper superior fortune han dful plot classic


1in disguise2in delight3in amazement4in particular5in return


1.Being taught by the two gentlemen,Eliza made great progress.

2.Having been awarded so many prizes in literature,George felt that his years of efforts were well deserved.

3.Bitten by the snake in the bush,Susan was sent back to the camp.

4.Having been punished by his boss,he was in a very bad mood.

5.Having been cheated by that company,he lost all his possessions.

6.Having found a hole in her stocking,Mandy said to her friend,“I will buy another pair and meet you in two hours’time.”

7.Having been forced to leave his job,he set up his own company.

8.Having been caught,the thief was taken to the police station by the police.


determined,Forced,Knowing,accepted,disappointed,Having been trained,spoken,accepted


1.I want to be a lady in a flower shop instead of selling flowers in the street.

2.Now you’re talking……You wouldn’t dare to ask the same(amount) for teaching me(my own language)as you would for(teaching me)French.

3.I cannot.I daren’t.It isn’t natural and would kill me.


Things that need to be changed

1Eliza’s clothes

2Eliza’s hygiene

3Her language:



Use of appropriate language(eg no swearing)

4Eliza’s behaviour

How to change

1Buy new ones

2Give her baths

3Have lessons to help her with all three problems:

Learn the rules

Practice repeating words till correct

Learn socially safe topics to discuss

4Learn how to walk and behave in upper class social activities


She got the phrases and sentences correct after repeating them twice:“Do you think I don’t know anything?”“a cup of tea”“The rain in Spain falls mainly on the plain”.

She still doesn’t know about double negatives(don’t,no),so her meaning is the opposite of what she means.Her sentence“I can’t hear no difference”means“I can’t hear any difference”.

I can’t hear no difference……




1.He realizes that she is using the correct language and talking about suitable subjects but in a language that is like a textbook,which shows she does not understand what she is saying.

2.Clara is confused with Eliza’s use of English because Eliza is using slang and also talking of subjects not discussed in polite society.Clara would not have heard them discussed before.

3.Henry wants to disguise the fact that Eliza’s language is unsuitable by pretending it is a new and fashionable way to talk.

4.Freddy makes it clear that he likes Eliza because he sits next to her and wants to walk her home.

5.Mrs Higgins is amused by Eliza but recognizes that she is not yet ready for polite society.Her language is so unsuitable that she would give herself away as not being an authentic English lady.

6.She gives herself away by the choice of topics and by the language she uses to talk about these topics.


1her dress

2her pronunciation

3her manners

1her grammar

2her choice of conversation topics

3her language


1in terms of2in need of3in favor of4In spite of


overlooked compromise once more laundry sobbed shabby in need of teapot cream cookie shillings amazement


1.Henry wanted Eliza to make the acquaintance of the American ambassador,so he could act as a referee and judge whether he had passed her off as a lady.

2.When the thief robbed the shop,he only took two items:an antique musical box and a wax disk with traditional folk songs on it.

3.Before Eliza got into the bathtub,Mrs Pearce made her take off her dirty vest and horrible stockings.

4.Eliza required help in terms of English grammar and pronunciation.She needed to start by saying the alphabet correctly.

5.As Eliza was practicing her curtsey,she caught her dress on a nail and tore it.

6.Believers in Buddhism usually will bow to the Buddha with their hands together when they see a statue of Buddha.













1.Amused by Eliza’s funny“small talk”,Freddy couldn’t help laughing.

http://m.wendangku.net/doc/eecf8edf284ac850ad024283.htmlughed at by Freddy,Eliza felt very angry.

3.Worn out in the language class,Eliza fell asleep early at night.

4.Fascinated by Eliza’s charm and beauty,Freddy fell in love with her.

5.Stared at by all the guests,Eliza felt rather uneasy.

6.Ignored by Henry Higgins all the time,Eliza decided to leave him.

7.Very surprised,Henry discovered the next morning that Eliza had gone. .P72Ex.3

Armed,experienced,Concerned,Frightened,Frozen,rooted,Determined, frightened,covered,scared












1.Mr Pommuck is an old pupil of Henry and an interpreter for the ambassador.

2.An interpreter is a person who changes spoken words from one language into another.

3.He intends to find out who Eliza is and expose her if she is a cheat.




1.They all think Eliza is a princess because she looks beautiful and her English is so good.

2.Henry did not encourage them to think of her as a princess.He wants to make fun of Mr Pommuck for claiming to be able to find social cheats but who did not discover Eliza was a cheat.

3.Eliza did not really enjoy the party as it caused her a lot of stress.In particular she didn’t like people staring at her.


1The ambassador’s wife speaks good English but is not considered to be foreign.

2.She cannot be Hungarian as she does not recognize the language.

3.Beauty does not make a princes.


1.She collects his slippers because she wants to show him she cares about him.

2.She throws them at him because she realizes he doesn’t care for her.

3.He thinks his teaching is successful.

4.She gets upset because she thinks her efforts have been overlooked.

5.He gets upset because he really does love Eliza.


1.She works hard to win his bet for him.

2.She is disappointed that he does not acknowledge her hard work.

3.She realizes he will only ever think of her as a flower girl.

1.He is overjoyed with his triumph in the bet,but ignored Eliza’s feelings and shows little concern about her future.

2.He is surprised she is upset that he does not congratulate her for her success at the party.

3.He is upset that she is thinking of leaving him and marrying Freddy.



1.The students want to find out about how early people lived.There are no such sites in England while the Zhoukoudian caves provide an excellent example of a site where early people lived.

2.Early people lived in caves.

3.They used fur from animals for clothes and had fires burning all winter.

4.The archaeologist thinks they may have used animals skins.

5.They ate animal meat,such as tigers and bears,and fish from the lake nearby.They also picked fruit when it was ripe.


Homes:caves,perhaps with skins to keep the cold

Tools:scrapers,axe-heads,bone needles

Clothes:animal skins sewn together with needles and thread,necklaces


T1:Life in the cave

T2:What we can learn from a needle

T3:What we can learn from a necklace


excavation,identify,aware,ample,regardless of,primitive,sharpened, alternative,assumed,due


1regardless of2In spite of3because of4ahead of5on behalf

of6instead of


1starvation2analysis,acute3messy,categories4cutting up5at



1.How long have you been learning to fly an airplane,Sam?

2.How long has he been swimming?

3.What have the nurses in the kindergarten been doing all day?

4.What have they been arguing about for years?

5.Why have sales of washing machines been increasing this year?

6.Jiao Yang,What kind of washing powder have you been using that makes your clothes so clean and soft?

7.Why has the poor girl been collecting seashells?

8.How long has Philip been riding a skateboard?


used envelopes