专四语法之句子成分

句子分析

新增题型有句子成分、句意理解及语法功能。

一、句子成分

句子成分术语:subject主语, predicate谓语, object宾语, dual object双宾语, direct object直接宾语, indirect object间接宾语, complex object复合宾语, cognate object 同源宾语, complement补语, subject complement主补, object complement宾补, predicative表语, attribute定语, appositive同位语, adverbial状语, clause从句, nominal clause名词从句, attributive clause/ relative clause定语从句, adverbial clause状语从句, object clause宾语从句, subject clause主语从句, appositive clause 同位语从句, adverbial clause of time时间状语从句, adverbial clause of place地点状语从句, adverbial clause of manner方式从句, adverbial clause of concession让步状语从句, adverbial clause of cause原因状语从句, adverbial clause of result结果状语从句, adverbial clause of purpose目的状语从句, adverbial clause of condition条件状语从句

如:Which of the italicized parts functions as an object?

A.He doesn’t like the idea of my speaking at the meeting.

B.It is no use your pretending not to know the matter.

C.My parents strongly object to my going out alone at night.

D.Her falling into the river was the climax of the whole trip.

[答案] C

[译文] 下列哪个句子中斜体的部分作宾语?

[解释] A 中斜体部分为介词短语修饰名词;B 中斜体部分为主语从句;C 中斜体部分为宾语,故为本题答案;D 中斜体部分为主语。

二、句意理解

认真对比题干选项,分辨出语义相同和不同的选项。如:

“The man preparing the documents is the firm’s lawyer”has all the following possible meanings EXCEPT ?

A.the man who has prepared the documents…

B.the man who has been preparing the documents…

C.the man who is preparing the documents…

D.the man who will prepare the documents…

[答案] D

[译文] 下列哪个选项的意思与“The man preparing the document is the firm’s lawyer”不一致?

[解释] 本题考查现在分词结构与定语从句的替换。现在分词表达现在时、现在完成时、现在完成进行时,但不能表达将来时。

三、语法功能

还有些考题考查选项中的句子或句子中特定成分的语法功能。这类考题需要熟练掌握句子的结构分析和句意分析,扎实掌握核心语法中的各项语法规则。Which of the following italicized phrases indicates purpose?

A.She said it for fun, but others took her seriously.

B.For all its effort, the team didn’t win the match.

C.Linda has worked for the firm for twenty years.

D.He set out for Beijing yesterday.

[答案] A

[译文] 下列斜体的短语中,哪一个表示目的?

[解释] A意为“她是说着好玩的,但是其他人当真了。”,本句中for fun表示目的;

B意为“尽管非常努力,他们还是没能赢得这场比赛。”,本句中Forall its effort表示转折;

C意为“琳达在那家公司工作了二十年。”,本句中for twenty years表示时间段;

D意为“昨天,他动身前往北京。”,本句中for Beijing表示方向。因此,A为本题答案。

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