研究生英语多维教程熟谙课后题答案

Book II

Unit 1

A.

1.a ssess

2.a lliance

3.o utcome

4.e thical

5.i dentity

6.a mbiguous

7.t olerable

8.p articipates

9.p ursuit

10.constructive

B.

1.a t stake

2.w ere obliged

3.t he climate of

4.f eel well-equipped

5.b eyond my grasp

6.c ut back

7.o ther than

8.r ise above

9.c are about

10.is bounded

C.

1.i ncompetent

2.i ndulgence

3.m igrants

4.p robes

5.c omplex

6.s uspense; engaged

7.c ompassionate; committed

8.t olerant

9.t empted

10.interconnected

D.

1.A. Judging from

2.B. in which

3.C. and

4.D. believe

5.A. is one of/ is that of

6.B. must get

7.C. likely

8.D. unemployed

9.C. as well as/ and

10. B. simpler

E.

1.w hat

2.g raduation

3.i ntend

4.g etting

5.e ventually

6.s urvey

7.a lthough

8.g raduates

9.t ransfer

10.rise

11.attending

12.instead

13.cause

14.because

15.attending

16.below

17.failure

18.expectations

19.confidence

http://m.wendangku.net/doc/ffca670e581b6bd97f19ea2d.htmlcation

Key to the translation from Chinese to English:

1.Today's university students are struggling to establish themselves, but they still have ambiguous feelings about their future.

2.A man cannot find himself without finding a center beyond hi. So the idealism of the undergraduate experience must help the student transcend himself.

3.We eagerly hope that the lessons leaned in the university will reveal themselves in our performance in the workplace and further education.

4.It cannot go unchallenged to say that the 4-year undergraduate experience is the only path to success in life.

5.We run the risk of making critical decisions, not on the basis of what we know, the findings of investigations, and the data of experiments, but on the basis of blind faith in professed experts.

6.Our task needs a large group of well-informed, caring young people who can band together, learn from each other, and actively participate in the four modernizations.

7.If it is to endure, the new school should help the students not only acquire a sold basic education and become competent in a specific field, but also be ready to commit themselves to others.

8.It is not too much to say that if undergraduates excessively devote themselves to examinations, the will push competence and commitment to the fringes.

9.I didn't even speak to him; much less discuss the

reconstruction of your school with him.

10.Some people think examinations are second to none, but some think examinations have a lot of disadvantages. Examinations leave us an open essential question --- what influence do examinations exert on education?

Reading Practice:

1.C

2.A

3.A

4.D.

5.B

Unit 2

A.1-H

2-I

3-A

4-E

5-K

6-N

7-L

8-G

9-D

10-C

B.1. perception

2. responsibility

3. organizational

4. marketing

5. strategies

6. assets

7. transitions

8. dilemma

9. Rivalry

10. compensation

11. whiz

12. invaluable

C.1. Justify, justification, justifiable, justifiably, justified

2. strategic, strategy, Strategics/Strategy, strategists, strategized, strategically

3. finance, financial, financier, finance, Financially

4. resentful, resents, resentment, resentfully

5. perceive, perception, perceptible, perceptive, perceptibly

6. diverse, diversify, diversity, diversification, diversified

7. destroyed, destructive, destruction, destructionist, destroyers, destroying, destructible

8. markets, marketable, markets, marketing, marketer

9. prosperity, prospering, prosperous, prosperously

10. derived, derive, derivative, derivatives

D.

1.A. it even harder

2.A. that

3.C. not taking enough exercise

4.C. to have gone back on

5.B. functioning

6.D. on

7.A. object to seeing

8.B. to go with it

9.A. to expanding

10. A. anxiously awaiting

E.

1.manufacturers

2.natural

3.treatment

4.experienced

5.approached

6.relatively

7.global

8.chaired

9.sustainable

10.vision

11.extended

12.improving

13.accomplish

14.array

15.involvement

16.activity

17.rewarded

18.proposals

19.domestic

http://m.wendangku.net/doc/ffca670e581b6bd97f19ea2d.htmlpetitors

Key to the translation from Chinese to English:

1. He is an experienced banker and an acknowledged trade expert, not to mention an excellent managing director.

2. Regardless of danger, volunteers from an Italian organization for peace have gone to Baghdad, the capital of Iraq, to form a "body shield" for the purpose of preventing the US from bombing the place.

3. Nobody in the family is more dedicated to operating the real estate business than Judy.

4. Because of the economic depression, real estate agents are in the dilemma of whether to lower prices or let sales fall off.

5. More often than not, Mr. Smith earns great profits by careful investment of his capital.

6. John did not make much of a mark in his studies at school, but he excelled at sports.

7.Ordrly transition of responsibilities is a condition for the long-range prosperity of a family business.

8. Y ou had better have a clear picture of prospects before formulating a plan for investment.

9. Although sculpture is a time-consuming art, there are still some people following it as a profession.

10. The software company is in the midst of being transformed from an individual proprietorship to a joint venture.

Q1 1) Plan a succession management. 2) Define family employment practices 3) Establish and maintain family harmony 4) Plan the estate.

Q2 1) Seating an outside board of directors. 2) Developing a family business vision document. 3) Holding family council meetings.

Unit 3

Suggested Key to V ocabulary and Structure

A. 1 -d 2 - f 3 - j 4 - a 5 - i6 - h 7 - g 8 - e 9 - c 10- b

1.mobility

2. toll

3. accommodate

4. landscape

5. sprawled

6. implement

7. legitimate

8. transit

9. electrified 10. pickup

B.1. Integral 2. better off 3. sprawling 4. emissions 5. metropolitan 6. ban 7. commuters 8. clutter 9. accommodate 10. displaced

C.1. from coast to coast 2. the great unwashed 3.revere

4.denounce

5. tore up

6. Short of

7. are noted for

8. constriction

9. was guilty of 10. well off

D.1. C. overcrowded 2. B. worthy 3. A. sitting 4. D. recovered 5. D. in nonsmokers and nondrinkers 6. D. poured 7. B. unaware of 8. C. recent 9. C. out of the question 10. B. understands

E.1. move 2. drive 3. down 4. wheels 5. out 6. without 7. majority 8. imagine 9.realize 10. plagued 11. burns 12. that 13.to 14. what 15. But 16.done 17. altogether 18.on 19. electricity 20. practical

Key to the translation from Chinese to English:

1. The automobile was improved very rapidly after it was invented and soon displaced horses.

2. We may have to cut down on the number of privately owned cars and depend more on public mass transit systems because cars pollute and maim or even kill people.

3. While wheels (automobiles) have brought with them better or more convenient transportation, they are guilty of many sins, such as air pollution, traffic accidents and traffic congestion.

4. Americans are noted for their love for cars and great job mobility.

5. If only advances in fuel quality and efficiency and in technology would radically reduce the emissions from automobiles.

6. A highly developed highway network has made possible the easy movement from coast to coast in the United States.

7. The very thought of the speed at which the beautiful avenue was constructed electrified every visitor; the road had only recently been torn up to lay drain-pipes not long ago. 8. Environmentalists have denounced automobiles, believing they are a major factor in the production of dirty air.

9. Many new residential complexes have risen up in the suburbs of metropolitan cities because of the availability of convenient public transportation.

10. Despite their love for cars, many people lend credence to the extensive use of the public transport system, which can cut down on traffic congestion.

Unit 4

A.

1. a. coercive b. coerced

2. a. preoccupation b. preoccupied

3. a. reluctant b. reluctance

4. a. adolescent b. adolescence

5. a. implication b. implicit

6. a. ambivalent b. adolescence

7. a. maintenance b. maintainability

8. a. privacy b. private

9. a. enthusiasm b. enthusiasts

10. a . tolerance b. tolerable

11. a. statisticians b. statistically

12. a. rational b. rationality

B.

1. cared for

2. in terms of

3. lies behind

4. rings a bell

5. passed on to

6. went against

7. lining up

8. chiming in

9. am open to

11.brought up

C.

1.have evidenced—has evidenced

2.that prevailed—that had prevailed

3.associating—associated

4.raise—raising

5.on—to

6.on—to

7.reluctance—willingness

8.have—having

9.are the center—are not the center

10.This reflects—This is reflected

D.

1.Adolescents

2.involved

3.fact

4.Therefore

http://m.wendangku.net/doc/ffca670e581b6bd97f19ea2d.htmlmon

6.or

7.employed

8.fewer

9.negative

10.contribute

11.Studies

12.People

13.Tend

14.Drop

15.Grown

Key to the translation from Chinese to English:

1.Some professional observers believe that young people today are no longer interested in politics and causes, but rather, have become increasingly preoccupied with issues closer to themselves.

2.The higher a woman’s educational attainment, the more likely she is to go out of the private setting of the nuclear family and to realize herself in the community.

3. As far as I am concerned, what really lies behind the decision of some married couples not to start a family is that they are so narcissistic and have no margin of love to spare others.

4.The company put on the market a registered invention even without asking the inventor’s permission, which goes against the patent law.

5. Urged by some other countries, the United Nations has pressured the country to give up developing and using nuclear weapons.

6.According to the rule that every member should remain childless, Mr. And Ms white have no alternative but to withdraw from the Non-Parent Association, for they will attain parenthood soon.

7. He expects to reveal, by presenting a soap opera, the complexity implicit in real life.

8. In virtually every country, drug abuse, alcohol abuse and child abuse loon as most challenging social problems.

9. When interviewed, these elderly people rationalized why they were ambivalent about today’s young people.

10. Many college students are far more concerned with how to get a highly-paid job on graduation and how to receive a quick promotion in the competitive society.

Unit 5

A.

1.A

2.B

3.C

4.D

5.B

6.A

7.D

8.B

9.D

10. B

11. C

B.

1.set him up

2.fit in

3.is thankful for

4.hold down

5.built up

6.gone through

7.weigh heavily on

8.working out

9.broken away

10.let my parents down

C.

1.C. will rely on

2.D. have

3.C. for which

4.B. which

5.A. coupled

6.A. a much greater variety

7.B. find it difficult

8.A. Acquiring

9.C. himself

10. C. endangered

D.

1.dead

2.brought

3.like

4.expensive

5.cost

6.worse

7.births

8.paying

9.aged

10.figure

11.share

12.majority

13.producers

14.poor

15.decent

16.services

17.expanding

18.same

19.burden

20.confined

Key to the Translation from Chinese into English:

1.Generally, people have become more compassionate and quite a few families have taken in an orphan from the municipal orphanage.

2.It is a demanding task for a workingwoman to look after her parents and her children while holding down a job.

3. At first we were worried about their first stay in a foreign country but things there worked out much better for them.

4. Today's middle-aged people have fewer children than their parents did and the aging population problem may weigh on them in about 40 years.

5.It is hoped that the current reform in education will better set students up to meet the challenges from society.

6. The government intends to transfer some of the health-care burden to the individual family but family members are not always available for the task because they cannot break away from their jobs to look after the sick elderly.

7.There is an increasing demand for beds in the nursing home, and we have to try every possible means to free them up.

8.With the large elderly population in this country, financing of health care and pensions could care the devil out of the government.

9.The young couple has to make some sacrifice to avoid letting their old beloved father down.

10.What they had gone through in looking after their sick old father made them more compassionate, and they made a donation to the nursing home

Unit 6

A.

http://m.wendangku.net/doc/ffca670e581b6bd97f19ea2d.htmlplexity

2.wild

3.surplus

4.indifferently

5.earthly

6.acknowledge

7.obviously/apparently

8.diminish

9.artificial

10.destructive

B.

1-g

2-j

3-a

4-f

5-b

6-h

7-I

8-c

9-d

10-e

1.primeval

2.whatsoever

3.beneficent

4.ultimately

5.pointedly

6.intricate

7.encroaching

8.indispensable

9.legitimate

10.fertility

C.

1.In short

2.attributed to

3.is up against

4.were under the spell of

5.at the expense of

6.regardless of

7.Allowing for

8.was involved in

9.acting on

10.vice versa

D.

1.C. increases

2.B. that of the general population

3.B. largely self-contained

4.A. in charge of

5.D. confused

6.C. safety provisions

7.B. that

8.B. by which

9.C. put

10. D. much of

E.

1.survival

2.perceive

3.public

4.occupy

5.lots

6.hand

7.restored

8.fertility

9.renewed

10.dwellings

11.wilderness

12.transitions

13.agriculture

14.even

15.beyond

Key to the translation from English to Chinese:

A. 正如诗人埃德蒙.斯宾塞在将近四百年前所说的那样,大自然是“最伟大的女神”。她似乎担任了上帝驻地球的总督的职务。斯宾塞把她描写成一位母亲和法官。她管辖着所有的生物之间的往来,并不分厚薄地给予他们权利,因为她是一位公正的母亲。她把他们紧密地联结在一起,就象兄弟姐妹。因而,在斯宾塞看来,生物繁殖及生物秩序的自然规律与公正原则显而易见地是联系在一起的。当我们得知斯宾塞认为大自然也具有公正原则的时候我们或许有点吃惊。然而,斯宾塞不仅以人类的手足之情而是以所有生物的手足之情为依据来坚持自然界有这么一位“公正的”法官。要是在当今,我们会说斯宾塞是以生态学作为其可靠依据的。

B. 如果我们人类和大自然的固有关系不是相互对抗的,那么,它又是什么样的一种关系呢?对我们来讲,这个变得相当复杂难解,因为正如我先前所讲过的那样,我们中没有人想在未经开发的原始森林里或在未经改造的原始大草原上生活,我们不想被大灰熊吃掉。假如我们是园艺家,我们有正当的理由去抱怨园内的杂草。在肯塔基州,如果我们准备改良牧场,我们就很可能成为那一片随风摆动的大蓟的敌人。但是,如果我们还随心所欲,想做什么就做什么,那么,我们就会对那些曾经被我们砍伐破坏了的原始森林和草原着迷,我们会一而再而三地想起它们,想起那些幸存的原始森林和原始草原。我们还会感到大灰熊深深地吸引着我们。我们知道,在整个人类时期我们会一直想起大灰熊及其他一些危险动物。

Key to the translation from Chinese to English:

1. Most conservationists believe that humans thrive best in ecological health and that the sign of this health is the survival of a diversity of wild animals.

2. Mr. Smith produced abundant evidence to indicate that we, to some extent, diminish ourselves if we diminish nature.

3. Many cities in Western countries have switched to a new gasoline formula that reduces the pollution content. This is also true of some cities in China.

4. As depicted in a poem written by the English poet Edmund Spenser, nature is not only a mother but a judge, having jurisdiction over and doing justice to all creatures

5. A government study concludes that besides overcrowding and poor public transport, the biggest problems the city is up against are noise and pollution.

6. Unlike all other creatures, humans have the ability to act on their judgment/ understanding.

7.Don't you agree with the statement that health without wealth is preferable to wealth without health?

8. Even those defenders of industrial economy have to acknowledge openly that any conflict between humans and nature often occurs at the expense of both.

9. If your friend kindly points out a fault you have, take what is said not merely pleasantly, but thankfully.

10. One of the differences between humans and wild animals is that (or lies in that) the former can make a wise choice as to the kind and scale of the change they make to nature.

Unit 7

A.

1.distinction

2.sheer

http://m.wendangku.net/doc/ffca670e581b6bd97f19ea2d.htmlmensurate

4.refraining

5.incidentally

6.alleviate

7.deemed

8.is to blame for

9.impulse

http://m.wendangku.net/doc/ffca670e581b6bd97f19ea2d.htmle across

B.

1.give … away

2.going at

3.imbued with

4.identify … with

5.has risen above

6.own up

7.allow for

8.treat … to

9.Dog-eat-dog

10.the counter

C.

1.choice; choose; chosen;

2.inextricable

3.shorn

4.definition

5.increasingly

6.social

7.Participatory

8.acquisitive

9.weighing

10.intimacy

D.

1.D. to pay them

2.A. Much as

3.D. endearing himself

4.C. number of

5.D. ignored

6.D. differently

7.A. respond

8.C. no more

9.B. that

10. C. /

E.

1.holds

2.therefore

3.Does

4.really

5.empty

6.of

7.success

8.nor

9.not

10.exists

11.likely

12.in

13.historical

14.upbringing

15.condition

16.choicelessness

17.honorably

18.trivial

19.how

20.ours

Key to the translation from English to Chinese:

毫无疑问,雄心大志期望的是荣誉、财富、爱情、非凡、成就、欢乐与善良美德。当然,伴随我们的抱负与希望,我们的生活将会是怎样,这些总是无法意料的。有些想法的出发点是丝毫不为自己,但结果却是结下深仇;而有些计划原意是为了自己,但到头来却是为他人做了善事。计划、设想的结果虽然难以预测,但仍无理由阻止计划与设想的进行。

不难设想,没有抱负与雄心的社会将会是怎样的。它很可能是一个比较随和的社会:没有要求,没有矛盾,也没有失望。人们有时间深思。他们所做的工作不是为了自己,而是为了集体、从来没有竞争,冲突将被消灭,紧张已成为过去,不再需要创造力。艺术不再是高深莫测的,它的作用纯粹是为了欢庆与颂扬。家庭作为一个社会的单元将成为多余的,它以前的束缚力已消失。长寿会增加,因为死于紧张、辛劳的工作所引起的心脏病与中风的人会越来越少、思虑将不复存在。人类长期地摆脱抱负和欲望的压力,日子会过得越来越舒坦。

Key to the translation from Chinese to English:

1.In spite of her recent election success, she remains first and foremost a writer, not a politician.

2.Ambition is always identified with rank, fame and power. Therefore many people have been unwilling to talk about their dreams for a long time.

3.Surely, if you want to be famous, it is necessary for you to have ideals, because it is behind the accomplishment, but different from ambition.

4.Ambition is often regarded as being commensurate with bad sense because the single-minded have tried to achieve

their goals by fair means or foul and often harm others. 5.Truly ambitious people seem to be modest but actually they are on their own.

6.Certainly some people are very interested in their rank and fame. But what has happened is that they do not own up to it.

7.Some people try to go on in life at all costs but refrain from appearing ambitious. We should be aware that there is

a note of hypocrisy.

8.Although he has come under attack and has been considered ambitious, none of them are strong enough to make him give up on his dreams.

9.It is not difficult to imagine a world shorn of ambition. It would probably be a world with no progress and no development. And, of course, it would be a tedious world.

10.To develop our society, we need a large number of people who have both ideals and ambition, because both of these have the power to inspire people to further efforts. Therefore, both are important for society.

Unit 8

Vocabulary and structure

A 1. wholesome 2. assiduous 3. subversive 4. wrongdoing 5. endorsed 6. breach 7. Undesirables 8. calculated 9. injustice 10. purifying

B 1. venturing into 2. in relation to 3. follow suit

4. keep ... out

5. keep track of

6. speaking of

7. on the grounds

8. derives from

9.abstain from 10.for fear that

C 1. immoral 2. cruelty 3. irreproachable 4. revise 5. constructive 6. blameless 7. administered 8. guilty 9. equality 10. Justice

D 1 . C. protected areas 2. A, As did 3. D. as opposed 4. A. Never having been

5. A. would have married

6. D. for which

7. B. can he speak

8. A. we established

9. D. that 10. D. but also

E 1. recognized 2. came across 3. appeared 4. as 5. conceived 6. discovered 7. in 8. what 9. than 10. good 11 .true 12. morally 13.At 14. comes 15. which 16. towards 17. other 18. such as 19. penalty 20. guilty

Translation

A. 在政治家的圈子里好人有他们的用处,其中最主要的是当作烟幕。他们自己可毫无顾虑地在烟幕的掩盖下进行活动。好人从来不会怀疑他的朋友有不轨行为,这是他的优点;好人也从来不会被公众怀疑用他的优点来掩盖丑闻,这是他可以被利用的地方。

* * * * * * * * * * * *

保卫传统道德规范的人有时承认传统的道德规范并不完美,但极力断言对它的批评会摧毁整个道德规范。但如果批评是积极的和建设性的,那应另当别论。如仅仅是为了暂时的快乐,那这样的批评一定会破坏道德规范。我们再回到边沁的观点。作为道德规范的基础,边沁提倡“最大多数人的最大幸福”。按此原则行事的人,其一生要比那些仅仅遵循传统戒律的人要艰辛得多。

B. 1. So-called ideally good men, in fact, are not always of benefit to society and the standards of goodness have long been argued.

2. The morals of good men must be irreproachable and they mustn't be so indifferent to the things causing harm to society.

3. They try to be assiduous and earnest and see to it that they finish their work smoothly; they never give any thought to personal fame and position.

4. Scandals can defame a genuinely good man, while flattery can make an evil man a good man.

5. He cannot tell good men from evil ones, so bad men often use him to screen their villains.

6. They often elbowed out the undesirables, which made it impossible for them to continue their work.

7. Although he was threatened, he was not afraid of that and continued his own experiment, which was calculated to be successful,

8. The poor man was sentenced to be imprisoned for life on the ground that he had stolen bread from a store.

9. They have kept track of his activities, but haven't found any suspected behavior

10. Many people were against him for his violation of some conventional concepts. But still some others followed suit. Reading Practice

1.A

2. C

3. B

4. D

5. D

Unit 9

A.

1.sacred

2.secrecy

3.doomed

4.segment

5.hierarchy

6.ego

7.symptoms

8.chaotic

9.absurd

10.breakthrough

B.

1.obsolete

2.boost

3.imagination

4.duplicate

5.subsidy

6.converge

7.tumbled down

8.automated

9.innovation

10.hold off

C.

1.personalized

2.intangibles; tangibles

3.prediction

4.ingenuous

5.flexibility

6.bureaucrat

7.innovation

8.glory

9.available

10.specified

D.

1.B. that

2.D. little

3.C. giving

4.D. can she act

5.B. must have been

6.C. be

7.B. whichever

8.B. meaningful

9.D. many of whose origins

10. B. or

E.

1.about

http://m.wendangku.net/doc/ffca670e581b6bd97f19ea2d.htmlanization

3.for

4.but

http://m.wendangku.net/doc/ffca670e581b6bd97f19ea2d.htmlputers

6.In other words

7.that

8.In fact

9.simply

10.therefore

11.attach 12.within

13.definition

14.for

15.necessary

Key to the translation from English to Chinese:

A.有些公司了解这一点。微软即是其中之一。有些人认为微软能在互联网世界里崭露锋芒,锐意发展是由于比尔·盖茨的个人野心。简言之,这种想法很荒谬。在1990年,微软季度销售量要增加38%,需要增加九千万的收入,而在1995年,要达到同样比例的季度销售增幅,收益需要增加八亿美元。现在,收益的增加标准越提越高。新的商机来自何处?规模化经营?还是低成本?这些都是无稽之谈。新的商机只能来自于领导市场、受顾客欢迎的产品。即使要保持收支平衡,微软也要至少每天创造一千五百万美元的收益。如果没有高速度和充分的想象力,它只有死路一条。

B.这些趋势在不断扩大,原因很简单:信息就是力量,而技术的发展使得获取信息变得民主化和全球化。因此,各种组织机构将再也不能扶植那些美化等级特权并阻止信息交流的工作体系了。在未来学家乔治·吉尔德所描绘的世界中,经济是建立在沙子、玻璃和空气的基础上的。沙子即指制造芯片的硅。芯片(计算机世界的建筑材料)正以指数级的速度增长。每十八个月芯片的性能就要翻一番。

Key to the translation from Chinese to English:

1. Such a job is doomed because in this field, manual work will be done by computers.

2. The information-based network economy will bring about profound changes in society. Whether this change could benefit human beings or involve them in a chaotic situation needs our discussion.

3. Because of the increasingly fierce competition and personalized product demand from customers, being able to supply personalized products has become the key to business success.

4. The old way of management robs people of their imagination and curiosity, making them content with the present system and jobs and they make no progress.

5. Those lacking in initiative and creativity can only fit into the traditional mode of work. Once the old mode is changed, they will be at a loss as to what to do.

6. In the coming century the development of telecommunications will depend on optical fibers which carry information incomparable to the common phone lines.

7. Since computers can replace people to do routine jobs,

people can be freed of mundane business to do creative work.

8. In future society, proprietary information will be less and less proprietary. What will this lead to?

9. Some social thinkers predict ominously that robots will become more and more independent and eventually uncontrollable.

10. In the future, new jobs will be born. There is no need for people to worry excessively about unemployment. But they must keep learning about new technology.

Unit 10

A.

1.suppress

2.Amputation

3.donor

4.recurrence

5.heralded

6.alleviate

7.batches

8.reject

9.lethal

10.potent

B.

1. a. immunized b. immunity

2. a. diagnostical b. diagnosed

3. a. recurrent b. recurrence

4. a. vaccinating b. V accination

5. a. infect b. infective

6. a. contracted b. contractible

7. a. toxin b. toxicity

8. a. surgery b. surgeon

9. a .administration b. administered

10. a. preceded b. preceding

C.

1. originated with

2. a host of

3. immune to

4. are resistant to

5. protected against

6. In the light of

7. speak against

8. points to

9. in question

10. were responsible for

D.

1.few—little

2.impossible—possible

3.was--/

4.itself—themselves

5.from—in

6.As--/

7.This—It

8.to--/

9.dish—mould

10.seems—seemed

E.

1.indeed

2.control

3.particularly

4.living

5.producing

6.character

7.discovery

8.supported

9.co-operation

10.prevented

Key to the translation from English to Chinese:

在解决现有的医学难题方面,动物实验依旧是必不可少的吗?那些因携带一个突变基而产生基因转变的动物,已经向我们提供了大量的有关蛋白质功能及其在疾病中所起的作用的新信息。毫无疑问,动物实验将继续为我们提供这类信息。我们还期待着在中枢神经损伤的治疗方面取得重大进展。鉴于近来的动物研究表明,神经的再生确有可能,因此原本认为哺乳动物脊髓中的神经细胞受损后功能无法复原的教条,必须予以重新评价。治疗何时生效,只是一个时间问题。我们很难想象,将来如果没有动物实验,怎么能够在这个领域以及生物和医学等诸多其他领域取得进展。

索尔克和疫苗这两个词,就象弗莱明和盘尼西林、爱因斯坦和相对论那样,紧紧地结合在一起。因此,当最早研制出可以有效预防小儿麻痹症的疫苗的乔纳斯? 索尔克博士于八年前宣布,他将重新出山专攻爱滋病难题的时候,许多人,特别是那些与日俱增的HIV病毒感染者,都欢呼雀跃起来。除了这位征服过一种恶名远扬的儿童痼疾的高手,谁还比他更有资格担当向当前的瘟疫——爱滋病发起冲锋的领军人物呢?然而在科学界,忧虑却多过期望。爱滋病这个目标,要比小儿麻痹症难攻得多,所以很少有专家相信索尔克的疫苗研制方法能够取得成功。然而这位医学领域的开拓者,并没有因为他人的怀疑而气馁,而是知难而上,和一家私人公司联手研发他的治疗方法。现今80高龄的索尔克,也许有机会向世人证明,他的白大褂的衣袖里,藏了不止一种医学奇迹。

Key to the translation from Chinese to English:

1. Rabies is an infectious disease of the central nervous system, caused by a virus spread chiefly by domestic dogs and wild flesh-eating animals.

2. Each year about 6,500 Americans contract liver cancer, and for all but a relative few the prognosis is grim.

3. It is one thing to locate oil, but it is quite another to extract it from the earth and transport it to the industrial centers.

4. In the light of recent animal research, we have become convinced that the vaccine can boost patients' weakening immune system and decrease the amount of virus circulating in the blood.

5. Earlier he spoke publicly against the proposal for increasing trade between the two countries, but now he is inclined to support it.

6. There is no powerful medicine for curing the mysterious strain of influenza with its complications, for it is resistant to current antibiotics.

7. Since he was elected, the president has been faced with

a host of serious social problems such as runaway inflation, large-scale unemployment, and teenage crime.

8. A famous French chemist named Louis Pasteur discovered and proved after many years of careful experiments on animals that microorganisms are responsible for certain infectious diseases.

9. The four problems in question are how to prevent various epidemics, alleviate existing ailments, conquer malignant tumors, and respond to the emergence of new diseases respectively.

10. Before the introduction of penicillin, a life-saving antibiotic, many patients with tuberculosis typically died from the disease.

Unit 11

Vocabulary and structure

A. 1 controversy 2. chances 3. undertone 4. fuss

5. partisan

6. conservative

7. endorse 8. forfeit 9. legislation 10. credentials

B. 1. love affair with 2. struck down 3. in the wake of 4. Popular wisdom 5. pros and cons 6. a strain of 7.have made it 8. alluded to 9. alien 10. facing tough odds

C 1. secede 2. prohibition 3. Predictably 4. typifies 5. outweigh 6. immigrants

7. tolerance 8. pro-abortionists 9. diversity 10. Conservationists

D 1.D,many of whose origins 2.A,to have been 3.C,to another 4.C, suspected criminals

5.D,Portugal's

6.B,there to be

7.C,/

8.D,it does

9.D,did he come to 10. C. what

E 1. countries 2. and 3.Two 4. language 5. are 6. four 7. but 8. never 9. Contrary 10. with 11. recognizes 12. constitution 13, India 14. than 15. independence 16. because 17. split 18. well 19. demands 20. time

Translation

A. 1995年10月,也就是在向最高法院上诉之前,联邦上诉法庭以6对5票通过一项裁决,废除了亚利桑那4、N的这项法规。这些事件暗示语言在美国可能成为引起公众分歧的问题,即使至今这点还没有受到重视。

* * * * * * * * * * * *

普遍认为保守主义者是支持派,自由主义专栏者是反对派。这种说法可以说是对的。象乔治·威尔和威廉·巴科利,他们写了很多文章,支持官方英语。但是会不会有人把现在和过去美国英语委员会的委员们都描述为保守主义者呢?

* * * * * * * * * * * *

关于语言和政府,历史给了我们一个很清楚的教训:一个自由国家的政府无法有效地改变语言的规律与应用;无法迫使它的公民使用某些语言而不用另一些语言;无法要求人们不要讲他们希望继续讲的语言。

B. 1. Many issues intersect in the controversy over second language acquisition,such as teaching method, cultural background, and individual learners' differences.

2. In China, most schools have legislation that requires all the teachers to give lessons in Mandarin.

3. Most young people are now studying foreign languages very hard in order to make it in the challenge of society

4. There have always been two viewpoints, conservatives versus liberals, about whether to legislate that English be the official language of the United States.

5. He appealed against the severity of the punishment to the Supreme Court.He won his appeal in the end and the sentence was halved.

6. Developing students' non-intelligence factors, or advocating quality-oriented education, is a byword of current educational thinking.

7. In the United States, the Presidential power was reduced by a constitutional amendment in 199 I.

8. All the materials in the listening textbook are in authentic English, which is helpful to learners.

9. Rod Ellis has written many books on second language acquisition, and he has been prominent in research in it.

10. A language riot is in essence an ethnic conflict. Therefore, it will threaten to split a country and should be taken seriously.

Reading practice

1.D

2. A

3. C

4. D

5. C

Unit 12

A.

1. hysterical

2. conviction

3. obsolete

4. suffice

5. distress

6. outweigh

7. oversight 8. misery

9. innovation 10. explic it

B.

1. a. jeopardy

2. a. prohibiting

b. jeopardized b. prohibition

3. a. subsidized

4. a. adaptability

b. subsidies b. adapt

5. a. impoverishment

6. a. innovative

b. impoverished b. innovators

7. a. affirmations 8. a. integrated

b. affirmative b. integration

9. a. subsistence 10. a. plausible

b. subsistence b. plausibly

C.

1. go round

2. part and parcel of

3. in excess of

4. at the expense of

5. at a disadvantage

6. given way to

7. rests on 8. at length

9. gain ground 10. in aggregate

D.

1. was originated----originated

2. Them----it

3. sustaining----sustained

4. Steady----steadily

5. freely----free

6. On----in

7. With----Without 8. Made----make

9. qualified----quality 10. If----unless

E.

1. industrialized

2. dependent

3. core

4. providing

5. claim

6. simultaneously

7. financed 8. poorer

9. last 10. relationship 11. exploit 12. essence

13. maintain 14. theorists

15. primarily

Key to the translation from English to Chinese

尽管在学科目标和所达到的理论发展水平之间存在着差异,但理论在经济、地理和经济地理领域里起着相同的作用。不管其内容如何,理论研究的目的是把各种各样的细节整理归纳出一种现象之间的清晰的、有恒定关系的模式。理论的发展要求事先作出选择,哪些特征需要检验,哪些关系需要探讨,整个现实情况中哪些方面需要解释以及需要提出怎样的假设。

也许理论的萌芽阶段是由偶然的观察和经历促使形成的。在对这种理论进行初期的探索中,描述一种事实花费了绝大部分的精力。问题的日益复杂性和理论描述的严密性导致了人们越来越关心使用精心选择的数据和各种统计技术来对初步的理论进行测试。在后来的这些发展中,学科的内容越趋于理论化和具有演泽性,而不是具有经验性或描述性。

Key to the translation from Chinese to English

1. In the aggregate, the benefits to the Chinese people brought forth in the economic reform have greatly outweighed their costs.

2. Unless you are thoroughly prepared in all respects, you will be at a disadvantage in dealing with problems that occur suddenly.

3. We have formed the unshakable conviction that man should not exploit the natural resources at the expense of other species.

4. If no effective measures had been taken to control its population growth in the past several years, the growth rate in the country would have been pushed to something in excess of 4%.

5. It is a deeply rooted prejudice to think that innovation constitutes a great threat to social harmony and unity because technological progress has been indeed destroying many employment opportunities and therefore bringing misery to thousands of people.

6. Undoubtedly, the world's economic development greatly rests on economic cooperation and interaction between the developed countries and the developing countries.

7. After a long negotiation, the two companies struck a bargain to cooperate in the exploitation and utilization of natural gas.

8. Many sociologists believe that the old notion of family may well change and the home will become the center of

leisure, consumption and creativity in the next century.

9. As the government's new economic policy gains ground,

a sound and moderate development of the economy will be ensured.

10. As far as I'm concerned, it's absurd to put prohibitive taxes on all forms of labor-saving technological innovation.

Reading practice

1. T

2. F

3. F

4. T

5. T

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